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AGE S 0 F F A I T H. 










s U 

 R Y 




Survey of the ages of faith in relation to th
 of peace resumed-The monasteries-Their 
diffusion, proof of the pacific spirit-Some of the most eminent enumerated-The monks truly 
pacific men-Therefore a review of the monasteries essential to the completion of the history 
commenced in the ninth book p. 9 


What was monastic life in general ?- Tlw question uuswered 



What was the use of monasteries ?-A bri
f reply given 


p. 3. 


Journey to the mon:Jsteries-The site generally heauliful and favorable to peaceful impres- 
sions-Advantages from the locality-The monks loved mountains, islanå5:, forests, and, in gen- 
eral, the beauties of nature around them, which they sought to sanctify p. 5; 


The journey continued, and beguiled b)' n;trratÌ\'es rt'lative to the origin of some monas- 
teries-Arrival at the abbey p. 


The monastic buildings described-The gate- Th
 e\.terior-The offices, gardens, enclosures 
for herbs-The fortifications of some abbeys explained-ArchitectUlal beauty of man.r-Sim- 
plicity and poverty of the ancient-The refectory-The halls for hospitality-The charity of 
the monks to strangers-The interior decoratiuns, paintings, images, inscriptions p. 101 


s u )[ )[ A H. ï. 


The trensury-Jewels, plate, sacred veliscls, untiquities. charter
. hnly relics 

p. 12r 


The cburch- The monastic churcbes peculiarly impres:.ive- Their chßracteristics-
aud regularity or their offices-
\dvanlagcs resulting from them to the people-The tomLs- 
Their prodigious number in the monastic churches uccounted for . . p, 13


The library-Remarks and narratives relntive tn the monastic collections-The scrtptorium 
-The employment of the monks connectell with it-The schnols-lli,toricI11 notices rdntin
to them-Remarks on the universities, and the relalion in which they stood to them. p. 1il 


Discipline of the monastery-The rule, in what it e!'
('ntinJ)y con!'i
led-The exterior obl'crv- 
ance-Obedience- The haùit-The f:Jsts nnd ahstinence-The silence-The nocturnnl vi
iI - 
lanual labor p. 2]2 


Reforms sometimes required-Origin of aùu:.{'s-Inrluence of the world-Int('rfen'nce of 
the State-The royal prisons withiu some ll1onasterÎcs- Testimonies f, om ancient \\ rill rs tl) 
the great sanctity of the monasteries ill the middle age",-Oeneral Rnd 
peclRI 8ttr<:tation 


The visitors to abbeys- \Vhat 
reat sCt'n
s monasterieC\ witne
sed-Difterent clR!ilSeS of gue"lct 
descrihed-Some csme to die, others to fly the desolations of "ar, others to seek penrc of 
mincl p. 2-,"" 


The conv3rtites- The call of men to a mon:lsti . state in a(!es of fnith i1Jll9trsted by the 
ings of the monks and by histories of mcmorahle conversion; p. 2&-1 


. The community in general-The peculiar nttdhute
 of the monastic character-ltC\ !limplir- 
Ity, cheerfulness, benignity, liberality, charity-Its opposition to the literary and soci"l char 
acter of secular authors. philllsrlphcr!l, anrl politicians-Remarks on memorv nnrt 01,1 a
e in 
the c1nister- TLe unily find self-c....'n<:i<;tcncy of the mon:!...tIC ch,LmctN -It 'I fLffectionah' 

p. :J3

s r )[ :\1 \ a ì-. 



The monastic occupations-Monks not idle men-Idleness distinguislJed from the ability 
8nd desire to enjoy sanctitltjei Ipisure-The labors of the monks as missionaries, as redeemers 
of captives, a
 mmisters to the public in times of calamity-The regular occupations-Agri- 
cultural and public works-The monks as poets, mw..kÏlws, aud pniuters p. 3:;9 


Conversation in the cloister-The a!"cetic wisdom of the monks- 
Iysticism in tlJe cloister 
-Narratives of -iraculous events-Visions-Familiar discourses and storics of the 
monks p. 3ì9 


The peace of cloistral life-Testimonies (If monks-Their fr
cDdship with in and without 
the monastery-Their attachment to tlJcir l'especlive cells, houses, and orriers- The monastic 
diaries indicate contentment-.Monks of one order loved aDd revered th05e of anotber- The 
peace and affection which subsistcd between monks and the secular clergy-Interruptions to 
tbis harmony-Cases of exception-The love evin('ed by bishops for religions orders-The 
monastic exemptions explained-Hostility to the monastic orders incompatible with faith. p, 408 


The influence of the religious orders-The monks were the friends of the poor-Their ser- 
vices to the great and to the wbole community p. 451 


A survey of the charters, to di5:cover the sources of monastic wealth-The motives of 
founders and benefactors-Monasteries regarded as instruments of spiritual, social. and political 
peace-The men wlJo founded and protected them were of the number of the pacific-Con- 
clusion-that in monasteries the world has secn a type of peace p, 468 


heturn from the monastery-Visit hermits by the way-The eremitical a distinct hranch of 
the pacific family-Hermits from earliest times-The sites which the)" generaily inhabited- 
Their lives-Ernploympnt and office in the Church-The peace which they enjoyed with all 
creatures-Descent from their mountain 10 the scenes to be presented in the Dext book, where 
the faithful suffer persecution for the sake of justice p. 497 

s U 
f 11 

 R Y. 



Introduction to the subjrct of the eighth beatilude-How far the just were exempt from pef!"e- 
cution in Ages of faith-The old experience of the ",mId however still verified-The true 
spirit of martyrdom prevailed in the middle ages-The earnestness, resolution and couragt' of 
men-Their fortitude; their chivalrous constancy-Their rejection of the spirit of false peace anfil 
of selfish f'njoyment-Theirdetachmcnt from earthly trea"ures; they were indefatigable to a('t 
and to suffer like the primitive martyrs-
rauy desired martyrdom-Distinctions laid down 
-They were to be actuated by the desire of pleasing God -Their sacrifice was to be voluntary 
- rhere was to be no needless èefi
lDce of danger-They were to be pacific and obedient as 
far as was compatible with duty to God-Contrast between the Catholic and Protestant spirit 
in this respect-The obhgation of patience enforced-Charity was the root of their fortitude, 
men sought to imi!ate the passion of Christ-Hence it was a snpernatUft\l heroism-The 
spirit of martyrdom in the women of the miùdle ages-And in yooth and childhood. p..343 


Doctrine of the Ages of Faith respecting qnalitìc:Jtions and òistinctions required to con5:ti- 
tute martyrdom-Security then against the modern errors as evinced in new mn, rt'rrologies 
and in the English re
icides-The cause was to be just, :md. not dependent on the judgmf"'nt 
of man: bnt any cause of natural justice was deemed sufficient: hence men were dpf'mt d 
martyrs for justice in government; for wisdom and fortitude in the arlministration of states; 
for JoyaJty to the legitimate soverei!!n; fm' fid('1ity to the duty of protecting- relh!ion: for re- 
jecting the temptations of ßmhitinn -For j I 1sti('p, a<: ministprs of kin!!!!, ßnd as mn!!i!':trntes, as 
public men, as scientific di8coverer
. ß<: 
imnle Catholics in the common walks of life, as 
children and youths from the har!';hne<:
 of 11
rpntc;; ßnrl rn:\<:ter
. 8
 the poor from the crnelry 
of the rich, as artisans from the Iy' \Tmy of their employers, as servants from the harshness 
of masters, as subjects from unjust . , . p. 582 


Doctrine of rhe A
es of Faith respecting the npce;:sit,y of endurin!! persecntion- Testimony 
of the ancients- Reflèctions of the scboolmen-History of tIle Chris1ian per5ecntion from the 


 F )( 1\[ A It Y. 

hirth of Christ-That of the primitive Church familiar to the memory of m('n in th(' mirldJc 
es-Conflicts witù paganism, with heresy in the second petiod of the Church: .hC"l' \\ ('rl' 
tueir familiar tlJemes p, 606 


ecutions continued in the middle Ilges from pagans-In two modE's protraCled-B)" 
lingering opposition. by inva
ion, hy 
Ia\'ery. and lIy resisting missiolJs-Pet'secution frllm 

Iahometans-Caused the Crusades-Persecution d the .;Jnves in Aftica and .\! '\nd of the reo 
Ihrious men who labored to redeem Ihem-Per;;:ecution d the Chri,.tinn popull1tifln h) tllI'lle. 
ent of pirate!=, an,} of the mis
ionaries who preached to the 'Inors-PCr
f'CUlifln:o- of the 
Christians by the Jews-By the Manichæans-Tmditions of .hdr cruelty p. 6t


Persecution incurred by admonishing wicked Clll istians-All 'Were b IIlnd by tùl:t dut)- 
Danger of correcting them-Doctrine of the middle ages on Utic; point-FI iellfl.. were to 
each other free coumcl-Clmracter of till' great-Vigttlll'cl' pf t)'e pppe.. and (of the l'i
bops in 
rt'gard to tuem-Examples of Ihe F'uffering:s of ),n 1 y nwn in cpn:o-r'Q'lence Hf t'nllelt \'01 S tn cor- 
rect wicked princes-Persecution incur/I'd hy preaching, nnd hy the ord1nary (flices (If the 
toral care p. 63( 


Persecutions suffered byal1 Christians genemlly. when evincing eminent sunctiry- ""'rÏlf>r;; 
of the middle ages show that this wns a necessary const'qut'ncc-Tcstlmon.r of the ancients 
concurs-In the Church tùe cbaff must seek to opprcss Ihe wheat-Examples of bul) per

mffering for beiug holy, for oLserviu
 the commands of thf' CÙlllch, for doiog- '" hat "''' 
right: for bein
 just; for showing an t:xample of Calholic mnnn('r
. en'n in retin'meut. in 
equence of which they are shunned and dis1iked-Exllmple'l of such trE'fttmeot-On \\ hAt 
grounds it amounts to perseculion-Persecution on account of sanctity followecl mf'n 
within the cloister-Tepid and UIIWüt tùy monks ppr"ecute their holy hrethr
n for hdn
holy, aud for seeking to reform their own monnsteries or orderø-E:\umples-Persecutions in- 
curred f.!enerally in c.mseqllence of great spiritual wisdom-Tho.,>' who pos'les
ed it were de- 
('(1 ns vio:ion!\TY and insane-Experience fmd tf'stimon)' of the ancient worJd-EumpJc!f 
from Christian bistory-Persecution of the holy by the juo:t-Examples-Its origin and lff('cts 
explainerl p, 6:;9 


Persecution of the Church collectively by the worJd-":ufferini!s of holy mcn incurred bV 
defendin!! ìt<.: liberty-The chief epoch rlisting-uisbed-.Justice of this cause con!'iclered in 
enrly times,in tùe C'l!:e of St. Thomas nf Canterhury in the Cm;1> of holy men de!endinl! thr 
Chnr('h property-Testimony of the contemporaries of St. Thomas-Judgment of per80ns not 
involved in the contest-Judgment of the people p. 'i91 


The general character of the per
ecutors-The kin!!s: their instrum{'nt<:-JR!!fc;ts. unworthy 

 L )1 )1 4\ It Y, 

j i i 

;>riest5l, men of blood-Exnmples- TiJeir po1iC}' the same in all ages-TLeir hatred of Rome 
Their arts to impede its aClinn p, 717 


Tup. iJeroic patience of those wiJo defended tiJe Chul'('h- The moderation of the Hol) See- 
lis indul,g-encê: appears excessi\e-ComplalUts in c O Jl8Pqllt:'Dce dUrlu
 the struggle willi lIen. 
II. in England-Its pacific exerci
e of 111Jtbority-Ex'unplt'",-Couragc of epi;;:copltcy-BisIJOp3 
"ncoumge each other- The
s MnÒ hmuility of IIH:'ir d8porunent p. 747 


The sufferings of the clergy for maintaining eccle:,ia
tical liberty-Persecution of the Holy 
See in conspquence, and of the Church generally-S5. Lanfranc, Anselm, Thomas, Rnd his 
companions-Spirit of these sufferers-Their consolatiùns-)lartyrdom of :::;t, Tliomas, Rnd 
its results p, ';'79 


The combined action of all elements of persecutilln for justice, in the rise and progress of 
the heresy of the sixteenth century-At all times heresies united in attacking the Catholic 
Church- rbe persecution by the followers of Luther and Cah'Ìn- Vanous cau,.es of tht:' bos- 
tility of heresy poiuted out-Its destructive acr ion-Its pt:'rsecuticn of the intelligeuce- The cal- 
amitous results of its progress-Horrors of the persecution-The spirit of mockery-Its sauguin- 
ary form-Its legal forlU-Here
y introduces di,.cflrd and disturhs the pacific order of states 
- The confusion consequent or; its propagatioll-Here
y causes wars, religious, civIl, and nR- 
tional wars-Coutrasts p 796 


The sufferings of the monks especially for justice-The re1igious orders sprung from perse- 
cution-The hatred of them evinced by the pagaus, Arhuìs. and IconoclR,ts, by the prof:me 
society of the middle :Jges, by the violent and unjust. hy the Protestants-Destruction of tÌle 
monasteries-The wor'k pursued in our age-Persecution sti1l assails the Church, as it mu!'t 
continue to do till the end of time-in hea.ven the con>.ummMtion p.8


Tile epilogue . 


:> -f) r-,.. " 
A '. VJ 4. '1Y'; ,..') T T P'" 

 3E LIBRA ... 
lIAN '" 






THE l' E 
 '1' H II 0 0 Ii . 


 HE ancients used to say, 3., we find from tllp GOl'gias of Plato, that it 
11 ,[ \\"as lIot lawful to break off ill the mitldle uf a narrative, anÚ leave it 
l!. w ;tho nt a head, I
,t i t 
h onld wander aoon t "I
tre-li ke ill th at COll
it i
1P In accol'dan
p with thl:-i _\Ihelllan fallcy, which happens here to comclde 
M with g-I'aver 1II0tive
, we must proceed to place. a
 it were, the head on our 
.. 1'''' last hi:..tory: hy conunemol'ati IIg a particular class of per:;ol1:', who in a 
stH1 more peculiar Dunner fulfillell the di\'ínp IH'ophecy, "Sedehit populus mens 
in pulehr;tlldine pacis, III tabernaculi", fiduciæ, et in requie oplI!eJlta,"* and whose 
lives seem to have been e
peciall'y foreshown by the same great voice, òec1al'in2". 
"OpIlS ju::;titiæ pax: cultus justitiæ silentinm et 
ecur!t::J.s usque in sempitel'lwm.;' 
l\Iy theme pllr
uillg then, l have to speak of 
he multitudes whose steps the clois- 
ter guarded during ages of faith; fol' withont an intimate acquaintance with their 
lives alH1 cn:40m
, onr hi
tory would be incomplete, :md 3S it were headless; 
since, afte[' all, it wa
u mona
teries that peac>e f(mnd its sincere.;;t wor- 
shippers, and the 1110,.t devotel1 minister:-ì to dl=,pense and propagatf> it on earth; for 
it was within their walls th:lt an Wf> h:lvf> hitherto seen of peace and of pacific in- 
ßnenc>e existed in the fullest perfection. 
ow lest any one 
hould imagine that 
an inquiry into the 
pírit and mall1lf'r.. of this separate world, (for the mon
life, in f:lct, ('nnstítuted a world in ibelf,) wuuld lead ns aside to cOllsider things 
econdar" illt l >ortance to tbe O'eneral society of men , let tiS be g in Lv ()b
.. ð 
 . I:) 
the imllJen
e :111<1 urli\'er
al character ()fthp
e great in
titnti()n;;;: fin' tlti,.. pf>oplf>, 
so peculiarly seated in tlH' h('allty a III 1 plenitude of peace, wa
 not confined to 

* h. xxxii. 


M 0 RES CAT II 0 LIe I; 0 H, 

:II)\' on" }o('alitv or n
tjon; it W:1:" 
prt'ad o\'e.' thp wholp l'art
l. :11..1 un 1'1:.('1' \\ :.
I('f:[ \\" ithollt tla
 tl'anq ui II ill t1I1P.U'e of its ph i 1(I
' alld of its mallllCr
. \\ i (h- 
out attt'mpting tn trace the pI ogres... of 11)(' mOIJ:l:-tic (}l'(lt'r:l, 8U'lle t':--till1ate of 
diffusion Illay he formed from tIll' : J)('id 'I1t:llllotict;'
 rt;':'pPf't i JIg tJu'm, which (M'CUr 
in am" of the ]O(';I} hi4ol'iall:' of tilt' middle age
I n 'the cloistral commllnil y of ()ryr)'lIclllIs \\"('I'P 1 0,000 mOllk
. Thc
' H'rn"l 
 tweh'e pari!'h-chnn.hrs fill' the peoplt', "ho"'I' mallJlcrs "pre f;(l fi.)I'lIIt.,1 by 
them that the wholc eit\, 
el""Hlllm' ('llIIrl.h, I II Hpnllop"lis \\"pl'(' 5o(j ltI()nl
.; ; 
, , 
Itria their number al1lOunt('(1 tl) 5000: at C .lIia tll 
oOO. HI:t ('I Infi II i"J! 0111' 
view to the "
estern Chllrch we fi."l that ill the lIIona...tery ()f
t. Finlliall. at ('1011- 
m:d. in Ireland, in whi{'h St. ColulIlhkill :'\tlldied, tlwl'e \\"f're at Onf' tilllt' :3000 
. The abbcy of Ball !!Or. nc.II' ('arrickf(.rglls. fi)l1ß(J('I J a hOIl t t h(\ \'''30 r 5,),). 
31)(1 resto"t,d hy SI. )Ialachias aÎH'r i,s d('
trll('tioll h
' the {)anl'
, of wh:ch 
Rermml say
, "a pla('e tl'llly llOly, amI fruitful ill 
aillt:-, II1tH ph.ntiflllly pro- 
du(,ing- fruit to God," from \\"hich {'alllP 
t, C'ollllllhall a'ltl 81 "all, eontaillPll ho_ 
fore the death of its (o\ll1l1l'r, Rt. Com!!aJ, -lOOf') monk..:. 111 Ibn
o1', in \\'alts, 
there were eight di\'i
, ('ach of 300 mOllk.., III the Yt'3" 90'), th.."c \\"(,"'(\ mon> 
than 1000 monks in tire ahht'Y of bt. :::\yh'(':o"t'r, at :\ou:1II1111:1. TIIP nhlu'y or 
Jumiège soon afte.' it:; foundation 1..\' 
t. Philihl'rt alld Qu('('n Hathilcl..:, ('onraiw'cl 
900 monks; man)' hi
, Cì('r1i:8. alii 1 uoble laic':". n't;rin
 tlaitllt'). to rt'lIolllJ('(' 
the \vOI,M. Iu th
 abhpy of, untlc>r jt'Ih:111 
falll', thpl"p wcre IJ)o)'e than 3ïO 
, when Couut E..bfrif-'(l :-('ut thitllt'l' f.1J' monks to pl:H't' in Hir:'t'h:m,* I u 
the t\\'t.:fth ceutury, uucler St. Pt'ter tllP \\>.wrablp, tllt)"p \\"f'rf' iu tl", mflua...tpl'.\' 
of Cluny nearly 400 lllonk
, besidt'8 an inll11en
 IlUmber of gue:'\I":. all I :J multi- 
tude of pOn!'. 
In (he tweH'th ('elltnr.'", Ol'deric Yit:lli
, c. th:1t tilt' \'('J]f.rablp IJIIgn, ahhot 
of Chm.v, during the 
 of hi
 rule, :ulllliuf'd mOl (' th:m t 0,0(111 
monks into thp ranks of the Lurd'... hu::,t."t Th.. :-:IIIIP a'ltlwr n.latt's r1.:I' Oil tit.. 
' (If hi" U\\'II ordination at Rouf'n, the ann\' of Chri:-t \\ 3.. all
nh'nt(' 1 h\, 
nf'arly 700 clerk
, who re('('in'tl dim'rent ordl'r
,! BrothC'r .Jol',1aIl' of 
the second genea'al of the DOlllini\'au:-, g:l\'C the hahit to more than :L tlJUu
ffif'n, whom he alone had !!
 inNl to diP order. 
In the thirtpenth ('entm'
". we find in :Milan t 10 friars in t1)(' I )OllJillil':II1, ami 
100 in the Fl'aw'i,,(':m {'on"PJlt.
 In tl1(' 
am(' ('it
" at that tim(', rllf')'C \\'t'rl" ..ixty 
hermits ofSI. 
tin. alld thirty f'arllJl'litt':-.1I Th(' propm'lion..; \\'pre ahollt the 
!-'am(' f..18éwhere: \\ hen l\Iahi II 01. \'i..itl d tll(' aLI){'y,,: of'(ll,ln :11,,1 
t. (;all, 
there were 100 mOllk
 ill ea('h. hf
icl. s no\"icl's.
 Bcfill'p thc rl'\'olutiol1 ofl.)
eig-h tepn l1I()n:l
tel"Íps and elmr(.lu>..; \\"('1'1' ill th(' 8i ndf' town of Ei"'('II:H'h. \\ h ich 
were dC'st myt.d in one day. From thc:.:e fpw 
tah'IIH'lIt.;: it i:; c\.j(Jent, that the )"('1 i

* Trilhem. in Chronic. Hirsch. t Lih. xi. t Ihid. 

 Gua]vnnei de Ja!\. I1i..t. )Ied. np. Mur. nero Ir, 
(,I ipt. xi. 
I Annale5: )Ieòiol. (', .j!J, ap. id. 
. Iter Germ:anicum. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T H. 


 orders embraced an imIlH'J1Sf' part of the populatioll, and. thereful e, we should 
certailily ue unable to limB 
1J)J jllst e
timate uf the Illllllul'r uf men who loved 
aUll enjoyed pe:l<'e in the middle a
t's, if we did not take illto accoullt the:-ic im- 
e and willel)"-
pl'ea(1 commullities of the p:-ofe:;st'd pal'ific. 
\\,r e Í1a\'e 
'n what dal,k ('alamitou8 times aftlicted the Hol)' Church while 
rt'aping the imlllortal fruit:; uI' faith. In the 
'e:lr 480, when St. Benedict wai 
born, the aspect of Europe was deplorabh>. Italy groan
d 11IlÙer the 
.oke 01 
Odoacre, Spaill and Aquitaille uudel" Ihat of Alaric, both of them Ariao princp'3, 
that is, at enmity with truth, the fimntain of peace. Gallacia W3S 
uhject to tliP 
Al'ian Sneyi; Childeri(', king of the Franc
, \Va
 an idolator. The Btlr
who were .\.rim:s, ot'cupied Hot a slIIall part of Gaui; and G
rlUan)', with 3 part of 
Britiall, were ignorant of the true God. Thi? was, nevertlwless, the moment ",hell 
the 1101)' in
titute of St. Benedil't aro::;e, which \\'a-i founded about the )'l':lr 529, 
Iount Cas..;:iuo, where, accor(ling to the remark of 
Iabillon, there W3." pro- 
villed a 
afe asylum again
t human misery,* Long afterwards the state of Eu- 
rope, in regard to peace, continued to be calamitollS. Gaul, in particuhu', was 
rule(1 with a rOll of iron; and Europe generally, in the seventh century, \\'a
distracted, that Pope 
gatho, in the name of the Roman SynOlI, daimillg indul- 
g-'lIce fOI" the dimini
hed literary glory of the 'Vestern Church, uses the-ié affect- 
ing, and, :.l
 )Iaoillon say
, truly golden words. "Since in our regiolls the fury of 
differeut nations rages daily, at onetime conflicting, at another traversing, at another 
ra :aging- HlI' whùle life is full of solicitude-Et sola e
t nosh"a subst:lIItia fides 
b'a, cum qua nobis vivere summa e:;;t 
IOl'ia"" But all the while, when' the 
e\,jl perhaps \Va,;; greate
t, uuder the te1'l'ible sceptre
 of C'hildebert, Clotaire T., 
Chilperil', Clotaire II., and Dagobel't 1., w:u"likt-> king
, DH' whom the Freneh, at 
that time still ferociou:" envinced an 3.stolli
hing sympathy, and a fidelity ullal- 
temble; there were existing the peaceful multitudes to whom mon:.lsterie.
both peace aIHI the mean::; of its propagat iou. E\ren secular hj
tOl,jan5 remark, that 
while the spirit of (Iiscord pen'adl-'d countrie
, a", in Ireland, arming the nati\'e
again..t eaeh other', immellse multitudes of the inhabitants of those countries en- 
joyed and wor
hipped pea('e in the 
eclusion of mnna4eries: fOl' though to maD.'" 
unknown, these tranquil communitie-; existed in the midst of the disorders amI 
troublei' of the worldly life. The t!'ue lovers of peace were, howe\'er, generally 
led to lliscover them, like St. 
\ u
tin, who say
, u I wa
 :Iston i
hed whell I 
Ilt'ard them :;peak of tbi
 gl'eat 1\Ionk Anthony, of whom I had known nothing 
till that hour. . I was' fillell with amaze, Ilearin
 of his I'e('ent memory ami his 
o near onr time in testimony to the faith of the Catholic Church. Theil 
the cOIl\yersatiort tUflwd upon the multitude of mona,;;tl'rie:-:, anll the solitary holy 
Int'n of the de
ert, of whom we h:\(1 knowll nothing. Tht>re wa
 a 11101I:Istery at 

Iilan, full of go"a m'n, without th9 wall,.; of the city, under the care of Sr. AUl- 

* :\Ial,illol]. Præfat. iu 1 Sæc, Benedic, ii. 


M 0 RES CAT II 0 LIe I; 0 n, 

bI'OSP, and we did not know of it:; exi...H'11l'e."* TI.u8 ton, no cl o nht, it \\a
Gaul, whiJe cruel 
Iero\Tillgian.; l'eigllC't.!, Tlll'n wh..1) dlC doom had pa:-sed, 1111- 
der the Carlovingiau
, citip.s yi,'ldeù ill importance alld illflnPllc't' to ahhf'.\''', whic'h 
were like gl'eat (':l!'tle:-, fortified, cCI))lainillg all tl.ill
s I't'qui:-itt, for a rq!IIIa,' am) 
pa('ific lift'. In the work elltitlpd, (( Ga Ilia Ch ri:-tialla," CHll' i.. 3S[01l 1 (() 
the proùigious lIumbel' of abbp)"ö alld COll\'Cllts in tilt> citic...; of France. lIellce au 
ancieut WI'itel' cries- 

.. FdiA I t'gio Fran('omm, 
w, læ 1;11111>1 um 
Benedict i mi1itulU. "t 

(( If .my Ihing"," sa)'s one Ili:-(or1ë.UI, ., l'oulcl l'('Colici/e the eyt;.') of hll1U3Uity to 
the pictures offered by lhe first agt':-i of our mon:ll'ehy, it \\oulcl be \\ itliout .Jouht 
pontaneon-; U nin IlS of pacific' lIIe)), \\ Ito fit:'( I 1'1'0111 a COITII ptt', I :tllll d (..olatt..) 
:-ociety, in ord{>r to meditate 011 alll'tlt-'I' wodd, to (H'l':-,cn't' kiuc)Jccl tUI' fUlllrl'gelJcl'a- 
tion.; the toreh of truth ,"! 
But what Chri
ti:m land wa..; Il'ft witiwlH thi

 ? "fhe dram t of hi.,- 
tory ," 
ays a rel't'nt historian of I rdullcl, 
pea).d IIg of \.CI'Y carly t lilt..., ,. hl'gln., to 
asc:ume an entirely different chal'acter. lu
acl ofdlt' ferocious 
rrifl.' of kiIJ!-.J"S and 
('hieftains, we have the pure amI pe:teefill trinmphs of I'eligion. llllhlriol.... Raillh 
of both 
('x('s pa...:s in I'e\'iew hpforc our C)'C"; Ihe cowl alill \'eil l'Clip
'. tilt' glor
even of the rt-'
:ll ('I'OWU, awl in..t..a J of the grallcl :111,1 r....;ti \'(, hall.. of Tal U :IIICI 
Em:.mi3. the lonely cell of [he fasting Ilenitellt bt'colUc's the scene of Elllw." ::;0 
that, in ftCt, durin
 the most di:-itlll,becI periods of the IUH1dJe .I
e,.;, no w:lrrior l'Ould 
e\'PJ' I'pc)nce IHt'n who J'{>ally IO\Ted peace to the (Jilemm3 ill wllidl Cæ:-oar plul'e:-o the 
people of .:\Iar:-:eillc:;, :o;a

" At enim c()ntu
1U heil 
Dim fugant: clabÏli
 pænas pro pUC'C ,,
tlta j 
Ei nihil esse Oleo di$celis tutius æ\ 0, 
Quam, cluce me, bt'lIulU."

For, in conseqnence of the foundation..; of f:lith, :-1I1
t'('ts a
 the !5ûns of a 
family were alwayg at liherty to choos{> :11)(1 f.)lIo\\' t>ithl'I' pl':U'C Of it... oppo..itc. 
" Gista, widow of E3rl Go(Iwin, hacl seven 
ms," "'d)'::; Onlcric Yïtalis, Ct 
nOll, To
tic, Herald, Guorth, Elfgar, Leofwin, and Yu/vod; all \nre carls dis- 
tinguished b.y grpat pt>r:-iollal heallty :nul merits, tholl1!h their euds \\t
r(' clitJi'!',.ut. 
Elfgar and '....lIlvo(I, who lo\'e<1 Go(l, liw'd holily anll happil.\"; the fir:,t, a pil
and monk, dif'd at Hhf'ims ill thp t1't1
 f..'lith : tllP nthpI' cli('(1 hOßflrnblv at 
ishllry, The five other:" de\Tott>cl to arms, peri"hffi in diff:'rt>nt I"ac

 by thE 
',"ord ."11 

· Confess. Lih. \"iii, 6. 
t Anon.r
husi8.nis de Religion, Ori
inp ap. Jlartenr' Vc.t. 
('ript. CI\IJf'('t. tom. vf. 

 LangloIs Essal Hist. sur l"Abba\'c de Fontcnelle 
 J I'''' .,. . L 
. ';-; .1 ..."n, III, ib. ill. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T Ii. 


The pmdigions number of disciple..: which each wor,.;hipper ofppacedrew aftf'r 
him from the first momeut of hi:j cOllversion, is a fact which suffiei
ntly iudi- 
cates tbeattractions pO

t.'ssed by this society distinct from that of the \\'orld, though 
e,'er III the mu.{st of it. The ble:o:sed youth Francis de Panla, ft,r in
t:.lllce, in 1435, 
retires mto a C
l\'e JIJ a desert pluce, and 10! Balthaz:.u', Her'narùino, Paulu:o:, 
FrancI";, Antoniu
, .Andrew, Archangel o , Xicholaus, Augelo, Kichola:, a Nucito, 
John and Plorentllru...; ft)Jlow him.* How 
hould we be detained
 if we were to 
f'peak of tbe multitude.., leading the pacific life in the more cplebrated region:.- in 
tìc history? Such, for example, as Suabb, whi{'h the hi
t. (;,dl 
st)'le " the land of the saint,.: "t St. Pt:'ter Damian S:I)'5, "That the whole world 
was full of 111 on ks ; "! that i
, of meu who lo,'ed, enjoyed. and propagated }wa('e, 
Places of monastic retreat existed almost from the bpginning of the Church,
There were monk., in Gaull,efore the time of Sr. ::\Jartin; for' there w
ome in 
the is]alHJ of St, B:u'b:lra aho\"e the conflupnce of the Al'ar an(l the Rhone, who 
received the ChrÏ:.;ti:llls that fled f!'Om the pel'secution of Septimus Se\'prn....1! 
How many ar'ose in Sicily in the earliel' tirJH's may he \Vitness
d in the hi40ries 
of that island,
 where the ancient Greek lIlolla:4eries were ('ehuilt hy COllnt,.., Roh- 
ert and Rnger, 011 the expulsion of the Saras..:ills, as were the six Benedietine ab- 
bey,.: fl)lIll<lc(l there by St. Gregory the Great, out of his own patrimony. ** l\IOllllt 
Ætna, that had heen fOl'mel'ly de,'otf'd to the ,'ain wori'hip of the Gelltile
, was in 
the fÌ1'
t Chri
tial1 age.; covel'ed with mona...tHies for the worship of the olle true 
God. tt Calabria-which was the 6r,.:t p:lrt ofIt3]y, aftPI' Rome, to f'mbracethe Chri
tiau f:lÌth, St. Paul h:l,'in
 preaclwd al RIHJgium, aud which produced so many mar- 
tyrs in early and modern timps,-hecalllt' anotlwr Eg.\'f)t in re
al'd to mona
It is deJightfll] to sllr\'ey in local histol'Ïes the {'plebrated monasteries of this region, 
so ahllllClantly 
n(I()wed, and prodllcing 
Hch wi
md holy men, who threw in 
the shade those old Pythagol'æ:m day;o; among that ilIll
 peoplp; to vi
it Ihi.. 
cradle of St. Benedict, St. Basil, and 8t, Bernard, this mother of hermit!' dwellillg 
amid:5t her rocks and wood
, alld od"l'iferolls hill...,tt III the fOllrth and fifth een- 
turies, the Italian 111' .nastpries were huilt. chiefly in 
Iilan. Rome, Ra\'ellna, Nola, 
in Campagna, and in thE'island...; of the Ett'nscan sea.s
 How prodi
iously thp...;e 
were multiplied in btel' time5, ma
' he estimated from the numher of U1ona!'ter'ies 
visited by Fel'<lin:.Hl.{ UdlPlli, the Flol'elltine monk and :lhbot of the Tria Fon- 
tana, at Rome, when he \\'a...; composil1
 his great work, the .. halia ð3cra." 
But, extending our view o\'
r Ellropf>, let liS I'ecall the name
 an(1 site of a few 
of the 1110;;t eminent of the;;e grf'3t asylums of pacific men in ages of faith. The 
tI'acks of the Great Benedict lead fl'Ol1l Snbiaco to blest Ca
::;ino':j holy hill, both 
such p]ace., of di\'ine pf>3Ce, 
Pas:o;ing over' these, Italy for many age
 gloried in her abbey
 of Pomposa, in 

* Chronic. Ord. 1\Iiuimorum. t Eckehnnl IV. in Lih. Renedict. t Lib. vi. Epist. 15, 

 :Murat. Antiq. It. I
v, I )hh. Præf, in iii. sæc. 4tf Sicili;l Sacfl\, i. 22, ** Id. ii. 
tt ii, 1155. tt Italia Sacra, tom. ix, 175, 

 )Iurat. A.ntiq. It. Ixv. 


1\f 0 RES CAT II 0 J.. I C I; 0 H. 

the duchy of Fel'l'ara, two Im
IJ(\s frum llU' "":I, IIP:tr tlw "olllh hranch of the p" ; 
ofNonant1l1a, t('11 mile.... from :\Iodella, fouuded in 7J
 An,clm, duk 'of I'
whose sisler Giseltrmlt' was wife of .\istulph, kin
 of th(' I
ng1)hard-:; of CJlliIc 
in Piemont, whi(.ia in the middle of Ihe tenth cpntnr
' th'...;el'\'L>tI to he compared 
with Cluny; of 
t. Petel' a Cælo-allr('() in Pa\'ia; of 
t. .J u
lina at Padua; of 
St. Jllhu the E\'angeli
t at Parma; of St. George a
 \"",'111('(', where .:\Lmroseui, 
one of the t'olllpanions of Hmlluald, was abbot; of 81, Peter at 'Jantna; of St. 
l\Iaria in FJorem'c; ofSt, Appollinare in CIa:-8C, neal' Ra\'('llIIa; of St, Lurcnzo at 
Caplla; of Call1uldoJi and \"" alJembru:sa, in the ,,\..ppl'lIinc'; OrCa\':! ill the COIIII- 
try of Salemo 3000 } )aee:-i from tJU' cit\' at the f()ot of )Iount J.\'nell-a which 
"', . 
:\Iuratflri I'l..('kon
(,col)(I in importance, afLcr )Ifltmt-Ca:;sillo.* 
TUI'lJÌng tu Gaul, we filld :It a short dj:-,t:lIJce frum ]>oitiers, at :1 c;pot caJlul 
Ligllgé, the first COllvellt built hy 
t. l\Ialtin, whit'h coutilllit'd tu the last timc'i 
to produce many emillcut mcn. 011 hc('oming bi:o'hup ofTulII':- hl' Imilt u -:ecolI(1 
ahbey two miles from the city, which was 
Ie l.'l'l..braletl hou,f' of .:\[al'llloutier, 
the great nurseJ'y ofhi:,h,)p::" and the ..;('hool uf sciel\(,c ill France. It \\a..; h 'ft: th:.1t 
St. )!artin was elllombed: tht' ahbc)' ht'arin
 hi..; lIame at .Amicus W:I'i 011 tllt
of Ihe house where tIlt' 
aint rp
i(h.d, wilil" Yl't U :i,)ldil'r,t 
t. B('lIe,Iid 011 the 
Loire, in the villageof.FI,'ury,-found
.(1 by Lpu(Ieho.I in the rl'i:;n ut'Clotalre II. 
in 623, poc;;l::Ie!:'sing the hùJy uf St. Relict, I"Cllowlll'(1 ill the temh l'Cntur)', umlt:r 
must holy alld It'al"llt'd ahhot..;, all. I I"p,or((>,1 10 hy multituù(;::) of )'ollth frolll an 
cuuntries, attl'3ch,d by the fame uf Constantin" tIlt' S,'ho\a.,ti(', in Ihp dil)- 
e ofOrle:m..:, eight leagues fmlll that cit),. Aniaup f
III1IlI('cl by St. Helld, I"lIll of 
the count of l\Iaguelore, antI t:'spl'('iall y PI'oll.>etcd hy (,h:trlt:'ma
nl', was 
l'atl.,1 in a 
valley, 011 the little ri\"el' Aniane, in the dlOccs
rontp('lliel', hetwt'en tht' cit)' 
and L()(léve. Åt a league d i
tance wa'i tIll' lUona,tery of Gello, ur of "-It. \r I ilialll 
of the Desert, foulHleJ by \\"illi:lIl1, duke of .\ftuitaiul', one of till' pl'er:i of Char- 
lemagne. The abbey of St. Luciell, fuunded by Cllil,h'ric, \\'
IM at Bl.:tu\"ai..o 
Lux('uil wa'i i
l FnllH'lw-eollltc, in the (liocpge of B('..:an
f)u, at the fuot of tile 
mountains uf the \""o=-ge towanls L"rminc. \.ftcr 1,'a\Oing thi..; his fh'st foullù:ttinn 
in Gaul, St. Columban foumle(I th,. Illonastcry of Dis..:eIHi'i in till' IUl(>t1an \ )1';" 
in a t!PSCI't 4000 feet above the level of" the :-,ca, amI :-uh"'''f!ucutly Bohbin at the 
foot of the Appeuine..;, at which yon al'rive by a ro'ul frolll Cllia\'(
ra. The al-bcy 
of ðt. Germain tIp..; Prèz, fouuded soon after the tI
ath of tll'
 holy patriar('h uf 
the order,:t: wa
 at the extremity of tll(' g:mlt'us of the royal pahtce in a :-.uhurb of 
Pari:o:. Corb)', ill Piccanly, whence 811('h 
rt>:lt Jig-hts iS
II{'(I iu :mci<<'ut time.
, was 
three lcagues di:-taut from _\miens. 81. Ri' ) llif'r was 1 \\'0 1":1 f l'up" from A hh('\'iJIe, 
which was origiuaH y hut the \.ilb or f:trm-hOlhe of 1 he ahhI'J.
, of 
wllich Lupus was abbot in 843, was a monastery ill the dioce
 of&n..;, fUUf miles 

* Jlllr, Rcr. It. Script. vi. 
t D, Bouitlurt lIist. de l'AlIl>, de S, Ger. 

t Vl)
ge Lit. .Ie Deux Bénct1. 

 Topographic des 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II, 


Iolltargi:" 011 the road to Lyon..;. Y ezclay, foumlell ill the ninth century 
by COUllt Gerard de Rousilloll, su celebrated in old l'nll1anCe, was eight ll'agH(,
distant from Auxerre. Aureliae, fùunllel1 hy 
t, Gl'I';lld, count of Aurelia, wa::; 
in the diOl'c::;e of Clermont. On seein
 that littl\' i:-;ll-t of Lerills, on tl1e co:\st of 

\.lìtibe:-:, with its arid fil'ld:-:. and it::; nwagre wfts of piur:-:, (,n<' could nevel' divine 
the part whieh thi:-; :ìpot of eal,th plttypd in tht' hi=-tory of Chri..;ti:mity in Ganl, 
from the yeal' -no, when St. flonorat fir:--t relind t', a hprmitage there. Bnt here 
stulld the renowned monastery wit icÌl wa=- built Roon aft('l'. from \\ hieh 
() many 
8aints WCl'e drawn. Bee, Í<<'\1mh.<1 h
' [hrluill, in 1040, where Lanfranc and ....\n- 
sl'lm were prior
, was in the dioce::;e of Itlluell, on the littlp riVPl' Bee, eight leagnp:ì 
west from that city. Faremol1tier, Í<<lllluìell by 
t. Farp in 617, was in Brie, on the 
Iurin, five leagnes from 
Ieaux. Flay wa..; in the dio('cse of ßeauvais. Fon- 
tevrauld was on the borders of Poitou towarll:ì A\II
on, in the diocese of Poitier:,. 
, where Louis of Blois was abbnt, f()\m\l
d in 7,')1 by Count 'Vigbert, i...; in 
the diocese of Cambray, in Hainalllt, fi\'e mile,.; from r\.xenne
. Premontré, 
cho:,en by St. Norbert, for the central house of hi,.; ortIer, wa;; in a valley in the 
Dlre::;t of Coucy, in the ùioce
e of Laun, which wa:-; a de=-ert in the beginning of 
the twelflh e('ntury. 
Ci::;tcaux, the mother hou:-:e of the order, founded by Odo, duke of Burgundy, 
in 10
tH, was fi,.e leagues from Dijon, in the diocese of Chalons. La Ferté wa::i 
tll(' fir:;.t branch house, founded hy the Seigneurs de ,r ergy. The second was at 
Pontigny, in Champagne, on the ri,'er Semill, one ll'ague from Ligny-Ie-Chateau, 
and four-and-a-halffrom 
\.uxerre. The third daughter wa
 Clain'aulx, founded 
in Ill,,), by Thibaud, count of Champagne. This abbey stoud on the river 
)Iorimond, the fourth daughter, founded in Ill,,) by Odolricus de ..Agri mont, was 
on the borders of Lorraine and Burgundy. From these four houses all the Cis- 
tercian abbey::; in the world took their orìtTin.
f )Iolesme was in Cham ! )atrne 
" ð ð , 
three lcaglle:-; fl'Om Chatillon-sur-:-:;eille. Cluny ,,-as on the river Grune, on the 
border.; of the duchy of Burn'unch , five leaO'ues from )Iâcon and fiflf'en from 
" ð" ð ' 
1...yon:-:, Paray-Ie-)Ionial was in Charolais ; St. t:.plectus was near Xarbonne; 
ß"lU'gcul was on the Loire' )Iallia(' f(Hlllded in 990 ,ras near Poitiers' 8t 

 " , ' . 
Columhan wa:-; in R(.ns; St. )Iaglor, f()IIlHI(.(l in 
)ï9, and 8t )Iary (Ips Champs 
in 9
4, were in Paris: and 
t. _\lhin, found. d in 9ßû, wa'"i in .\njou. Of the 
origin of the Spani::;h monasteries, which wa::; later, writers of that kingdom give 
us tbis account. They relate, that in thp sixth ('{'ntury, Donptus, a monk and 
disciple of'i certain ht'rmit in Africa, fore=-E::'l'illg tbe violf'llce of the barbarous 
nation:;:, fled in a ship into Spain with seventy mOil ks, alld a quantity of mann- 
. lu Spain he was received by an illnstrwu5 ami rt:'ligio115 woman, l\Iinicea, 
aml there h
 blUlt, the mona:,tery of ServitanuH1, which wa., the first monastery 
in S l min.t Of these I 
hall onlv mention the H1(1na
tpr y of Alcoba so maU'uificent 
. ' 1:1 , 

it Notitiæ .\bhat. Ord. 'Ci"t. per Universum OrOOm Lib. i. 
t fhhlcpholl5" vit iæ lIlust, Episcl'p. Hisp. 


)1 0 R E 
 CAT II 0 LIe I; 0 n 

60 fruitful inlearuing, 
u n'Ill'raLh. in :lnticillity, " in \\ hil'h," S:1
'S .John of Bruge..., 
" you disc'C'I'n the authority and sam.tit." 0(:-;1. BC'I"I1:trd, and tlJ(' grandeur of K ingb 
Alfimso and IIl'I1I'Y."* 
Amoll cr the (;"('1'111an monash'I,ie:-; of n-nu\\ 11, till' :ïitc IIf a fl'w of tlH' lJ)o
t j]J1I"'- 
trious mU5t bc pre::ient to ('\'cry olle\ reeoll('etion, '"' The Il1U
 ('ph.hratc.d," a... 
TritlH'mim'i sa):ò\J ., were Fnlc1a, fcmnclC'd hy 
t. B,mif:wp.. in FJanl'oJlia to\\:ln1, 
sC and Thm-:ngia, Thc abhpy of :-':. Pt WI' awl 
t. Palll ill ,\" l.i:--:-l'nhurg, iu 
tlH' dioel':;e of Spire::;, fOlmùcd h,\' Killg I ).Igubert ; that of St. _1111an, 1U4tr 
('n('C', f:mmlC'd hy ancient kin
s of Fmw'l' ; that of St. (;all in 
lIaLia ; tlmt of 
Rpi('hnaw, n('3r Constam'c, fiHlndl'tl h.\' Pil'lIIillill.... di:o'c'ip'l' 01':"'\1. 'Ialll'; tltat of 
Hirsf('ld, fiHlr mile:; frum Flllda, fcHlndecl by:,,1. 1.'11111-;; that of N, 
neal' Tren':;, thc mo:o;t allcit'nt of all the Tplltonil' huu..;p':); 'I('(liohu'('nsi..., ill Lor- 
raine, fiHlIIded by 81. Lutwin, who from hein
 duke bl'(':.lUlt' a monk m)(l nJ,bot, 
an(l :u'chbishop of TI'('\'('s ; tIll' ahh('.,'s of:--,1. 'lalll'i(.p at I>ol('gia, in thl' tli(l('(':--(' of 
'1'I'c\'c::;; that of SÜn'elot, in tl)(. d io('(':-e uf Liq.
p, f( 1111' leagll(':o' tÎ'OIll :--1':1, of i 111_ 
mense fame; that of Xpw CUl'by, in Sa
on)', t.mlllll'cI by till' ahhot of ('orh)', in 
Piel'ardy, fmlll which came forth apo:-,tle:-; to Illiny nation:-- ; that ofSt. 
IlCal' the walls of Trl'\'l'
, whieh :-;drn(' think P'\i
tt,cl in the tin1P of ('ou:--tautilll', 
and in which ('ertainly there WPI'l' IlIonk:, ill thc' till1e of:-,t. \1I
II...;till j tll(' ul,J,(.) 
of Pl'lIm, in the fOl'l'st of ..A I'lll'llIl<'s, in :t vall(.y on th(' Ilt'I.. ri\'pr 1'1'll1U, f('IIIHk(1 in 
721 hy Bt'rtradl', g-randrnothl'I'of Berta, "ifi' of I
in;! P('pill, who h:ld a (":I:,tl(. 011(' 
1(' I
II(> from tll<' placl', of whieh .\:o';-;lIPI'II
, ("Hlut of \njoll. \\:.... the fir:--t abhot, 
and Hirschall, l.ight mile:-; fl'Olll 
pil'('S, lillln h-d in ð:
O h
 Erlafrl'tl, c'ollnt (11'( 'allm, 
with hi:; sons Kottllng and Ernwncln.cI, and )'(.:-to)'{.cl hy POpP 1..('0 IX., "hc) "11'" 
of t!tc flmily of Dagburgh, and _\delbert, l'unnt uft'alha, "ith \r il tl1l(1<., his n)(l
dcnmt wife,t 
Other grcat Telltonie hOll:ò\cs \\"('1'(' Gcmhlonx, in a ho]lo\\ fonr h.3glll.... to the 
t from Kalllm', loumlt.(l in 
, hy St. (;lIih('rt, 
n('ur Ù(' (jl'mhlonx, 
who fornwd it ont of the castle in whi('h }l<' wa.... horn. 'Yillt'r" onc of the IIlI):--t 
i1Iustt'ious abhl'Y";, not only of Br,d)au', hilt of the wholp ('istcl"('iau ordl'r, 011 3('- 
('OUllt of Ihe great 1I1('n it ha,;; gi\'(.n to tll('(.llIIr('h. S(':lh'll in a 
orJ!(' 1)(.t\\('('11 t\\O 
.1ll0nntaiIlS, 011 the way to Ni\'eilc. ThC' B('lIeclidinp \hhc\ IIf:--1. \"a:l:--t:lt .\lTa
which dated fi'om the' 
e\'{'nth C'entury, when the 
f S1. Anhf'I'f, ßisbop of 
Al'ras, built it O\'er t!t
 oratol'\' w!ten> thc :-aint \\':I
 hlll'll'ù ' L"h(., fUlIllCfpd ill !j-JO 
' , , 
hy St. Lalldellll on the 
ambl'e, fcllir 1(':lglll" from Pltilipp('\'ille, in till' cJil)('P..P of 
Cambra)'; QII
dlillbotlrg-, ill SdXOIIY, in tllP dio('C':-(' of IIalhl'r,tad, foulll!pd b\, 
ble,sed :\Iatilda, queen ofG,'rmaIlY, and Kill
 IIpllr,\' tlte FowlC'I', her htl
han(l, (:f 
whi('b the abbe
s was the first pl'illep:"'Is of the empire; SpJin
s:ad, in tit(' dio('(:"'I1' 
of l\Iayence, fuunded hy E..dllhanl ; 
tf'illf('ldt, illllll' dioces.. ofCu}')g'w, to whic.h 
retired the ble",;st:'d IIl'rman Joseph, at tlteag('oft\\'(.h'e, aud thc three f(HIIHbtioll!) 

... Joan, Vasæi Brug, Ref. Hispan. Chronic, iii. 

t Trithem. in Chronic. lIiNwgiell!ools, 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


of I
ing' Dagobert, Eh-on(,ll:"i
, in whi('h he wa..; Imried, BIamlinußl near (;hellt, 
t. Ba\yon, ::)\) called froUl Count Bayo, who there d 'pused hi:; knightly anns, 
LecauH' a monk, amI di(:.d in sanctity. 
Of the ffionasteril':-' in the British i
lands. t\\"o of the most illu.4rious were Ban- 
gor in Ireland fouudcJ in tl1(' fifth ('l.ntury by St. Comgall, a <<lisciple of :Finstan, 
in tIle county of Down in IT.;tl'r, not far fi'olll the sca, where the pas:-,age to Scot- 
lawl was sh'lrt. 
lJ)d B:'lIf!:or in ". alps, in FI illt:-:hire, which Dede calls the mo
renO\\'net! cloi
tl'r of tIlt' Briton..;, amI which was organized alld flouri::;hil1g, when 
.st. Au
u:-;tin came f1'OlH HonH'. 
Here, as ill lel'd in Ileady all other countries, the foundation ofmollasterics 
was simultalleou:-; with the first prf':lf'hing vI' the gosl)el. The aLLey of Glaston- 
bm'y dates fnllll ahout the year 300 ; that of Sherborn in Dorsetshire from 370. 
The first Iloti('e of D,'yhurgh i
 prior to the year 522, when 
lodell was its 
abbot, under who
c ill\'oeation was one of its chapels. The great St. Columbkill 
alone fimwh.(1 ah()ye an lllindrl'd aLbeys in Irelalld, Englalld, and Scotland, and 
other islallds (lq)(.nding 011 them. Il'e1and \\ a" co\'ered with tl}('
e paeifil' retreat..; j 
whieh yet were l'ontinually mull iplyillg, until the öinistl'r epol'h of IIenry '
whose a
ents on thpil' arri\'al fOllnJ the monks rebuilding lllany abbeys with 
greaÍ<'I' mag-nifi('('nf'e than Iwfore. In England, howe\'er, as we learn fì'om Bede, 
th('I'c wel'(' not in the i'e\'enth c('ntm',\' many monasteries, so that numhers of 
English nobles amI otllPr:" pa
:'l'd into Fralll'e, whieh abounded with them, to re- 
tin' into abheys thpl'l', ,,_\. t that tiull'," liP :o::a)'f', " the noble> prilwc:,,:, Em'ton- 
gatlll', daughter of Earl'olllbl'rt, king of Kent, l'as
' d the :;l'as and came into 
Franc'e, fin' tll(' pm"po:,e of learning to Sl'l'\'e God in such a s('hool of :,anctity." 
Still, e\y('n in the :-,\.'\'cl1th century we filHi seyeral religious hou
es founded, as 
thos(' of Chertsl'Y in SUl'rey, in f}()ü; Barking in E
sex, in 680; )Ialmeðbury 
ill \\Tilt:o::hire, in G70; Gloucester, in 6Rn; St. 
within in 'Yinehestel', in 6:1--1 ; 
\..llstin at Canterbury, in 60.); ÐOl'cl.e::;ter in Oxfi}rdshire, in 63,'), Tllf'mo4 
(.elphrat('(I, whieh date from tIll' eighth ('entury, \\'el'e the abbey of 
\..bingd()n in 
Berkshin., fOlln(!t.ù in 720; those of \\
inl'h(,oll1b and Tewke:,hury in Glow'l'ster- 
shire, in 7
7 and 71,); that of 81. 
\Jban in Hertford:-:hire, in 730; ami that of 
Cl'Oyland ill Lilll'oln.o:.hire, ill 71 G. The ahbeys of Thorne)' in Camhridgpshire, of 
1\wi:"tock ill D{'\.un:-ìhire, and of:-:;t. Cuthhert in Durham, date fmlll the ninth 
ccntlll'Y, Thesl' \\"el'(' all of the Bl\lIedicrille order: the abhey of Ram:,:,}' III 
H Illltillgd<llJ:;hire, was lIot fOlllllll'(l till the t('ntl. l'('ntllry. 
TIIP Cistercian:-ì, who pO
:-:(':':'f'(l so many illu:-:trious house:; in Englal1l1, were 
first callpd into it by a noblt, En
lishman, \ralter E
pec, in 112,'), ullder Killg 
!Iellry I" to whom tJIl're exist:-, a IcUt'I' frolll St. Bernard. The first abbey was 
:Furlle:", ill tlw dio('f':"f' uf l
ork, and the 
('e .ml Hie\'aux.* 
Such then were a few of tbe IllO:;t eminent of these plal'e
 esteemed diville, alld 

otitiæ Ab'J Oni. CÏ:iter, viii 


I 0 RES CAT II () LIe I; () J{, 

('tplent I Y p]a('('
 of d i \,in(' 1)('a('(', h('eau
e, a, lIugo of 
t, YïdAJl' 
ay:" plat. .
('allnot bl' c.livilH', unl('
.. tlH'Y h(' pb(.(.:-; of qui(.t amI of l)('a('(',* Truly, \\dl 
mio.ltt that don' \\ Iti('h in it:, fti
ltt m:Il,k('t.1 till' (.ireuit uf tlH' IH'C
('('t('(: 111011,1- t('I')' 
of i'laut\'illil'r
, L(' interpretl'tl a: -;i
nitYing tile' tralllplil ('('igll of iIlIlO(.t'II('(' \\ hidl 
was tlwl'{' ahout to COJ1}J1}('I1('(' ; amI 011(' Illight ha\'f' al'('('pt('d a
 a g('IIl.ral d( Irnm- 
ination, fin' all :-;imilar l'('trmt:" tll<' titll' 
i\"('n to tilt' ('('I(.I>lllh't.IIll(lIl:i--:('ry of( ;0- 
mOil, Ull thc l'oast of BithYllia, at thl' mouth of tlU' Eu
ine, \\ hit'h wac; ('
pr(' ,Iy 
('aIled bv thc mUllk
, in I'l'f'l'rcn('(' to thl' trawIuiliity enjoyed \\ itllin it. (r('n,', or 
tllP plal'
 of pea('e. Thl' mountain of P"1:1.,-tie in PoJa1lI1. 1IC.'ar th, l'in'l' 
i('1II in 
Lithuania ac('onlino'ly ellal1 lr (.d it:-; naml' fill' that of till' )1oul1t of Pea('(', \\ JII'I1 a 
, r' w 
Cama1dolC'5c mOlla:-:;tC'ry was built upun it, hy <. 'hri:.;topher de Pa77i, gnllul dran- 
ceJIor of the duke of Li tl1 lUmia, of tIll' l1ohlf' Florf'l1t i Ill' r:u'(' \\ h it'h had Lt '('11 1;:111 i
in the pr('('eding ('('nt u 1')', t 1 might Im\'(' Iloti(.,'(l many otlU'r lIIolla
h'ri('q of 
e(Iuai ('t,IPlu'ity, thf' historif's of whit'h, a
 Faurit'l :,a
's of the abh('y
 of ('Olllpl(.'
\..lli:u1(', amI uf Ht. GuiH('m-dn-f)f':'l'11, Itd, Ig ('" 'utialJ)' to th(' J!('II('f'HJ Jril"tory 
(If the ('ountry in whi{'h tlu'.\' \\'pre :".at(.d, awl P\"'11 to th..t of EIII'Op(',: The 
Illonastprv of Oliva fill' in'4anc'p, is a..; do
(.h' ('olll1<'(.t(.d with tlu' Jri
tClr\' of PI'11:--- 
w, . " 

iu as 
Iount-Cas...;inu j:-; \\"ith that of Italy. fh' illtt>r,'..;f of many ('oJIp('tioll
nch allnal:" grltw:; pal(' Ilefor,' tilt' hi.40ri,'al 
ralltlpUI' of St. )((.(1:11 (] at 
f:ons, 611111cled by Clotain. 1. wlrere Sf. B1Inifacl', tht> apo..tlc of (;(,I'II1:lIlY, C!'OWIU d 
Pppi n, k illg of the Fra II(,S, \\"11 il'Jr Clltll'Jpmagne til \'01'('(1, \\ Jr i(.Jr \\ a.. ill t nl"ll
 I he 
l,elO\'E'd ret!'eat of Lonis-I,.-Dl'.ho111rair(', amI tire :--('('11(' of hi... mi
fcl"( 11111.... Hilt 
c nam('
 alone win :oõuffi,.p to he:lr out my æ.;...;('rtioll, that tllP I1I.Ina..' it' in
containing, as we 
I)Ortl)" PI'O"<'>, a whule race of lI1en (.millt'lIl1y p( a,'pflll, 
:Ipart from all others that we noti(.(.(l in tlap 1:J
t hook, "3"; of sudl wid(' diffm,ion 
and of such importun('e in (,;H'h 10l':lli,y, that h:,lf at I(,:lst of a Iristory of Catholic 
,_ in I'('gard to the hpatitmlt. of tllP pa('ili,', II1I1
t b(' dt'\,,)((.t1 to tlU'il' COII- 
sideration, In fact, it embrac! d millillll:ò of men <li"p"r:-;t'd m"PI' the e:111h, IÌ\'ill
united and paeifically, tl':lllqllil, lal>oriOlI:', ou(>(liPIH. and fTl'í'. 
That the mona
tic profp,.;sioll wa,.; :';YllOnymon,.; \\ ith a c1e"(It('ji It)\'e of p('a('c aIul 
of it...; diffll
ion, might easily be infel'l"l'cl from wllm w(' n1<'t with in tllI'la..t book. 
Thongh the ('omplete appre('iation of the 1
l<'t \\ ill I>(':--t be attained after con"'llId- 
iug- the prt':,ent, it may he weIJ to commence it hy ac1dllcilt
 to thp point 
expre..;s tl':-timony. .xu\\' from thp \"cry lIatlll'(' of tll(' ill:--titntion, its'lIctur:J 
argue that the ol
ect and re:,u1t ntll:-õt have been pacific; for" from uhpdience, 
whil'h wa') it:' key-:--tOlH>," say' ðt, John élimachus, (( "prings humility, and from 
humility a placid tranquillity of mind,"
 "6\Il pt.rtlll'hatillns," as Ci('cro 
remark.:, " arise from the will amI from an opinion."1! The 
 :-aj(I that tlleir 
fountain was intemperallce, :llld a departure from ri
ht re3sun. .According]y, 

· Annot. in Cælest, Hiel', t Annal, Camaldnl. Lib. 77. t lIi
t, de 1a GallI. 'Iérid. iii. 1'4-1, 

 Grad. iv, I Tuscnl. iv, 



in the part of the soul which was reasonable the Pythagoreans placed tranquil- 
lity, placid, quiet, and con..tancy ofminrl, The monastic rule requirin!! a life So 
eminently rea,,;ollable, aver
e to self-will, and the mfluence of private opinion, to 
impatience aud intemperance in every form, could not, therefore, but conduce to 
that trlle alHl p1acill rt-'st ascribed to those who embr'aced it 111 age.:;: of f:iÍth, which, 
as Pa5l'ha..;ills Rac1hert :;:ay:" "reason P\'ery wher'e c()mp()
es, a1111 the ser'enity of 
religion cllmmeml:5."* Accordingl.\', we find, that pPfice J
 represented as 
the chief characteristic of the moua4ic state. St. Ba:--il, St. John Chrysostom, 
t, ....\.1Jg'lIstill. are nevel' weary repeating that it is thi:oö, above all tlaiugt', which 
recolUlIlelhl,; it to the IlI1l11an race. So it contiullt-'d lo he in en.ry a
e. \Ye find 
a letter from th,. celebrate(l ahbot of Corby, \\Yihal(l) to the monk
 of Ha:'"ti
with thi
 superscription, " To the pl'ior and dIe hrethren of that place, Deo et paci 
militantibu:5."t "-hen ol)e of the cumtier:-; of the empf:'l'or Frederic II. wa
mo\'ell to embrace the monastic habit, 
[. Francis ga\'e him the title of Bruther 
Paeifi(', to cxpr('

 tÌtat he had e:,cap(>(l frum [he world's turmoils and pageantrie
Vin('ent of Beauvais, 01' his continuator, sty ling monks the true pacific, applies to 
them tlte epithet 
 in holy writ, of" 
ll)rious men, rich in virtue, studiou:; of beauty, 
living at peace in theil' domail/s, amI obtaining glory in the generations of their 
nation. "t 
c, Behold n1f:'U without contestation:,," exclaim:;; the Church, in reference to tho
\\ ho chiefly came from among
t tlJem, "true wor
hipper8 of God, keeping them- 
sel ves pure from all evil work, and continuing in their innocence," ":\IaIlY 
thing:-> might be said iu hi:o: prai....e," say:; a munk of Yiller:-:, of Charles, the eighth 
abbot of that house, in the 
eYenth centlll'Y, " but there is one of which \\e should 
make e
pecial melltioll-I hat never, from the day when he first elltered the order, 
òiù the sun :oöet upun his wrath; but, con:-;iderillg that he "as bound lIy the mo- 
nastic vow, he forgave, with the utmost benignit,\", all committed against 
him, watcltin; carefully over the purity of his con:oöcience and the tranquillity of 
his heart :"
 that i:" he realized the nwna:o:tic ideal: he \\'3S the type oftlH' in-titution. 
III effect, as the rule of the seraphic father ('xpres..;lr require.:', " nWI/ks or eyery 
order were to bp at peace with tho:5e who hatetl peace;" when they wellt tlr rough 
the world they were I/ot to litigate. not' to contend with word:o:, bnt to he mild amI 
pacific.II ".sow I c01.1II
el, admoni:oöh. and exhort my brethren ill 0111' Lord 
Jesus Christ, that when they go tlll'ongh the wodd. they :--honld not quat'l'el nOl' 
coutpnd with word
, nor judge other:o:, but that they should be meek, peaceful, 
mudest, tractable, and hurnh1e, gently speaking to all as i
 right:' They were to 
ha\ye a pacifit' heart toward
" who disturbed their peact', tuwards tho:,e who 
hatt-d Ju'ace. Of the I tacific , whosa\' with onrmoderl1 writel'
 ofthe Allu.licall schoul 
. 0 , 
that" in times of pea('e, with peaceful men, 1)0 temper of miml 
huuld be more ell- 

* Vit "Wa]æ. t _\p. 
hrtene, Vet. 
cript. cT Unn. cnllp.ct. ti. 4.30. f Spec. )101", i, part. iv, 

 flist. -'Iou. ''''-iJlar. up. )[a.rteue 1"'hes. ....-\.uec. iii. I Reg. S. Franc. c. 3. 


I (,) It E 
 CAr II () LIt' I; U HJ 

ed than that ,,'hich sI'ek:oò peaee with all men," the mOlla
ti(' t('acll(>I'''' have 
IHI1 a 
)(lor opilliuli. .. Though tht.)' reltller good IlII' 
()ocl. all(I wi
h to injul'l' 110 
OIlC," :-,ays::;t. Bt'l'Ilard, ., they (':llIr:ll'dyohtain 
ah.atiun."* Thl'
taII(Ial(l pl'ol'o
tu lIIoliks i:oò, that of t\\"o other ela
"l':- uf tll(' l't':ll'l'fhl-of tlw
e \\!ao do nut rt'IHler 
evil for eyil, hut who endure wrollg's \\ ith pati('lleE', ancI of tho
(' who n'IH.I.el' 
Irood ftll' e\'il . the ft,rlller as he :-a\':.-, l )()

t :-sing theil' 80111:" alld the latlt'I', 1I0l 
ð , , . 
(111)" po:-:,('s..;ing t!aeil' O\\"n, hilt winlling UdH'I':', t " Xo H'n'l'l' \\111"11 \\a... C.'\'( l' to 
l'apt' tllC'ir Jil':-'; fur their heart was to be at re:o-t fl'lIlII all (.nemic:, tu it-. 1"';1('(',"+ 

 were to he pacific within amI without thC'ir \\all.., tuward:"> p:lch IItlH'r, aaul 
towards the n'st of men. c, 0111' f:.1:.;(:-'," [o:ay
 Hugo of :;t. Y'j('tor, in Ilis (,ulllllll'lItm'y 
on the rille of 
t. .AII
I ill, " de) not ple:l:-c God a..; ItHll'h lh our ('01 1('0 rc I. " 
" Thl're is 1I0thing-," h; adds, ,. that Satan so I1lIlC!a fl'ar
 a.. thl' unity of chal'ity : 
fOl' if we distrihute all that we PO

(:-8 for (;od':, :-ake, thi.. tIlt' (Ip\'il dot..:,,> not fe:11', 
becall:-,e 11(' pu...;
es nothillg; if we f:l
t, tlli:, ht' clo('-; not tt'ar, I,pe:m..c he has ntl 
need of fuod; if we watch, he i::i Ilot alarnl('c:l, l)t.eau:-c he i:, :-lc'l'pl(...
; hut if we 
are J 'oiuC'd in charity then he g reatlv fears, bl'Cause then \\c hold fa;,l 011 ('arth 
., , 
what he di:'lla i ned to pre:oòel'\'e ill hm \'en." 
:-;ly fur till' sake of pml'l' awl c'harity, thp monks of Fulda, \\e read, were 
divided into decade..:, 0\'('1' whil'h a dean prt.
Ial't('ne remarks whal :-('\'('1'1' pt..naltit....; were (It'ert l'd in thp :lIlC'il'nt rno- 
, a,.; in th",;:C' of Froidmunt, again:-t all clis....l.millator
 of cli:...C.'orcl, wlloN.
offence wa
 a ('a
e 1'(':'('1'\,('(1 ft,r the abbot.1I .A monk IIf :--\1. .J ulm-tlcs- Yiglll'
, at 
SOi:-':,OIl:', ha\'ing ealullllliah.d Olll' of tll(' brt.tllI't'n, \\as ...t ntC'ncl'cl to kCi'P :-.ill'IU.:C.' 
fur a mOllth, and to cal'ry the holy watcr, like a'e ill till' 1)I'oc't'
III thc year 12
-l, a discord ari
 in the con\.ent uf 
Iolltc::;t.'rt'lIuJ TitIl'l'ie tlw 
superiur, in eUllllllOn ehapter, in holy week, pn>..cribec.l, in virtue of oht'(lience, 
that if any monk retaint.d the ll'a
t 1'3 II l'OI' again:-;t allother, h(' should ah
from cOllllll1lnion of the altar. ** The ehl'OlIielc of till' Cartlm...ians rélat('
 that the 
huly prior, lleury of Luu\'ain, woulcIuevl'r takt.. repu:;e in tlIP l'\'ellin
, if a ("on- 
tentiun arUbC between any uf the brethren, until he had re
tore(I peac
 ami tran- 
quillity, tt 
0\,('1' the door of the 4\.ugu:oòtiniall mona
t ry ill Fn'yhur)!, I read these word" : 
" Epee quam bunum et quam jllcundurn habilare frarr('... ill 1111um!" 
Ilf'h wa
the ilh'al generally realized in the ('ommullitit'S of tliP mi(IcHI' :Igc
The p:u'ifi(' (>1.:1I'3('ter of monks in thp intel'Ïor of thl'ir elui..tcr.s i"i di
plaYt.c1 ill 
a I'l'markabh. malHwr on all oet'a:;ion.: of ('lcdion..., whic'h \\"Pre 
o ('alculated to try 
its silleerit,\', The \'pry IICf't1 of an cle ,tion aro
c ill t\a(.ir j'I(I
lIlent from tllP ù('- 

ire of p('a<
e, \\ïtnes... the:-e \\"ord..; of elector:,. "It i... ('('rbin to all who kllo\V 

* De \ollversione, r. 18. t Ih. IS. t n. E,,"íæ ,\bb. Oint. x. Bib, Pat. xii. 

I'hanllal. lIi,;t. Fulclens. 1. I Voyage Lif. 160. · Bht. cle 
!<.onR, ii )fi:.t 
** Chrollic, )Ionli
 :5ercni up. )IcDckcllii 
('fip1. Her. Gcr, ii. 
tt Ðo1"lantli Chrollic. Carl liS. Lih. \ ii. c. :.\1. 

.-\(;I-:S OF F.\ITII. 


the fOllll(.btion
 of Catholic purity that the 
o1idity of the whole church con:ö:ists 
in p ':lce and I he sigll of ht'ing diseipks of Christ, in love, For 0111' Lord :-ay
in the 
o..;pel, . 
Iy peace I leave YUII, my pI ace I give to )'011;' and again, , By 
this :-hall alllllen know that YOII are my di:-=ciple..:, if you b:we 100.c ('11e to another :' 
t he t'efure, no one i....; a di:-:t'iple of Chri,t 1I11lc
s he is Eca]ed with the seal of hJVc 
and of peace; but this seal e:..\Illlot be illlp
 c,=-ed on any nn]ess on tho
e in whom 
is nnity uf will; a!ld Ih:lt IInity can ollly be' fou\ld in tllO:-:e who suhmit to Iheir 

nperi01'. Therefore, 1 he Author or peaee lea\'il1g no order in the church with- 
ollt a goveming prelate, 11:ls dt>arly tau
ht that ill no other way can tlH' fragility 
of hUII1:.l1l nature be rt'dll('E:.d to unity of spirit or presen'ed in peace. Therefore, 
we pnOl' brethren, in the lIIonastcry of Cella ßononi, after the death of Lord 
Garerills the abbot, ba\'e c!lOsen a certain brllther, by name Bernard, to pre:;:ide 
O\TCI' IIS."* 
Stephen Pa:-:ql1ier i::, struck with tilE:' provisions for the ]ibcl-ty of elections in 
lUonaslel'irs in ancient tillle,.;: he (.ite,; froll1 a charter of Charles the Bald, in the 
abhey of Tlll'UllZ, in the )Iaeonnois, tlH se word,.;: ""r e cOllcede to the :-:ame COD- 
gregatilH) licen:-:e of a1\\,'aY:3 choo:oòing [.,1' itself an aLbot, according to the rule of 
St. Bcnedict," all(I thi,.: !'entenl'e, whieh an archhishop of Rheim
, when he 
founded the ahbey of Sr. Peter, obtaiIH:.d fl'om Clm'i..; the Second, " that the monks 
should ha,'e powel' of electing a superior according to their I'll]e."t 
Lt't liS ht'aI' Guibert de XngE'llt sp(.aking of the de,ire of his friends to pl'Omote 
 own eleetion, [.)1' the 
entilllent-; he expre,:-:es W
1'e not extraordinary in those 
time,.;: " It afflicted me to hear that my rE:'latiolis should be endeavoring to ob- 
tain fm' me what was granted to other...:, who had no carnal help, but mt'rely the 

istance of God; for these relat,olls, in a('ting tlll1
; were providing not 
o much 
fill' me a:-; for tiJel1lsE:'I\'(

, I \ras delighte(l at being ]ittle: I had altogether a 
horror fi))' a place of power awl the shadow of '1 grt'at name in the world; then 
first I ll'arlled Wh:lt it was to have the intention of pt'rpetual poverty. \Vhat 
shall I :-;ay, 0 Lord, how mOIllt'nbry was that paradise! how :oòhOl't that quiet, 
how brief the sense of that f'weetne:-s! SC:ll"cely had a fi
w month:; paf's
d after my 
la..tillg the fruits of th.,' good" spirit, when, ]0 ! tIll:' new::; of my election to be ab- 
bot ofSt, )Iary at XogE:' nt-soli s-Co \ICY , fill('(1 me with dismay, as I ju,1ge(I my
the WOl'St and 11104 sordid of men. Alas! the little pl'ogre8s I had made in let- 
ters, alld m
. p,'ur skill ill teaching', had, it se
'I11"';, rentlered my elector:-; blintl. 
Good God !what \\"o!l]d they h:t\'e 
aid if the)' cl)llld have 
eell my intel'Ìor! Thou 
kIlOWt'st, 0 God, wlro hy all inscl'mahl(' }ulgmen( didst ordain that 1. however 
imprt.s-ed with a just sl'nse (If my (lllworthil\f'
honlll be Sf't OVCI' men so much 
l,ettl-r than mysdf, ,rll(>thel' God wa..; willing 01' IInwillin
 ill the affa.irs of my 
electioll I know not. Thi
 OIlP tllin.; secnrdy r call declare, that lowed it not 
to tIt,. atteml't
 made hy :IllY of my relati..ns. I was knowll to lIone of the elec- 

* Fulbcl ti Cat'not. Epist. cvii. 

t Rccherclws de la France, Liv, iii, 20. 


1\1 0 RES CAT II 0 LIe I; 0 H, 

tors, nor did J know any of them, From nllt kn'I\\'ing nl(' th('y I'(
!'(l('t .1 01" thr 
morc. On my arr1,'al tlu'y ('ullepalc I Hothill!! from m", hut with such a fhitllflll 
con fc..:!'iol1 d i
cJo...:('ò all their intel"ior that I, \\ hI) d11111
ht J ha I 
el'1I 1111111 k
where, certainly kllew of 1J0necomparabie to th\.:),'. Thllu kno\Vest, () n (I, that 
I write not this book throug-h arl'ogan('(', and tlut I wllnl.l confc,:-; in it all my 
iniquities if I did not fear lest I 
houl(l depr.l\'e the milld of m:11I.\' \\ ho \\OIIId he 
fille<l with horror at my ac:ioll":. 
\lId although my work
 arc- ('orrupt ami mi
el'3ble, 3S far as reJard..: myself, yet it is lIot hid lell frdm th"e how much my milJd 
was bent upon promoting the 
akalioll of tho..;e ",h"1ll thon clill...t ..ubjt,(.t to mp. 
On the d.l)' of my illstallation I 1)1'('ucllf'd 011 tllf' ,\onl::. ofthc p 'oph(>t, wlaid1 
were read on that SUlHlay lIt'xt Chl,i..rma,.;: (
\.ppn':I"n,Jc[ viI' far 1"-111 "uum 
dllfficstieum p:,tri:o: sui: '"PHtimenrlllll tibi e
t, princep:) e..:to no
tcl', !'uina anrl'm 
hæc sllb manu tua. E! rc::;polllle!,it illc: Non sum IIlc.licu,., ct in dom" m('a nOli 
('st panis neque \'c'stimentum: lIo1ite cOllstituere mc prillcipem. Huit cuilll. 
IIiems:llt'm, ('t J ud:ls cllllci(l it,' 1
'I'tlm ",h ieh wOl'.l.., I f'X pbi 11M the (luti<.-s of t ht, 
pastoral carc-that a rulel' mu..:t he u dOIll.,:-tic \\'l.1I ill
truet<'d ill thc ('hun'h; tll(> 
vestment is the hahit of beautiful exterior works, on account of whi('h 11t' is 111:111.. 
a prìnee, under whom the ruin of 
uhjccL:; e3nn.,t tJke pia..,: but he 1 ('pli('
, , J :nr 
not whllm you SliPPOS(', who can ('ur(' :0'0 mallY c,'il
. Y 011 Ldlol(l tllC' ('"t('rllal 
vcstment which yct is 1I0t in tllC hou
<.', h<.-mus.' the hahit of the milul i
 lIot tht' 

ame as that of thc Lo{ly. There is not P;tlICI' that da:l,\' 1>r<.'ad whi('h bi.rllifif'cI 
spiritual COliS .Iations, or that c()nfirmatiollof ('harit
" in thc interior lI1a:1 witlaout 
which HO one <.'an rule 01 he 1'''; well: 11<' r..fu 'e..:, therpftu'e, to h, a prince, for J f'ru- 
8alpm fall..:; that is, the expl'l'it>I)('C of in tl'rnal I)('a(',:, }wri ..:1 1t'': , aUlI .J U&I'" a 1,0 
f:11I,.;: that is, the confe..;,.,illn of sills Ùil..; thl'Ou::h dp..;pair, aft"r thc 10":": of intf rior 
tranquillity, which is the b..;t of all e,.il..., anI, tll!'refol'e, a just ('a!ls(' fOl' r('fusin r 
to uc a P:I:;tOl'."* 
It would be endless to cite c\'i(lence that IllPrit, without cOlltradiction from 
party or loeal pl'(:judices, was the only thin
 re!::mle.l in th,. pea(.ufnl plpc,tion:-; of 
the cloister. '''hen thp filliP of St. Ai
ulph's piety ill the 1l101l:18h'ry of Flt,U1'y, 
on th(' Loil'e, hall sprea.l far and widt', the IlNllk
 of L('l'ill.; :-;ent a dpputation to 
him to heg th:lt ile would 11I111el' thcgo,"cl'IIlllent of their abLey. Thi..: one in- 
stance llIay represent them all. 
'VitI. a view to p
a('e, plections wer!' 1I1a 1(' 
', s) that tlw n:wU'..: of thll,e 
who elected were not I.mown, which practi<,e we fillJ afterwar,l5 ('omm:md(>(l hy 
the holy muneil of Trent.t In the fref)ul'IH'Y of the IIl1anill1 )I)
 t'I.'cti0l1i of UH'n 
of sliperior nwrit, is remarkably (',"incecl thr pacific ('har.lctel' of "'ll('h pro('(>pd i IWS. 
Let uso!>>:,el'vP inslalleps. Tn l1S6, whcli th('ahhot 'Villia'u I'C...i
IIP(1 tlt,- ahhncy 
ofSt. Drni.;;:, the prior HIIOII \\':1"; d(.(.t,.d to :0:111'('\,('(1 him wilhout :t cliss(\ltti,'nt 
voice or the lea..:t 1Illll'IIlm',t On th!' ahllicatinll of Ihrtlllot, n<'rnhar" wasclectt.d 

* Guiberti abb. de Novigcnt, de Yita propri.l, Lib. 1. 
t CitroniqlJes de St. Denis ad an, l1

t \.xv. 6, 



abbot of St. Gall, aUlI tÌle Li
torian of that lllolla:;tcry say:", "
\.n t o gl>1 her, the 
old men aUlI the youths, from the fìr
t to the la:;t, the Lord granting a uuanilllOu,,; 
CIJUl1:;e!, with olle voicè cho5e ßel'llhard f< 11' theil' abbut. *" In 1326, John II., 
one of many in the :-<ame mona...:tery who po:-;:-:es
ed gèuiu..; of the first ol'lh'r, was 
elected abbot of Eill..iedelll without a dis:,eutient voice. Again, in 1421, at the 
genel'al chapter of the Franci:-<call orllel' in Forli, where there were pre
ent abom 
3000 brethren, ma-tel' Angelo of Sienna, a man excellent in 5ci
nce atHI iu preach- 
ing, \Va..; uuaninwusl)" elected geueral. t The religious orders weIllllldel'.:'b)od the 
obligation, of which, Pope Alexander III. 1'emilHlcd the Præmoll.:'tratcnsialls, on 
occasion of an election, that the rule for all was Sihil pel' cOllteutionem aut Îlla- 
nero gloriam,+ Kot to ob:<erve the great calm produced on the
c oCl':J!:;iou:-, by 
the celebration of the di\'ine mystel'ie..:, we may rf'lllark, that the elemellts ofdis- 
cord ha(l been extirpat.d hy deep humility alill a just appreciation of the nature 
of pr
-elllillence. "Bmther B
rn:Jl'd of Clain'aux, c:lllell abbot, which is but a 
little thing." )fen that could speak thu'i of their own dignities, were not likely 
to be angl")" cornpetitm's for tbem. Tne priors 3f Carnaldoli always style them- 
sel \'e
 "the monk and 
inne!". "
"Then it Wi!"; known that the venerable Angelrann was to be elf'cte<1 abbot of 
the mdllastery of St.. Richariu:-:-King Robert himself pressing the election, the 
holy man judge.! himseIf unworthy, aud preferred a post of hmmlity to one of 
pre-elUinence: so he lp.ft the monastery pl"Ï\"ately aud con('paled himself. The 
king, on arri\ying there, wa... toìa that the holy man had withdrawn secretly, and 
that no one luw\V wherè he Wil
. TIle king admired tllf' intention, but ordered 
that he should be sought tJ1' every where and brought back to him. The soldier:; 
were sent on all sial's in q ue:51 of him: at length, after a long search, he was 
found in the wood of Olnotliol in a deep solitude.II 
Chal'les, the eighth abbot of ,-riIHel's, in the seventh century, brother of the 
count of SP)'IH', and at first a di:4inguished knight, fled from the ahbatial dignit
but was at length compelled to accept it. He grieved that he should agaiu find 
him.;;elf invested with liberties which he had \\"i:,bed to renounce with the world. 
Aftel' many labour...; he obtainell lea\ye from the head abbot of Clairvaux to re:-ign 
his offic
, which had always kept him in gl'eat fear, considering the aCCdullt tbat 
he woulll have to render of his :lllmini
tration. " This man," said the abhot, " i
bonoured by the gr('ate
t princes, heloved through all the countt-y, nlO
t de:.!!" and 
necessal'y to his COllyent, and yet I cannot all
' IOllger detain him iIJ his dignity j 

o, being absolved , he retll1'IJ('d to the emhraces of Rachel wi
hinO' there to lie 
, 0 
hitldeu in IW:\(''', and 1 he l't'mnallt ûf hi::; life to in the ::,ervice of God, fulfill- 
ing the cloisrral d 's('ipliue"'

Hatpert de Origine et òiv. Casibus Itlonast. S. Gam. npnò Gol(bst, Rer, AI. 1, 
AnDRIes '(i'oro Liviense
 ap. Mm. Rer. Vet. Script. xxi. t Ap. 
Ià..tene, Yet. Script. ii. 

 AIID. Cama1d Præ.f. in v. tom, I Chmnic, Centulensis, c.2, ap. Dacl1er, Spicileg, iv, 

. Hi::;t, )[011. Villar. al). )Iartclle I'lw"õ. _\.nec. iii. 


I 0 RES CAT II 0 L I (J I; 0 H, 

A pacific charade I' was all c:o"
clltial (pial itic:uion in those who \\ cr.> to bc elected. 
Louis of Pari..., commenting tIlt' rule ùf 
l. Franc::;, :"l)':;, "The elector..; of guar- 
dialls ought to ehoos,' glWt! l'eii
ioLl" men, who l.)\'c 1)t'
H.'c fi,r ..IH'IlI..,el n'.; ami for 
others, who know how t) bear the ba-I hUlllDr of lheil. slll
l1Id to cOll1pa
siunate their fragility. Thp eledol'.... of pro\-ineial:i ought to ('hoo!-'l' IIICII \\!ao are 
"low to believe evil of othL'rs, alld who wll1 :-ec with (heir 0\' 11 ('yc.'s bt'fore tlll'Y 
eOllllCllln-lllen who are l' to hear bulh sillc-.,; who, through t'Xl"':-''Ï of zt'al 
and goodne,;
, will not believe th,)se, who, 11 Ullel' color of piety and gr('at l'xcÏh- 
ment, corne to tell them, a.;; a 

cret, the fault..; of other:, j who Jove justil.'C amI 
mel'CY, but mercy :-;tillmore than ju:o"tice,"* 
The tel'lllS in whieh lIlona..,tic :-uperio:.s 
UlnOllnl'l' theIr own (-,Icction nre ofb n 
\'eryaffecting, 'Ve may f
H'lll an idc:.L of Ihcir 
(>neral :-tylc from na(ling the 
epi:;tle of Pope Urban [V. to all religioll'; communi tie..., announcin
 his 0\\ 11 elec- 
tion to the primal 
eat. That lettel', Oil(> might Iwlit.\"p, h:ul hl't n writtl'ß hy 311 
angel, nut so IllUl'h on al'('ount of th > bl'allty of Imler that pcn':ult,s it, and the 
per:-,picuity of it
 vie\\, as to the origin of rule and th ' depth of thOlig-ht \\ hi('h it, amI the unbcn1ling resolution it ex:prc::hc,,; to dcft.lltl ju:;tiee, 3:1 from tho 
celestial air of pe:lce which 
eellls to e/l1anate fnull e:lch IlUlIlble, loving word, and 
the kind of ruu:-;ical delight which i
 in.,piretl hy it" calm. unprl'tl.'lIding, and un- 
earthly cloquence,t "
hen SUgCl' ht
lJ'(1 of hi:) own dc.'l'tioll to be abbot of 
Denis, the only illlprcg:;ioll he e\,inl'Cl.l was grief (or thf' lh,{,c
l'(l ahbot. lie wa:) 
Oil his mall returning from Italy, ill the mOllth tjf Fchmary, "hcn the Ile\\s 
reached him. .C ant' day," he :0":1)':':, .C heing \'cry (.a.d,\- to :-3)' matin:-, be- 
fure leaving the hotel where we lodged, [ pcrcei\'t.d,'I' tini
 my pmyel'S, 
that it was stiIl tllO dad..: to :,et out; "'0 I thrèw my,t.h' lJrt',:-.ell a..:. I was un my 
bed, to wait till da.". I ii-II into a tluze anti had a dr, am, imaginillg myself to he ill 
a skiff 011 the widf' (wean,:It the mercy of ra
illg- wan:', amI that i IHayc.'d GOll 
to deliver me 3nd contluct me !' to port. I 
1\'okp, alld filldillg it daylight, 
Wf' :,et out; bnt on the road I could thiuk of nothill
 hut my (, :uul I fdt ai 
if I were really threatenCl.I with sOlllegreatc.1a.Il
"r, from \\ hid. till' 
ul)c.lnl"::'\l1 (jtltl 
would deliver me; hut I 
aid 110t a won] to my ('01 11 pa II.'. . .\flt'r :-01 Ill' It'ague' 
we met a senant of the ahbey of St. Deni..;, who 
tl)ppcli on recognizing mt., ami 

howetl great anxiet y ' but inabilih' to S } )l'ak. At ICIJ!1'th h,> illfol'lllf d me that {In 
' " ð , , 
the 19th of the month, the abbot, Atlam, laad dittl, an I that two d..y...; nflel', tlae 
corurnullity being a......cmblc,l, had clcded me abbot hy un:1I1irnl)ll..; ('(lJl"'Cllt." SlIgt'r 
bllr::::t illt,) tmr,; through sorl'OW at the (h'ath of tIlt' h. .Iv man, who had rel'ein>t.1 
and nourished his yonth, so that :111 who stolid hy wer
 willle.......s how lie JO\'(.d 
The p
a('efulne:5s of ruona.,tic superiors appl'al'
 in their rcadine:-:- to rt:

* Louis de Pari!'!, Exposit. de la n

le fit's F. F. 
linf'III''I. c. S, 
t Ap, )lart
ue , V
t. Script. i. p. l

 \. G E S 0 F F.. \ I T II. 


ratIH'r Ihan di:;turb cou('ord, fake an in
tance relatell by \VilIiam of J1IIl1Iège. 
., _-\. pilgriltl on alTi\'ing at CY(l1'lI:-õ, elltf'r;o; a certa:n ('hllrl'h of 
t. Xicllolas, where 
llc pro..Hratc
elf in prayer hefure dte altar, and ill the mid
t of hi.... prayer 
remlel"s up his 50111 to God. The inhabitant:; of thp i:,la11l1 di"co"t'r that this holy 
pilgri III wa:) the vcnerable Th iel'l'i, abhot uf:3t. E\'ruIII, who had abd icated It is 
dignity in con
eqnence of difficultie::; uppused to him, and who, as a child ofpeaec, 
had rcs,>h'ell to go to Jeru:,alclll, They buried hilll with hunors in their chllrch.* 
Tbe abbot of St. Victor, at 
Iar:;eillcs, in 1217, made a visitation of the'y 
of V' abrcs, and in the accoullt which he wrote uf hi:;; proceeding:;; there, says, 
" ;o;inc(' we knew that a grie\'ou,,: and almost implacable di:-õcol'<l hall ari:;en be- 
tween the abbot and the brethrcn, we touk care to admoni:;h the former, that for 
the :::ake of peaee, he uught voluntarily tn abJicatp; and he, receiving our ad- 
monition, humbly aud devoutly, not caring for temporal hOllor5, but witl. Paul 
de:,iring to be anathema for his brethren, willillgly yielded up the place."t In 
the last hook we had occasion to cite many in:-,tance3 which provf:d how truly 
pacific was the conduct of religions men, in their intercOlJr:,e with the world. 
:\Ionks, ill general, were men such 3S a modern author speaks of, ,; who detf'stetl 
the !'trife of tongues, wh
Ill all noises tli:-õcOJIlposed." The Benedictine hymn for 
rs, each Friday of the year, wa:; a supplication for the peace of the world. 

U Da gaudiorum præmia, 
Da. gratiarllm munera, 
Dissolve litis vincula, 
Adstrillge pacis fæòera," 

" Although to all the faithful of Christ," :'3Y
 Pope Alexander III., "we are 
bound to provide for the adruini"tratiun uf ju
tice, yet we are so much the more 
to atteud to the cause of mouk
, as it is Je:-,s pL'Oper for them to engage ilJ any 
litigation.":!: Di5)putes respectillg pl'Opel'ty, t(>r example, were never :;uffered by 
an)' who had regard to their profe
:,ioll, tn lead thplll aside from the paths of peace. 
Let us a
ain heal' the ancient writer
, who de:-;cl'ibe them involved in slIch diffi- 
. ,. Lord Pete 1', abhot ofClairvaux," say
ar of Hei:,tel'bach, "had but 
one eye: he was a holy mall in deell as well as ill name, au imitator of the apos- 
tle, \"ith him and his brethren a cerbill kniu'ht contended ('oncerniJ)O' !'ome 
property: the day was fixed for their meeting, in order eithel' to compose the 
differenæ or to go before the J ' udO'e. Tile klli<rht came with hi:;; frif:nd
 amI the 
abbot with only one mOl
k, 011 fi)Ot, like himself, 
imple and holy. The ahbot 
being a lovf:r oÎ peace and poverty, and a despiser of tran:-õitory good
, spoke thns 
to ihe knight hefì)l'e all :-' Y 011 are a Chri"tian man. If von say that the,;:e 
goods, about which there is this coutention, are yonrs and ongl;t to be'your:-::, I am 

* Lib, vii. c, 26, , 
tAp, )!artenc, Vet, Script. xi. 838, 

t Ap" 
[artene, Vet, Script, CoHo i. p, 1130, 


I U H E 
 CAT II 0 I.. I C I; 0 H, 

content with yonr h'stimoll)'.' TIll' Idlight ('a,'il1
 m.m' the 
ooll,.: than (.)r the 
truth, all:,wered, 'TJw)' are, iudeed, minI',' 'Tlu'n Il't tlwm ht' )'ollrs', r('plif'(l tlIP 
abbot 'I will not claim them 1II0re.' 80 he retlll'lle(1 to Clain'all
. Tilt' klli
\\ent back to his wife as a eOIl<]lIeror, alld toM h('rall that had pa
'ed; bnt 611(' L 'in
tl.rrifi(.d at word:, 
o purl' ami :-imple, 
aid, 'YOII 1'3\'(' d('alt trt'3dwroll,ly witÌl the 
huh' ahhot. Di\,ine \'eng-e:lUee will plllli,h us, LTlllc'i )'011 1"("tOI'(, thl ,I' gllllf),.., 
VUl; :-hall ha\"e uo ll1or'e ;C my ('omp:my.' TII(' knig-hl wa, :-tl"ll<'l.: with rt'uaor-t' ; 

ù he,' I1t to Clai,'vallx, 1'('1101111('('11 the 
OOf)S, ami bt.
trt d f
H'6i\"t'u(',,,, rhat 
Llt-:; mall in the time ofollr:-enior
, visited thi..cloi,tpr: \a(' \\a.. ofnohle hlolld, 
beillg rleated to Philip, king of ..Fr:lII('e, who \\"a.. a great Im"('I' of h.,I.,' 
ity,"* "Collstantille, 3 monk/" 
uy.. th(' 
:1II11' :iluhm', "rpbtt"l to 111(' that wh{,11 
he wa=" 
tlldyillg' at Pari
, John, ahhot of;,t. Yi(.tor, whll was a G('rltlan, It:1(1 to 
appeal (.H' jlldgment in all :,lIodial cau
' b(.twecn him ami c('rtaill grc:ll nobl(." 
who hrought with tlwm man)' expt".if'n('e(1 :ul(l 
kilflll bwyer
, "ho plt':!,h,tI :1t,..t.inbt 
the monk:", while Ihe abb"t 
at simply, withollt :llIl'
 a wf)fll in rt'ply, :"'0 that 
he ::5eel1lell 1Il00'e illtent oil pray('r than 011 tlcf IIdil1g his cau..t'; which th.. I\.illg 
ob,erving, s.1id, ' Lord abbot, why do yuu :'.:1)" nothing?' 'ro whom Ilc all:"'\H'l'l.'tl 
meeld)':lml with gn':it 
ry ]01'<<1, I know not'"hat to ...ay.' The ling, 
much (.difit'd, th{>11 :",aill to him, 'Hl'tllrl1 to your c1oislf'r, :JIIII I \\ ill :,ptak fin' 
you,' ,rhen the holy 1I1an h:ul with\lrawn, tilt' I
ing !<'aitl to the klli
ht, · I 'com- 
mand you, 011 pain of f()rfeiting my gracI', to gi\'e no !lion' tI'(Hllt1t, to thc holy 
3bbot:' amI 11m.. the ('ompl:.1i nt.. of the mOil k
 Wt'rt' fin:llly 
1H:cl"::Ifu 1. "t 
l\Ian)" chart..; e
i:o:t ('olliaining' the ee:"'biOIl of right:-. hy alJhot. t.. prelatc., fill' the 

ake of pea ct'. Thu
, in ll:)k, rl){'I,t, :Ihhot oft;t. 
IidIa .1, 
'i('I,I:", th" daurdl of 
St. Christopher de Colignola to \'"Illano, arel,bi:-õhop ofPi':l, I)(,."('au!-t' it i., wriut'n, 
., Spn?os Dei liti
are non debt'l'c ;" allil that it i.. 1)('01)('1' f.u' tilt' rectors of \'t'nera- 
ble places to pmvide I'ather the thin
:i which art> of IH',H'C alllilitility, and thai ill 
this instance the eontm\"cl':o'ip.. <,allllot h.. s..t at rest \\ ithout great :",(>an(131 3m) 
olll:" and therefore, with the ('IIUI1'('} of hi.. brethren, he mal.lo o\'er all his 
In the allnal
 of tile ahbpy St. C'r(.pin at 
:)oi':-ons, i.; a singular lIarrati,'(' of a 
trial ill tht' t wc1 fih ('Clltllr.\', wh ieh a fte I' I1ml'l. pl(':Ul1l1g', wa.. rl'ferr(
 I h
' tilt' J I'oit 
fOl'3ill oppo,.;e(l to tl1(' canon law to the i'''lIe of a JUf'l. Tl.e .\bh,)t TcuIf, who 
\Hites the a('('0I111t in a clJ:1.1'tpr of the \,par 113;), '3"S, ., that in ortlt'r to prcH'l1t 
- , 
it, he antI the h1'etl.l'(>11 <.}(,(,I'('ed to sNtlp it hy eompromi",\ in whieh tllP ahl)(.)" 
waved its rig-ht during' the life of the partif'
." TIlt' horror 31111 (1is
I1:o;t wilh \\ I.ich 
e\'el'Y in
tance of a contrary eonl)l1C't in mlmk.. wa.. rt'
:trlictl ill th., mi(llllt' ag(", 
mig-ht alone 
nffi('i('ntly pro\'e ",h:lt W3.8 th" j!l'l1pral praeti('e. ..\ 
atil'i..t in tl.e 
end of the twclfth cel1tury complainill
 of .,ome law proceedings by the monki of 

* lIJust. .Mime. Lih. vi. c, 2, 

 )lurat. .\ntlq. It. tom. iii. Exccrpta Archiv, Pisani. 

t Ibid, 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II, 


Gl'audmour, proJuccs them :.t..., a legitimate rea..,un for refusing to join theiL' COIll- 

.. Erg.) quid est, qnod lwmo qui vivit ut Angelus intus. 
Pulsatur totiens ext
rioro foro ?" 

Of the Cartnu:;iau8,ou the contrary, hl: t)(l)"s- 

.. Ad fora non v
niuut quo litem scite resolvant, 
Nee populi vauuUl d
p(lpulantur Ave,"* 

Ter'rible is the letter of Peter of Blois, to the abbot of 
Iarmoutier, for having 
cited before the tribunal..:, the prim' of ðt. Cu..:ma, OIl the sl11
ect of ('ertain lands 

Ul,l pastm'e:;, which he cbim
<l f()r hi... mOIl:l:-,tery. "If you would attelld to the 
\'OW of YOllr profes..;ion," ht' ..;a
',.; to him, " you wOllld :-,tud
' the thi ngs which are 
above, not those which are on tIlt' earth. The 1'en'ant of God ollght not to liti- 
gate, bllt should rathel' siltfel' him..:elf to be deframled. It wa..: not Lecoming in 
a man of such au ortlel', whose COI1\'eL'sation was thought to be in heaY(
n, to liti- 
gate ftn' ea.rth. Far be it from a ...pìr'itual man thu
 to affect e3l,th, Of Y011 it is 
writtPI1-Ü ye SOliS of men, why will you lo\'e vanity and seek a lie? For a 
11)(1 t
:'lll..:it()ry is the po..:se.;;;..;iol1 of this world. I 
aw yon lately in thp al1di- 
ence of the at'chbishop of Tour:-; litig-ating for the:-3e bnd
 anI) pa4l1re
 ; and r 
grie,'e ,hat I saw yon ';0 forgetful of all religion and deC'orulll a;:; to tnrn all to 
, and to become a l:l1Ighing-:;;;tock to all, iU5tead of exhihiting in you\' con- 
ten:Ul{'e awl m:lIIner the mona..,tic gra\'ity. Y 011 threw ahol1t your hand:-:, you 
leap,.d forward, you di...torted yom' whole face, in:'I1Jtill
 the poor prior with a 
proud de:neallol', and ..:hollting out with a nautie clamor. But He who dwelleth in 
heaycn, alhl behold..; th"' humble, will 11eliver the poor fl'olll the mi
hty, So in 
hatl'ed of your (liS5nh'ed amI most troubled :-:tate, the prior was that day ab
X eVt'rthele
:" there remains [cll' you a h(':n-ipr judgment, and a day more to lw:-u:,- 
pected, which will pllt an end to your litigations, which to the :-,c:1Ildal of the monas- 
tic proft,::;o5Ìon, you now exerci
e in eyery COl1rt, For that readine;:;s ofa ]itigi o l1" 
and injurious tongue, the day of death which threaten:, your white head will de- 
mand Ven
ea'lce. You\' flesh is cOIJO'e:tlilJO" , . \'our Jimb:; are 
tiffelling- , . \'0111' 

. ' . 
lung:; are laborin g ; ,"0111' li p s are slaverinO" your e,'eo:) an> O'rowin
 dim; "OUl' 
.; ::!::j' .. .. 
fact> i,; becoming pallill-:,o in a little 
pot of earth there will :,oon be dn
 a grave 
f()r the ...inn..r; awl a torn!. shall be hi
 hou:,e for e'-er, until 
hall corne h'r- 
rihle day which will rendo->r to e\
el'Y man ac('ording to hi:; work
. Cease then 
fmlll thing..; which wound ('on..;cience
, E-canda1ize the Ordf-'l" and de4roy eonl.;:. 
They \\'ho litigate fOl" la.nt1
 or pasttll'es, are unworthy to he placed in the land of 
the li\'Ïn
, or in tlte place of pa4nre,"t 
To dIP pminently pacific chal"actl-'r of thosE' who folIowe(l the monastic profe..- 
sion in agt's of filÌth, we might cite innumerable direct \\'imes:3es, and pl'Oduce also 

* Sententh Brunelli d
 Ordillibus Relig, ap, 
Iartene, Vet. SC1Ïpt, vi. 
t Pet. ßle:;. Epist. cxvii. 


I 0 }( Ese A T II 0 L I (' J; 0 H, 

ample te:-,timoll)' from tlIt' tl)ml'5. This i" ill fact, the characteri:tic. 011 Whic
l all 
writer:, of doi:-tl'31 bil'
raplty :-ccm to la)' thc grl.atc-t :-tn.-.... 
t) rJ.('odol'J(', a 
mOllk of St. Om.n, dl'(li('ating a work in lüt30 to Xidwla..., abbut of IllUIl:l'- 
ter)', addrc"'::;l's him ill tilt sc [erJ1l

.. P,ltri siuceru, tl'anquillli pace sereno.". 

\VLat muitittH1es arc cOll1lt1emoratl,d in tlIP X ell,tI'ia Pia, aud otlH'r 
imilal' worR", 
as having been, Jike Heillaldu:" Hbbot of Prl'aIlX, c, full of pacific goodrlt'--."t In 
d)p chr'>llide of the Carthll..i:lIl"', tllp author', :-'pl'aking of tl.e priol'l"Ò IIu
o, BI'r- 
nard, Riferiu:" Gerard, \riIliall1, 1Ienl')", John, Fram'is, _\ntol1)", :l1H111l:my otlll'l'-, 

llI11S up their prai
c h)' :-a)"in
, h ill nil wh, ':-t" hrea-t... }J('arc auù 
n('<L"+ In Jike ll1:l1IrlPr, it i
 chil'fly a!o' thc \\"1 Irshipppr:o' of p' :1<'(' tll:)t \\(' fillil 
them comllH'll1oratell on their :',.puldll.e.... Tllll- on the tomh of .xicola
 Ill. ab- 
bot of 
t, Ouen, in the thirt"enth century, we re311- 

.. Abbas paciticus, hllmili.., piua. atque pudicus, 
, lJlaguificu
, fratcrnæ p8ci
Prudcns, facllndll
, pl\ticn'J, p:lcis<Jllc :o-t'cllndu8, 
Non ('1\ qure mundus qUtlfCns, A criminc mUD(lu9,"

The epitaph of Roger, abbot of 81. Evroul, \\ho dil'll in 1126 (,I1<1i with this 

" Paeis amJ.tor erst. rogo nunc in pace qllicscat. ". 

That of John Ingel', prior of 
t. Barbara, in XOl'manlly, bear.. thi

Emulus hic p..lci:. ' .. 

On the tomb of IIenry, ahbot of St. Laurpru'p, at Lit'
{" who died in 12,:>8, amI 
was bnried in the middle of the ('Iloil', \\l'I"(' tIH':-II' lilll'''- 

" Ahba<; IIpnrkus nigrorum flos mon:u'horum, 
Largu!l, pacific'u,. præfuh!cu... l:unplulc morum, 
titjæ cultor, \cuiu: paler el pil.I8tis:'''. 

On that of William I r I., ahhot of Be<:', we fl'3<I- 

.. )litis, IIIUllifi(,II!
, p,llicns, ct pacis amicus-"tt 

And, on that of Fardnlf, abbot of 
t, HI ni:-;- 

.. Tranquillus, placidus, p'omlus arl omDC bonum."U 
Thus the \'ery seplllchrl"";; of monk.. wert> mad(' tl) ('on\"('\" a I('
"'on pnforcinO' 
, , ""' 
the }wculiar ohlig-atiou of their !"tate of life to b.-. placi(l, tranquil, Hll'rciful, and 
pacific, But t Iwse prel ill1in3r)' ohsen'at ion,.;, thong-h ncce
"3r.\', "'(','I1} to he I(':I(

* Neustria Pia, uiL t Ibid. .311. .. Oorhmli Chronic. Cart. iv. :?ß. 
 Xcu...tri L Pia, x... 
'Ibid. J23. · Ibid. 730. *.. 1Ii:.t. 'loD. 
t. Laur. Leo\li(ni. ap. '[arlene, YI t, :--cript, iv. 
tt Pctri DivensÏ:; de GC!"lis .\bh:lt. Beccen... ap. hI. vi. H .\p. t.I. vi. 

AGE S 0 F .F A I T II. 


ÌnO' lH back to O'round which detaine(Ilh to wearin('s,;: in the }a,t book. PI'esHm- 
b b 
illg, therefore, that the reader i:-; already pn'pareù to admit the justice of OUl' \'iew, 
ilJ reg:mling 1ll0nasteriei3 :l:-; the abode..; of men 
() Pl1linently peaceful a
 to 1"f'1)(1el' 
a particular examination of their eflects indi:-,pen,al l le for the complption of our 
hi40ry, let liS proceed at once to a lIew and ma:;nificent suhject, and endeavor 
to form an accurate e.::;timate of tbp.;:e wonderful institutions, to thf' paC'ific excel- 
lence of whieh all that was !toly and illustrious upun eart}l, in days of the high- 
est intellectual glory, tIt-.lighted to bear witnc,'s, Our object i
 not to giye a 
scielltific expositiolJ of their hi4nl'Y, which can be fOllnd in other 
Ol1rces; but to 
become practically familiar with the effect
 which resulted from tltem, that we 
ma\' be ablp henceforth to feel onr;:;eh'es as at it were per:oõunally acquainted both 
with the place' themseh"e:;:, amI with the men who inhabited them, with those who 
as Dante says- 

.. Did bare the feet, and in pursuit of peace, 
So heavenly ran, yet deem'd their footing slow."* 


 HAT was monastic life in gt-'neral ? and what did it imply? It wa
. simpl
' a Chri,tiao life, according to the precepts ao,1 conusels of Ch ri4, 

 a('coflllllodated to peculiar circnm-taUl'<'S an'! wants which are incid"ut 

 to some Chri:,tian" in all nge., of the world, and under e\'ery po,:o:ible 

 variety in the development of civilization. It implied a},o the fe,'vor 
and devotion of the fir
t age", in,.:omuch that e'"en the most bitter an- 
tagoni4:ì admit, that " in the b()'(>m ofmon:\steries in the twelfth CeniUl'\' miO'ht be 
. ð 
foull(l the au:'terity and :-incere piety of the pl'imiti\"e church."t That community 
0()(1". for in
t:.lI1ce, which original1y characterized the whole Christian 
but which certainly was not intended to be perpetual in a ] iteral 
('n.;:e univer5aIly, 
was ob,el'ved in the mona
tic orders, without leading tn any injurious re
In them it remaillPd af[(.r zeal and eharity had grown cold el:ìe\\"bel'e, 
md also 
after it would haye been impo,.:sihle to htl\"e realized it in tbe ordinary !"ociety. Pe- 
tt'r the 'T enerahle, abbot of Cluny, 3C'cordingly exclaims-" "
hat else is it to say, 
Omnia quæ hahes (13 pauperihu
, et ,-eui sequere me," but ., Become a monk."! 
The monastic ]ife, therefore, implied pO\-eIty, or the renounCPJ)}('nt of personal 
ession::i : and in expbn:ltiol1 of their sentiments on this heaù, th
re were not 

* Par, xi, 

t C3pefigue, Hist. de PLil. Auguste, i. 39. 

t Pet. Ven, Epist. i. 28, 


)1 U 11 E SUA T II u LIe I; 0 J:, 

\\ anti ng those who, to the nttermo,t, \\'1'1'(\ vowcd to he f
,I! 0\\"(,1'.. of t "(Ii r (1i\"i 11ft 
.:\fa:4el', Peter of Blois rcmarks, ., that few rich II1c'JI die \\"))II,3t thl'ir dc.'}'a: tllle 
ii'om this life, do Iwt \\"i
h to ha\'c hcell 1II0,t poor."* There \\cre ill trllth 
many cOII:,ideratioll.; whil'h rec'omfl1cndccl pO\"l'rh r to t}w lIIolwstir ]í'gi..latll1".;. 
The love of povcrty of the FrauI.i...e.Ul.'3 :-0('(\1)1"; to a J" 't'lwh hi..turian to " Ilan> 
been an effort to escape alive from the ronditions of thi8life, from the scr\"itu(ft
of matter, to conquer amI anticipatc hcr
 ht'low the indc'pí'lHlelJC'e of a pnre spirit."t 
II 0 how gr('at1y is honest povcrty to he c.]rßired," e..
 Alanu de Iu'uJÜI. 
It To many, riches arc an oh
bc1e to actin
 well. r'o\"t'rty i-; ('\'('1' n acly '-('- 
cnre. If yon wi:òh to :-;er\'e God \'ou must lw cith(\r poor or like the poo!". Si 
vis :òen'irf' Deo, aut panpt'r ...i.... OP1Il'tPt, :mt P:lIIpcl'i simili:o'."
 E\'(,ll ill t}w all- 
('ient world, as C:mbn remark
,'" all Pl"ofi.,:;..ecl lo\'('r
 of \\i...cIc'm "Pre poor; 
Plato and Ari:--tutle h;t\"in
 he('omc ri{'h only in tllt'il' bU('I' y(ar..."
Bur to rt'hu'J), ,rritt'rs of tIle micIclle ag's ')IOW" tllat th,. 1l100Hl..tif' \\:1" truly 
an apo:òwlic life."H ..\.nd, in (let, within tIlt' ll101l:Ish>rit.s \\ ith which Enropp Wa!i 
tLen t'overed, the manners of the prim.itive ('tnrl'h \\"pre 1'('1, d IIlId..r the 
peculiar cil"('nm..t'l1}('e
 aho,"c :"pllk
n of, \\ hich we shall prC':--clltly ('xplain. 
Hence, Richard, ar('hhi....)lOp of C:mterlH1ry, in the rpi
n pf """r
. 1 I., \\ ritill
 Ci:itt-'I'l'ian..;, 'ay::ò Cl It is tilt' \'oÍI'C of all 1111'11 tll tilt' I'l'uft "PI'S (If tll" C' ,t('r- 
cian ordel' keep the foot
wps of npostoJic religion in J1)oc)emtiull of food and 
raiment, in watching', in confe..siolls, in di
ipline, in p
alll1()(h', in humility, in 
hospitality, ooolience, amI in all oth('r fruits of 10\"l
\c; for the t'xtemaJ di...- 
ti netiun-l of mon k
, theil' h:lhi t.., hour..;, allt 1 mo,)('S' of I iff" F'h.u r
" shl)w
 t II:1t t}lf !-(' 
were 1Iot the invent ions of ('3. pri('t', hnt mere1 y t ht' ren1.\i n.... of :lI1f'i"11 t Ill: I 1111(''':Ò, 
pre:5el"vt'd thron
1a a
es, whilc the rc.;t of the \Vor!ll ltacI nnclC'r
on" a proc1i
('hangt'. The habit \\"3.... hul.\' fl'olll the pI'aYCl':o' of the' ('hllreh :Iud :-anetit)' of t ho
who wore it. A eon\'prsion of the heart tt) God W:.lS, thut'fort>, th,' primary nntI 
the pe<'uliar want of 80lllP Ch..i..tain
, tile S('(-'oncbry <'311"'C of al1 r('li
iolls unI. r
('xi:-ting, "That of the Carthll
ialls," SlY:ò D.. 'frac')', " O\\c.. its orig'in to a llUly 
cUll\'ersation het\\"ecn 
t. Brunu anll t\\"o of his friend.. ; thc month of the just 
\Va:; thus :--ecn, 8S tlae Scripture ùeC'lares, to bp a ..ource of lif("."** 
)lonastic life may be also l't>prt>..;ent('(1 as a I'c..torntion of tlw primal 
t:lte ('If man, 
with the F:ubstitlltion:, rendcl'el1 nc('c,:òary hy tIlt' fall. So in tl1p {'hronicle of Fon- 
tanelle the Renedietine rule is tllll.; (pmlifiC'c1, ":-otahH \'it:c inno('puti..; sc('unc111111 
eximii P. llt'ntdiet inormam."t1" ".\. ('oun'nt of rpligiou..," :--3)'8 Hllgo of 
Ylctor, "a congrt'f!3tion of monks, io; a paradist', ha\ring the b'ec f)f life in tho 
midst of it, yielding 
hade and fruit, that is, Christ 
i ving lifc."t
 nut it is that 

* Pet. Bles. Epist, lx, t Michelet, Hist. de France, iii. 

 .-\ lan, In, de Artc Prædicatoria, c, 4, 
 Carc1nn, ùe Cnnsolntiune, Lib, iii. 
I nllpcrti .\.bbor, Tuitien
ig de Vita vcre Apostolica, aI>, 
r.lrtene, V d Script. tom Ix. 
.. Pet. Bles, Epist. lxxxii. .... Vie, de 
t. nl UnO, 
tt In 
Idb" Præf. in 
 Scanl. Bcn, 
 1, a Ex 
l"scellun, Lib. iii, tit. 60, 

 U}i' F A IT H . 


state still insecure and requiring defence. Therefore, St. Bernard says, (( oUI 
order is humility, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost: our order is silence, fa.o;;ting, 
prayer, labor, and above aU, to hold tIll' "lOre excellent way which is charity." * 
St. Anselm defines it in still fewer worÜs, baying, (( the object of the monastic 
discipline is purity of heart, and the end eVf>rlasting life," t "But were not all 
Christians, whatever be their state, called to perfection?" as Hosmene says in 
the beginning of his maxims, "and might not the cloisters have sheltered men 
of very different intentions?" Assuredly, would have been the answer of the 
middle ages. Therefore, as Antonio de Guevara says, "a perfect man makes the 
world a monastery, and the profane man makes a monastery the world. ,. t Still 
t11ere were reasons why there should be monasteries, as we shall see in the issue. 
The church had, from the first some persons who aspired to follow the evangelic- 
counsels, and who were styled ascetics, from the Greek word which signifies men 
that exercise themselves. Though they lived in the midst of men, and were dis- 
tinguished only by their more austere and regular life, they were, in fact, the same 
as monks.
 The monastic institute, in its regular form, is traced to the persecu- 
tion under Decius, when multitudes fled to the mountains and woods, and were 
so enamoured with their peace that they refused to leave them when t1le pCl'secu- 
tion had ceased II The monastic life began to be callen a religious life from the 
word relegendo, either because monks continually read again the things relati ve 
to God; or, as St. Augustin and St. Thomas observe, "because they were bound 
together by peculiar ties of charity." For at 
east two centuries the monks were 
not ecclesiastics but purely laymen. St. Pachomius sent none of his monks to 
receive holy orders; and his monasteries were served by priests from without. As 
Peter of Blois observes, "Paul, Antony, Apollonius, 
Iutius, Hilarion, Paphnutius, 
both the 
Iacarius', and Arsenius, Benedict, and other men of blessed mf'IDory, 
were never made priests." ,- It is no disparagement to the monastic institution 
that the 
ustice of many of the views on which it was founded had been recog- 
nized and enforced by sages of the ancient world; the fact is certain. Pythagoras 
and his disciples at Crotona led a life in community, and were styled in consequence 
Cænobites. .. The Pythagorean life required community of goods, a noviciate, 
piety, erudition, silence, abstinence from flesh and continence, tt Of course, the 
gulf which separates all heathen from Christian philosophy is ever the same; but 
still the former very often laid down principles which wanted only the founda- 
tion of the Jatter to be identical with the monastic views. Such are many of 
the precepts of Epictetus, tt and the distinctions of Cebes, where he shows how 
many phiJosophers, and poets, and orators, mistake the false for the true discip- 
lille, and that the two guides which enable men to attain to the rock of true dis- 

· Epist, cxlii. t Tradat. ascetic, S, Anselmi, ap, Dacher, Spicileg. iii, t Epist. ü. 
5 Bened. XIV. De Canonizat, Servorum Dei, 152, " Joan, Devoti Institut. Canonic.. 
Lib. i. tit. ix. ,. Epi
t. cxxiii, .. Jamb, de P).th. vit, 5. tt Ib, 6, 1\ Manual, 20. 80. 


M U R E 
 CAT II () J
 I l' I: 0 I:, 

cipJiue ßI'P continclwP and t'Udllfall(,(\, two si::;ter:" who 
tanl1 011 tlu> 
lIrnmit and pn- 
cOlll'Uge tllO:-e who tlttempt tll mOllllt, 
aying'," Elldurp hllt:a littlt. more :.llld )'OU 
win find tht> :1SC(>nt ea
y and 
afe." I1i- dt':-('riptioll of tIll' t'lItl':IIU'l' 10 thi.. way 
mig-ht relllilld one of ollr old mOlla4i(' hllilding'
, " Do YOII 
('t' that littlt. duul', 
and the path to it heal'ill
 no mark:oò ufha\"illg ht't'n trodel..n hy mallY. That is 
tilt> g'J\tP." Plato, with this )'<,-t'IT:ltioll, i", :lI:oòu 1I111rhllg-hl,'- 1l101Ia",1 ic'. 
\:i \\"1)('11 
tIe :-8YS, "thlit thel't
 out ::i blUaU uuwLer of well l.."Ollsoctiug \\ ith phi- 
losophy in a worthy maUllt'r j "iu('h D.::) eithel' matrnanimou..; by nature look down 
upon the dignities alld atlàirs of die ...1 ate :1.- hcw.ath them; Ill' el-e a... a1.:l1ulon -Olllt' 
.other art wh ieh tht'
' had It.arnt'i I, hll t wh i('h till',' now dl':5pisI' i II e'ompal'i
on \\" it h 
the love of wi
dom, ami wile) theret
Jre c'ome to it,"* lie :-ho\\:-- that fUt'lI who 
are accu.4omed to tht' ...hadt's of the e:n'th an' illeapahll' of 
II-taillillg c'I'I,.:-tiallight, 
..lIId, 011 the cOlltrar)', that th\l:íe ,\ ho:,e con\"ersatillu i
 in lit a\'t'li h.,'' hol
' life 
find the knowll'clge of (he lIlali(,è of thi:oò \\odd III::::-uppurtahh>. :\[03( remarkahle, 
indeed, is the similarity l)t.t\\'eell tile :-pirit of he IllOlI:lstit' ill...titllû> am1 th:lt iJe..!1 
awl Jefillitillu of trood whit'h W:l8 allulJulll'l..1 In' Cle..lllthes ill the line:; ret'orLtt.>d 
by St. Clement of Alexaria :- 

Taya(Jòy lpoordç /.I' U;OY iðr'. (rKUVE ß;,. 
rErcr.yuiyoy, Ó,AlU()I , I;ðwl'. EI;ÚFßi;, 
KparUVY icr.vrul'"=, XfJl/dl/.lUY, At< \
. , rliuy, 
aV6T1/f.JÒY, cr.v(JÙ.:ltdl'tI.', FlF, 61'"fj)EfJIJY, 
ãrpoßoy, àtv1Ttll', Av6'TfÅ;
, (r. ooc5vyoy, 
WrpÉA,UUI', ElJ(lpE6rIJY, (t.ð(þ(( \l':>, (jJlAoy, 
iYTluUY, óIJ,\tJYUÚlll"IJ. - 
ÚJlú\Ei;. I( r VCPtH , hrutF \i
, rr pet 01', dt;Joðpòy, 
XptH '
I;IIEI'OI , (rUFII1CrUY, cr.lFl ðltlUiyoy, 
åYEAEV(JEPU; rrà; ûdrz; E/;ðú.;QI' ßAÉ1CE1, 
00; ðl; 1Cap' iKEiYl/; TtV;EÚ/.lEYO; "'QAoy l'lJ'ó;,t 

AuaUlluuiug, how
vt'l', the.,t> ub-t'rvatiun-, It.t liS inl!"ir(' fl'olll Christian monu- 
ments, respecting thp \,iews aud IIwti\'t.s IIf tlio...e who founded or ellibrat't't! the 
wOllastic ortler, wllo themselve:oò chaIlell
ecl inqlliry illto its origin, "For as 110 
one," says Sah-iall, "does any tllin
 1I1111'SS till' tilt' 
ake of :-atet)' or 8eh"antage, 
80 we IIndertake this mode of life hecallse we thillk it COIIVCllit'ß[, reflccting on the 
shorbw:-:b of I west>nt and the dumtion of future thilwS c'oll-iolerilw how litde are 
:" l:' 
the first, how gl'pat the lattt>r, that Ihf' jlll1glllf'lIt will I)t' trt.nwmlolls, alld till' lif
with God and Hi:, saillb most hlis-fll1."
 ,. "r e considt.I'," NlY
 all"thl'r, " the 
narrowut's., of the g;lte, tilt' numht>r..; who pf'rish, the dan
ers of th(\ world, ot"its idle 
cOIl\'er-atioll, of its mall
' trial..., and tllP comparati"e 
t'Cllritv uf r(,uoullcin
s f,lr Christ, \Ye l'eflect on the impol.tane'eof :ts..o('iating witil the> hol.,', & Da.\"icl 
said, ' Cum -aneto ,...:mctus pris, et cum vil'o inllo('cllte inno('pn
 : ('urn plt'l'to 
elec'u!) C'ri..., cum perver,...o perverb>ri..;,' 'They rt>markl.J,' as Caroinal Bona '"'3"8, 
'that the ahundance of ('ares and soli('itudes which ml1
t 1)f>lolI(!' to nil who mix 

1ft De Rt'pllh. vi, 

t Protreptictls, c. vI. 

t :-\alvi:1ni 1'lIullth. Lib. :.. 



milch with the world i:, all ob:,tacle to that de\TlJut contemplatioll in which they 
wished to pa:s.s their lives j' "* a remark not ullnoticeù e\'en by the ancient poet, 


Ai 6i CPPEYWY rapaxal 
llapÉ1rÀay;ay "at 6otpoy,t 

The Venerable Bede oh:"l'rves, "that a further obstacle was furnh:hed by mnch 
conver"ation with peopl in suclety."
 " Experience pl'Oves," says another, "that 
the soul, dissipated by the curiosity of seculal" thiJlgs, can with diffil'ulty re('ollect 
itself and return to tllf meditation of heavenly thmgs."9 Thp reply made to 
Charles VII. of FraJlce might, with the change of a word, expre:,s that of monks 
when their opinion wal3 asked respecting the life under a standard formally op- 
po:,ed to theirs' "On
 can't lose one'
 ('I'own with more gaiety." St. Bona\Tentura 
sa)'!S, "that he who is ;oade() with tf'mpllral thing...; cannot readily fiJ])Ow Christ. "II 
Now the following Him, whllse IO\Te is the iõOUl'ce of all beatitude, was the most 
important of all occupations in theil' jllligment, Their strongest conviction is thus 
t'xpressed by Dante: 

"He hatb in sootb good cause fot" t'ndless grief, 
Who, for the lovt' of thin!! thflt lastelh not. 
 himself for ever (If tl1at loye."-U 

They renounced, therefiH'f>, tIp former love, and in the c10ister sought peaC'e 
from a\l concupiscence; for to their i't:lte almo
t alone we may truly apply the 
poet's word, 

"Hæc est 
Vita solutorum misera ambitione gravique,"** 

Hence, an those injUl1('tlOn
, a
 in the commencement of the rule of Fontevrauld: 
" A í"æcu1i actibns se facere a] ienum, nibil amori Christi præponel'e."tt Hellcf>, 
these congratulahons of St. B
l'nard, "Yon have done well, alienating YOUl'self 
more and IHUI'e from the acts of this world, which i8 pnre and spotle:ö;s religion."t:t 
"The fil'
t e.õ:peci:II cause of all monastic life," 
'8 a writer of the fifth centnr.'T, 
"is the desire to avoid the occasions of sin, to declare war with the pen"erse world, 
-3nd to he delivered from the danger of its 8nare:;;,"

 Tn f'ffpct. by thpir triple vow, 
the monk:, extracted from themseh"e
 the ro()t
 of all disnrdl'r,.; that fill the world 
with discord, the conf'upi
('el1ce of the flpoih, the concnpiscel1f'P of the eyes, and the 
pride of 1 ife. To extirpate these was to uproot the germs of war and misery from 
the human heart. 
Let us hear the reflection
 of l\fæh]er on the ascetical life suggei<ìted by the 
work of St. Athanasius on the life of 81. Anthony: "Continence, and an indif- 

* De Divin, Psal. 502. t Pinel. Olymp. vii. f De Templo Salom. 

 Joan à Jesu instruct. :Magist. Novitiorum, I 81. Bon.Meditat. Vitæ Christi, xxI. 

 xv. ** Hor. Sat. i. 6. tt La Reigle de 1'0rdre de Fontevrauld, chap, i 
H Br ist . ('cr!xxxv. 
 Commlt.atio Zacbæi et Apollonii, Lib, Hi. 3, 4, ap. Dacher, Spicileg, x. 


1 L) R E::; CAT II u LIe I; 0 H, 

fereuC'e fc,r toe goods and plt'a
 of the earth, 
ublime girt... of some s(,uI8, and 
in Iheir will, the power, or at !P:lst, :III ardt'lJ[ e , to hreak th,. bOlld"i whidl at- 
tach liS to a world t hat p:lSS"
, have 1,e(,11 the fir,t t.lelllellb of mOlla:;t il' I ift'. By 
IIH:,aIlS of d ivilU.' gral'e the :-.piritualm:ln pl'edomillatf
ttl'it a degree ill the-t-' pri v- 
ilegt.d sOllis, all\l thl')' are drawil with such t
'r('e to\\ards thill
:-' Im("lallgt
and holy, th:lt the Uflllds which att3.('h them to the thiubs of thi
 \\ odd arc hardly 
felt; ill them th" =-,priritllal :III//II
t entirely edip,t'" tilt' alllll/allile. Their life i:, hid- 
den with .Jt'SII"; Clll'i
t in God. The expre:-sioll i. 1I0t t'Àat't \\ IIt'lI Wt' :-3)" that 
men ha\'c forI/led thc re
oliltion to di::,engagc thelll-ekes hy Ùt'
 fruln the uOlIlI
whi('h atlach them t, thin
... temporal, ill order th:lt 1 L1l'J' lIIay mllrt' fn'd)" OCt.'IIPY 
tht'lllSt-'h"es with thing... etel'lIaL If .hp)" do 1I0t IlIan'}' j if they (l1I1
' t..llit-' tilt-' 
nOlll'i...llIuellt which is ab";lIlu1cly nccl':-õ,.;ary; iftht,y hll)() t1u'II/..t'ln'" at a di:-õtall(,(, 
from the pll-'asllre..; aud \'anitit,s of tl1l' world; it is lIut hl'('au-' tlu'y h:1\'t' I't'cog- 
nized beforehand that th
c are þ!fJ"Ù meall., tll rai...e them:scIVf' to Iwdl'Ct iou, 
Theit, mauner of lifè i
 I,.:-s the can-l Ih:111 the l'4j'....('quellc. uf the pl'd
.('tIOIl \\ hil'h 
:-:hine", in them. rhey 110 "01. Lani
h terre...trial thoug-ht.. from SUIII... ill order 
to find r.'om for eelestial tholl
ht.;; but all plal't' h,.ing :lIt't.ady Ot'('lIpic."CI h.\' tht....r, 
it is impo.,sible tH' the fc)flll
r to find al'Cl:
. IIl'rl' tl.('n WP leal1l to l'
plain the 
origin of the first rnt'nk
 ('aIle I tht. :lS(.('tics. Tllt'y did lIut illvt'lit tilt' :-pil'iltlal 
lifp to 6)fJn an oppo:-,iti'IIl 10 lite \\'hllll.,' sPII..II:11 life of the' majol'ity. Tht. :I
were distingnishe,l hy a prllrol/lltl kl/o\\'ll'd
e of :-31'1'('(1 tl nth
, aud lay a 
r('at piety 
oftt-'n al:so (in con,t-'<!ueuce of the purit." all.),:tlt (If th"il' mill(1. alltl tlf their 
eIe\'ation abo\
e the external i"ßl/cllct-'
 \,hi"h [I'ollble ami ,,",,('un' th" illtdlt,('tllal 
t:'ye) by a just apprt-'ciatioll of thillg'''; awl by a ('OIlSIIII/IIIßtt-' pl"lulcllce ; in fìllt-', 
80metirnt'8 b)' mir:U'ulolt..; gift..:, hy the P"\\'t'I' (If hcalill(! IJul:Jtli(.... in a "'lIpt.rnatnral 
malillet'. of di
pellillg demons, a/l(l of pn'(liC'ring- t!IP flltlll'p. Xow lIlali i., lIatl/r- 
ally i"din,.d to venprate what is pllre,, an.) 1101,\'. Th('
.. lIlollk
 were tlWII 
regard",1 as the friends of God, and the ('/'O\\(1 1'1" "'St.'tl frulll nil :--id..
 to approach 
them, aud oftell came from di
talll c.'ountric.'s, This i., tlu' =--t:Hc.' of thillg'''' (It.s- 
cribed by S1. Athanasius in hi
 lift-' of "'t. Allthon)'. The Înllahit:iIlÌb (If I/(,:I\"ell 
d to he desceolled into the ('I'lls of .uoulltain...; th,.y ('hallh'd, t!/t')" C'uhi\'at('l) 
s('iel/c('s, they taught, they prayed, tllP." rt:joi('t-'d ill tilt. g-Iory to ('OIt1l', the)" wor!;:('() 
to do gIlO.), an.1 they :ulornp(1 Ii\'t.s by friend
hip a/1(1 clliword. It \\ß..., mt 
it Wt:'l't-', a C O l1l1tl'Y 'l'parated from tllP re!'t of the worlc), a kill
c.lOItI of pif..'ty 
Iicl'; to injure :111)' Olle, 01' to HI/ft'r inju!'}" frolll any out', \\ ere two thin, r :; 
eqll:t1ly unknown, A multinulp of mtUlks pt'oplt.d tilt. l/t.i
ht.., bllt all WCI'f' oJ/ly of 
une "0111, anll c1esi red ont Y out' thing-their sam.titi(':Jt iun and d)f.i I' 
:Ih'ation \\9ho_ 
eVt'r \'i..ited these cell,.; of tht-' asel'lie.; awl C'ol1tt'mplated tllt'il' livt,
 IIII!!In to ltavp 
crif'c.I, ' How lovely are thy pavilions, 0 .J:/('oh! :lIld thy tcnt..., 0 I,.;racl ! Tlu.y 
are like tile \'aJIey:, which :Jre ,..pread to a di'hIU'P, like thp !!m'dt'n
 Oil the banks 
of rivet's, like the taherna('le:-l !':Ji..('c} h.\".J t-'ho\'ah.' ,,* ' 

* Num, xxiv. !}. 6. 

AGE::; 0 F F A I T II, 


" To be a philo
opher," says Cowley, c, is hut to rPtire from the world, or 
mthel' to retire from the world a
 it i:-: lIIal)':-:, illto the world a..; it is Gnd':-;,"* 
The lIIolla,::,tic writers :-,ay no more than this, " Populus slIlu,.. hahitaLit et illtt'r 
gentes nun reputauitllr." ,,
\.. grt'at pr:,isc, brethren," adds Hugo uf ðt, V ictol'. 
after citing thp
e wllrds, "",hell the peoplt' dwell alullc, and are not rep"ted 
among the mHion:-" all of whom fc,llow tile de:-,irt's of the flt-':;h ami the glory of 
the world."t "There is the world, of which God is the Creator," R:I
.!- Ri(,ha1'l1 
t. Victor; "llHlIJdn
 pt'r ipsum factus e
t : 
t1Id there is the world. Ilf which 
God is the Sadour ; sic Deu... di]exit lUnllllum, m Filium :-,UI1I1t uuigf.nitlllll (brf't : 
anll there is the world, of whieh the devil i
 the prilu'e, of whie'h \\'t-' read, no}ite 
òiJigere mundum."t It was of this la
t alone that the mllnastic life implîPd the 
rellOUII<,emeut, " To fly from Babylon, in it:, Jangn:tge, :IS in that of the pl'O- 
, meant to fly frlll
 lIlt' city of tltis world, from the slldetyof wickel} m! n 
and angel,.;,"
 This is \\.hat St. Berllard had in \,iew when h(' crie<i, 'c Fly frllm 
the mid
t of Bahylon; flr, al111 sa\'e your sÜlI1S," All the rest wa.; ollly t'r 
grt:'att'r spellrit), ; 'C {;,r thp)' are risk:-:," <t:"Ì hp proceeds to 
ay, "f()1" inno('ence in 
delights, fOl' humility in ridlPs, for piety ill bllsine:-:s, fc'r trill I. ill loqua('ity, for 
charity in thi:s pen"Pl'se \\"111'1.),"11 Tl'ue the mOllastic life illlplie 4 1 I't'treat, en'll 
from the world in which l'olitillUt'd many of the elect; hut {;n' many souls this 
wa:oi ne('I'
::oaIY ; and there are not wanting modern philosophel's who have ac- 
ed that it was, "Though a wise 111:111," says Cowley, " cOlild pass ne\'er 
so :o'ecllrely thr.mgh tilt-' 
reat road, of human lif..... yet he wi1l ml'pt pel'petllally 
with so lHany ohjel'ts amI occa..ion..; of g-rief, 
halllP, all
er, hatred, illdigll:'tilln, 
aud all pa
..;ion..;, that he Irad hettt'r :-:rl'Îkp inlo :-:ome pri,'ate path, nar, go so far, 
if he coulù, out of the common way, 'ut nee Íàeta audiat Pelopidarum,' "';- In 
the ßlollaSlerie5. more than ill the fanns of ,-rirgil, nwn werp deli\"ered from be- 
holding the 
dfail's of empire, alld the fall of kin
d"ms ; there they might li\"e 
ill peace, lIeithel' lamenting their wants, 1I0r envying those who had pos:-,e...;:-,ions ; 
seeing neithet' the iron laws, nor the insane forum, nor the dpcrees of senate..;,** 
'fhy are devllut Chri,tialls to he despi:-:ed fOI't'xpre..;;o;ing dt'sires whie'h are ad- 
mired on the lips of Cowley ami V'îrgil? The Catholic pbiposophy admittt:'d of 
no such inconsistency. Cowper, indeed, even in praisiug retirement, adds, 

.. Not. that I mean to approve, or would enforce 
A superstitious and monastic CIIUl'S

To enfol'ce it no Catholi(' pretPl1ded; but in what the distinction C'onsi!ts which 
rell<lel's dlp mOIl:l
tic retireltwnt :10 Px(.pption, I bplieve it would have pllzzlt'd 
him to tt'1l. c. BE:'atæ a1l1'pS qnæ \"ena..; di\'illi 
cipiunt, f't de mundi 
 ;o;u!'urratiouibus nihil ad \'ertullt ."tt Such \\"a:; the mon:li4ic principle. "A \'erÌ!' 

* Essl\Ys, t Scrm. lxxvi. 
 Ric, S, Viet. super Apocalypsum. Lih, Hi. 8 

. .\ug'ust, Civ, Dei; xviii. 18 I De Conversione. c. xxi, -: E
8a.}'s. ** Georg. Lib, ii. 500, 
tt Dc 1m. iii. 1. 


M 0 RES C A T II 0 1.1 C I; 0 R, 

Ol'ul,,::; JIleos n" vidl'allt \':lIlitatelll. Elllltte ltU-,'C11I tualll l't veritaÌl'1U tualll:' ðll<'ll 
\\".1::; the 1ll'I1l:'bti,' praycr, and " IIcvcr will I l'l'a'c praying tim,," 
ld,i:; Hidwnl 
of Sl, Victor," till \'aIlÎty hath pa

c<1 ami light hath 
llUllc."* III tilH', the 
Illollastic life \V:l..; a redlll'in;.; to pml'ticl' tile lll)':,tery of huly 
atunla)' ; it \Hl.i 
 life hi,hlell ill Chri
t; a p..rpt'tuation of the festival in,titutec..1 by bt. 
Pall I in tile Epi...t1t' read oil that grl'at cia)'. .. )lortui ..nim ('sti
, et vita Vt.
ah"coll,lita e.:;t cllm Chri...;to ill Dt'o." Thc mOlla...tic 
ilell(,l', that profë'lllld 11:.111- 
quil aC'llli
l:cllce ill a life of ab,lt.g.ltioll allli of ill'l'u
ibility to humall prai:o.e or 
blame, saving charity, wa.; a liCe so l'ulltrary to tllat oC th" wurld, that it midlt 
tl'lll.,. be ('omp:lrt.d tel till' qlliet a III I l'C.'p'ISC of the 
ra\'(). But it \\'a
 a tl Ul' lift: : 
" Ct'lIæ et Clel habitatio co
t. ßpl'lIanl, " qUOlI K('ritUl' ill 
, Iwe c..;t in celli:;. Q,ui(llIa'll l'st hoe? Yacart' I>
'O, frui Dt.o." 
The m<ln'lstic life, we JIli
ht ha\'e a.Jdt'll, impli('(l ('eliha('y ; \\ hi('h a... a Fn'lI('h 
D'Hl1inic:lII ob:,cl'vl'", wa..; 1I0t dIP iun'lItioll of lIIollks; it l'J\.i...r,.(1 hl.f(,re thcre 
Wf>l'e IIl'Hlks, alld they 0111.'" mi:-i(.(l it to tilt' ditrn;ty of a virtlil': but h:a\.ill
 ill a 
'1I1'm 'I' hook explainell tilt' 
 'IItim"lIt:, of 11)1 n n :lgl'... of faitIa, \\ hll I' '''Pl'CIl:d Ih;lt 
ùis,'ipline in regaL'd tu the ('Ierg-y at largl', tllel'e wa.. Do IWC( ..;
it)" tur our dwell- 
illg UPOII it here. John Ger
oll, in hi:-i (Ii"('ollr
l' up"n dlat slatt', rt.flll(':-. in a(l- 
vance all the objectiolls that I.a ve bel'lI un.
(>(l in I aftt. I' t II III s; a III I to that u n- 
allswerable tl"eatise tIao..;e wIao dt-'lUalul fnrtlH'r ar
IIIUCltt lIIay h, refent'll. t 
Chl'ysostom, it is true, hall already don' Ihe 
lInp, ,\ h"l1 lap t'XRm iltetl \\ ith l')' S 
fixed upon the eternal wol'lù the happit-':,t and most J:lIIC{" ...ful lift' of tllO
C who 
Wt're lIot callell to obsel've it;+ hut furtlwl' ('itatioll
 an' IH l'llk,.. ill ,hi.. 1'1:1('('. 
ut vain 01' voi(l of truth," ...ay:-: 
t. Bl'rn:lI'll, "i
 tlaat fi,nn of Ii fl', .,
in the cloister it implied days pa,&,d in th,' comemp1ation of th · hi
hl'st 'ruth, 
and of itleal gl'altllellr, a conver..p with the glori . altd 'oleltllliti' of nnivt'rNlI 
nature, thou
ht.; of sagps :111.) h(>r(}{'
, 1IDIIlixeli with milloI' thin r.., the fier)' ('Olt- 
 of activity. fin', a...; we shall 
pe, lahor wa..; of()hli
atioll, :11)(1 at tlit'salllt' 
time, what cou1tl hardly perhaps elsewh('re be unÏtl-'t! with it, l,loll(IIt'.,
of mind, uninterrupted pedce. 

* Ric. 8. Viet. Annot. in. Ps, rev. t Ol'r!inni OPl'fa. lnm. iii. 
* 8t, Chl'ysost, Tract, de Virginitate, cap, xxvi. 
 De Converpione, xxi. 

.\ l-ì- E 
 0 F F.A I T II. 



FTER solution of thiR first illqnir)") we :-ïhall be a:-,ked by those who lack 

.... &)J. experiellce to dirt'ct tll
m, ill their old errur:"') blilld, to what pllrpOi'e of 
ility 8erv
 the Illollastic orders? For lllauy tha.t al
e. now 

l w

(i't.... --. dl:-;tm'ted VISIOII, are l )el::mad
d that they were valli, Jf lIot pennclOU:, moO 

 ' G'" 
-I-.'i I :-;tituti()n
, fc ,llmving the !'ophist...:, who, lameutiug that the times of heathen 
philosophy are past, 
ay, in allnsioll to the Å('ad('my, that" the walks 
which:1 divine genins had immortalized, were abandoned to the most deceitful 
3S wdl a... to the mo"t u!"eless of men." And, indeed, rightly (10 they say thilt 
the monks were n

, if we llnder!'taml and U8e the di
tin<'Ìi()n pointed out by 
the <õ;age whose geniu... they extol, who 
:tid that the true philo!'opher:-: are u<õ;eless 
in the state, adding, "hut it is not through their fault that thf>'y are llsele

, since 
it i
 through that of the evil men, who do not make u!'e of thern,"* Although it 
will be neces...ary to ha\'e :lrriv('d at the end of the present bOllk, to ullder:,tand 
completely the u:-,e of mona
tt'rit':-:, we ought not to pro{'eed without elldeavoriJig to 
ome reply to a question that i
 snre to he urged from the commencf>ment; 
fc)r which purpose let uo; endeavor to discover what an
wer would have been im- 
mef1iat(-'ly given in a
ps of f:lith, bad such an inquiry been made. 
It is reeorded in n10ll:lstic hi401'Y, that St. Bernard coming to make the founòa- 
tion of the ahlwy of \'ïllf>r..., in Brahant, mu1 looking down from thf> mountain 
upon the gorge in whi('h it was to 
tand, !':lid, " In this place will many 
oul:, be 

aved." Snch wastbeutiJity whicb he expected from it. No\\' 1hi
 was the ('hief 
and primary u
e of mona
, :\('corcling to tlH-' judgment of men in age!' of 
faith. I II them many sou I... ''''.cre 
avcd; pl:lc(-,cl a ncl rt'tai 1\('<1 in harmony with 
God and man, in tbat <1iville P"8CP f!'OlIl which in the last book we tra(,f'd aU 
f'8rthl.,' peace. Thi
 i... heautifully f'xprl'ssecl in these words of 81. Bf'rnard, whi(.h 
we filld usuany inc:.:crihecl on some conspicuous p:lrt of t he Ci
t('rci:lII ab"..ys, 
4' Bonum (':-,t no... hic ('
se, quia homo vivit purim::, ('adit rariu
, ..urgit yclflciu
dit eautius, qllipscit ;:;ecl1riu
, nwritur felicills. pnrg-atur citins, præmiatnr 
copiol'ius." Thc hJe

ed Otho bishop of Bamberg, ('onfe

or and 3po
tle of Porn- 
eralli:l, being- :l
ked f:Jn}ilial'h' hv 
ome in 1150 whv he foullded and huil, sO' 
. . , , 
many mona,tl'l'if's, l'f'plied, citing thf> evangelic:ll parablf' of the Good Samaritan,. 
who cOIn-eyed thf' \\'ounc1f'd m:l1J to :m inn, m1(1ing, " Thf> world is a11 a place of 
exile, and as long as we liw' in this world, we a
'e a: :I di4allce from our Lord., 

:to Plat", De Repub. Lib. vi. 


.\I 0 l{ Ese A T II 0 LIe I: 0 l

Thcrdole, we need ilU)
. Tllt'sP :11" tht'll of grt-at utility to us poor 
wanderers; and if \\e fall a1ll0ug ruuucr
 aud arc btript anù woulllled, aUlI left 
half-dead, certaiul)' wc :;hall find uJ (>xperiencl' how 1IIuch bettcl' it is tu be ue
an inu, thau at a di:-otancc fi'om Ollt:'; f
,r wht.n sudden dt'..trllction ('11m, up"n II
jw\\, can we ue carritll to a :oòtahle if it h(' tal' uff? &> it i.. I11I1('h 1,..'((cr that ther
should he Illany such places than few, s"l.illg ho\\ i:-- the dan
('r allli how 
large the uumber of per:;olls t.xpuscd to it; uud nO\\ c:-pt'CiaIlJ that JI)(,II art. so 
1IIultiplied un the earth, it is uot ausurd that 1II0IUl..b-rits should Ix> 1IIuhiplit"(I ; 
since the abundant populatiun admits of IIU1llhl'I'S elll 1.1 at'illg a ch:t:-t(> lif,., Finally, 
it is we)) to have these uuilt, that in all thing's \ì,l(lllli
ht hl
 hunlln"() allel 111.111 
assisted; and how 
fl'at is the hllnol' to God aile! the utilit.\. to 111:111, \\ hic.h (bil)' 
l't:'sult frolllllloua..tcric:oò? The :,piritllal i
c\'t'n grl':lh'r than till' t('rnpom) utility; 
II' there the bliuù set', the lamc \\alh., tIle Icl'('I':- arcc,lean::s '(I, the d('.ad an' r-.ti..('d, 
and the poor ha\'c the 
o....pel 1)I't'at'h("(1 tn them."* 
Xut, howe\'cr, [0 prl':-i:-o IIIt'U with a\'owals \\ hit'h would in an iIllitant rendpr evi- 
dent the iuutility of 0111' atteuding fl.lrtlll'r to t
ir o},jt><,tioll:O:, It.t 1.1... dt':-t,'uHI frllm 
this elevation, amll'ntlea\'ol" to :-olIow by oh\'iou.. I'la
tms, drawlI from principlt.::, 
which all will :ulmit, wh)" :o,1.Il'h imporrant J'('..,lIlts followltl from the institution of 
tile monastic ordt'I'S. 
III the first place, then, the a(h'anta
lS of a life in community, õb ..t forth hy 
St, Basi], in his J!'rpat ru]c:", are 
I't'at amI ill('onh..
ta}'lt'. That lift" on;> of" 11." 
I'ights of mall," as well :I:' a \\ant illt'idl'nt to humanity, t'tHTt'SPOIHh.' \\ith un in- 
t:'ntimeut of our natul'e, \\ hid. :,hrillk.. from the 
II' (le:,('ri},t'tl b)' a 
t!reat modPl'U writel', wht:'re he 
a)'s, that tu alh'an'"e towards till' 
ra\'t>, gl'owing 
each ùa.\' mure amI mOl'e i:-olatCtI, is the lot of maIl. _\ ') JuuLd" '.. it is in the 
ent :lge, when the pa-i:,ion of individuality dt>vours th
 human heart. HO\'V 
.cliflerent is it fmm that life in a Illolla:-ih'ry,:oòo ht'autifuIl}'(le:-;cri
d hy::5t. Ba:-oil! 
The Srag)'l'ite remark('(l the want which human natllre felt for such :I"':o.ociation, 
" )[ell," he sa) s, " love to ùo things in cornpall
' witla otllers. The)' ]O\'t" to tat.e 
t:' together, and to philosophizp togt.ther; and it is with friend' that they 
wish to pass their days."t 
" Those men," :-ays Plato, "who are of the be:o't naturl'
, ()e\'otc thellbCl ve:s to 
('(lIItillenre and friendshi p , con\'er:-;iuO' with men olll\" and livin g witholH marri- 
o . , 
age, but being Ru::;ceptihle of the must fil'l1l alld indissuluble aflèction for 
ul'h ai 
81'P of a like natnl'e, fl'om whom the\" wi:oòh ne\'er t) be :-ot- I )arak..1 throlwh lifi.' 
h t hey are IIc\'er ahle to :-o..y what the)' wish to happen to each other, \\ hile 
it i..; e\'ident that their !'(mls are fillCiI with 
umc dt'..;il'e whit'h tlu'y art' lIot ahlt. 
to t'xpress, :111(1 that they di\'Îlle \\ hat i.. dt':oìirable. .\IHI if \'"'1111':111 sh'lIIltl ('ome 
to them with hi..; illstrumellt:o:, and .";:1.", '0 111('11, what i;;; it that you wish t'lwuld 
happen to each of you?' and if they :-ötill dOli hting, he 
hlll11d again ask, ' Is this 

* De 8. Ultoue, Pommer:Ju. Apo,..tol. Lih. i. ap. Callk Lt.{,t. .\uliq. iii. t Ethic. ix. It, 



what you desire, that YOII should he IInitf'(] hI!' ever, and ne\'er be 
eparated frum 
each other? f(,r if thi,.; be your de,.ire, I am willing to nnite you, Hot only as 1(l11
a"5 YOIl Ji\'e, but in sneh a IJwnn{'r that you sball lIot be :-'f'paratt:'d e\'en after 
death,' Iwaring this, it b certain tÍlat they would :-et:'IH to \\"i
h for nothill
ant] they would fet:'l that thi::; \\":tS what they had long desired, till- ('au
e heing in 
that aneient primal naÌlIl e of man bef:IJ'e he wa:-: i:,ola r ed, to \\ hich the higlw,.t 
love re,.tores them, yielding them mall)' belH.fir
 hlr the presellt, and the 
 h)l' the fllture, iu...piriug them with piety, and makillg thl'll1 happy amI 
blessed.' '* 
Xow if the natural reason of men eould tbus appreciate the ad\"antage..; of a 
common life, how much more will not the Christian wi:,dom e
teem it! for as 
an English author says, " it may he truly affirmed, that there was lIevt:'r allY 
philosophy, religion, and other discipline, which ditl so plainly and highly exalt 
the good which is cOltlllHmieath'e, ana depre...;
 the good which is pri,'ate alld 
particular, a,; the holy faith." Hence we find the association of pious men, who 
ga\'e themsel ,'(.'s to retreat and prayel', aros
 in the first days of the church, and were 
spread wherever the gospel wa:-5 announced; in allu
ion to whieh 8t, Chry:-,o

ays, that \\"hoe\"pr h:l
 l'enoullcl'd eal'thly affections or posses
ioll:;: for the disci- 
plille of Christ, in ordel' to a(h'ance more ill his love, on Ihat :l('count will find 
lliOl'e who will I't'cei,'e him with intt'rnal afff.'('ti"n, :lIId rfjoit'e to support him 
with theil' 
lIhsbn('P. The :mgf-'I of the :-,chool pl"tlnflUllees this selltellce, "1\lall 
to act wen \\ allt..; tlw :lssi,tan"e offriend:" in reg:u'd to works both oftlse ae\Ïve and 
ofthp contemplative life,"t "Ill a community," 'ays Thomas à K:t-'mpi:-õ, " a mall 
liv(.s more ; and if sometiIJJe... be i::; trouhle I by Olle, on the other hand he is 
conRoled b
' another. There he is excitt:'d to good b.,' example, and warned froID edl. 
There he fillds persons he can lo\'e; the cell"''' re on another is :m admonition 
to himself: there ea('h on p gllards the otht->r. Th"rp art:' di\'er...e officp:-, and olle 
of charity. There tilt' sound \'Ìsitin
 the :-:ick rf'joice:"i so !'-elTe Chri..t ill :'0 
doing; there one being- weary of attendance, allothel' :,npplie..: hií" place. Thel'e 
while one reads, m:m)' are pdified ; then} each one ha\'il1g hib weekly ('Ollr:,e, they 
all are mutually rf.'lien>c1. There a mall ha
 many to pr:l)" for Ilim, aild at his 
la..:t moments to l )rotect him aO'ainst the dp\,il, I here he ha.. a..; mall \' IlP1 I )mates 
o · . 
 Ii(-' has l'omp:mion
, There he happil.\' slepps in tilt-> LOI'd, and ha<; many in- 
tt:'rcei"sor..: to delin.r him the sooner from purgatory: there after death he leave
heir..; who will he mil}()flll of him: there hi..; labor and goond conver:,ation will 
not be forgottell, but wi)) pr"fir m:m
' in fìlttll'e timf's I()r un example. There 
he participates in the merits of all: there he li,"es f()1' a time with those with 
wholl1 he will hereafrpr r
illice for f>\
e..J:Jsti II g ages,"! Clemens.Å 1examlrinu:-õ 
thu:-õ ()pi"cdbes it. " Here all art-> :-01c)ierr; and gouards; no one is i(Ue, Do Ollf' U";f' 
s. Olle is able to P ra y for vou to God allother to console YOU when sipk '.0 
., .. 

* Conviv. c. 16, 

t Quæst. iv. art. 8. 

t Quæst. Serm,' () .t 


I () RES l' A T II 01. I<' I; () H, 

I I . \ ' IIIII ' ltlll ' ' l" wIth \'1111 ulIllth..!' tll tl ad. \ oIL what i!' m:cfl1l to 
üt leI' to wt't'p alll
, ,:-- " . . 

ah-atioIl, auùllll'r to ('OITe('1 yuu \\ It II Loldnt :"', :Illoth,.!' 10 ('(lil-ult 1Ogt. lit'&' wltll you 
like a fri
ud ; alld all, tll III\'p )'olllruly, without 
uil(', \\ ithollt h
Y, \\ it!lollt 
flatter\'. 0 S\H't't attelldanC'l' IIf frit'IHI:--, 0 blt>-:o\t,d Illinistry of (.'Olllt:'l'lt.r..., U th.' 

 of thn:-t' \\ ho f
':lr only Go(l, () tht' trll(' -impli('ity \\ hil'h i.. in- 
c:lpahI" of a f:.ll:,dlflOlJ, 0 till' honorable labur whi('h is '11 1 h,.diellcc to (ìoel, to 
plea:,e G()II !" 
The con\-i"tion ùf lUl'n in 3g-t'S of f:.1Ïth, that tilt' intl're
t", of tlIp :0-0111 rt'(luired 
them to a...
o('iate with dt'\'Ol1t per
olls, rc-tt'(l upon solid prinl'iplt..., :-oUle (If \\ hich 
were not unknown to the ancient world, 
()('ratl':-O rPlatt.:-; ill tlh' Platollic dia- 
lle, that man)' of his tli:,ciples whl) madl' 
n'.lt prog-r('..... ill wi:o-elom while \\ ith 
him, had not continued to rl'tain it when tlwy I"ft him. Thi:o; was till' ('a..p with 
, son of Lymrmu.hlls, \\ho contt...:"t'
 it ill t11t.
t> n'markalJl.. \\unl.., HI 
!'ay the tl'llth, though it lIIay 
cem in('I't'dihlt', hilt what I It'
l1 nftl ti'urn 
'(m \\&..... 
lIe\'er in the way of illstl'uction, hut mcrely by heilt
 with )'ou. [St.t'rut.cJ to .ld- 
vance from being in the !"amp IIOIIS' with you, t JII
h I wpre not to he ill the ..arue 
room, but 
till more wllt'n ] wa
 al:,o in tlH' :o-:lIue room with )'011, 1'0 :18 tu bP ahle 
to see YOIl while !'peaking; and abuve all, when ] :,at hy )'0111' :-,itle awl ht.}d YOII ; 
but now, since my aL:,ence on the na\'al expedition, nil this fa(.ulty ha:, 1"'1 me oUHI 
..ed away."* Here is a beautiful illu4ration of the m.('t's.
it '! tQ whie}) 
o Illany 
of the aneil'nt :,age..; al1l1 pONS heal' witllf':'
 as whell Pindar f'
c1aims CI Bllt nlay it 
happen to rue di:,coursing to be ('.onver
allt with the good ;"t and 
 of Tyr(', 
"nothing is mOl'e hostile to thp \'irtue of man, than th. bcing' :-'IlI'rollll<lt.d with 
;" aJl(l.....E
chYIIJ!', ., 1 mourn the dc...tin
' that hlf'u<.I.. the ju..t with thp 
unhallowed. Sothing \\'orc;:(' in whatt'ver ('all
(, than ill1pioll:O- fdlow
hip : noth- 
ing of good is reaped. If mid4 a f:1t'P, inhpspitahly hl'nt OJ) 
a\'a!:t' (1t.t'(ls, rf'gan1- 
less of heaven, the jllst mall fix hi..: ,, till' impt.mling wl'ath :--pal"O; liCIt, hut 
strikes him with yinc1ictivc fury, cl'u...IIt,1 in tilt' gl.neral rni'),"! Hence the wise 
old man in PJal1fUR adclre

t'..; thp:"p wonl.. to his SUIi : 

"--Nolo ego cum implObis te viris, 
Onate mi, neque in vh. nt'(lue in foro ullum sermonem ('J:scf1ul. 
Novi ego boc scculum, nwribu!I quibus sit, 'Ialus bonum malum 
Esse volt, ut sit sui similis :"

But }l't U:i heal' th(' old ('hri::;tian:-o 
l)('ak. U ::;anl, heing among- flU' pl'Ophds," 
csay:; Father Di<,g'O dp 
tplla, " ht'('allll' :1 Iwopltet amI tli(l pl'Opllt'<'Y' and amon
fool8 he Lecamf' a fi)oJ. St, Pl'tpr, h,.ing allllln
 tlip apllstlt.:-ö, ('()fif.,........,a Christ to 
()e tll<' S"n of God, hut aftl'r\\"al'(l:-; in ('aiapha<... hfl1l
p, \\"Ju'l'(, III' \\':I
 with the 
wickl'd, lIP clul c]PIlY him. It 
p{>n)('th h"rc.I)\, th,.t :I !!1'1':lt altPI'ati..n wa.. mac1(' 
III the Ulan hy l'ea
OIl of the C'olllpany tl\at I
<, wa.." wit h, I f thou pll1t('
t dl'3C) 

· Plato, Theages, 

t PYlh, lel, 11. 

 S,"pt. ('un I. flach. 

 Trinum. Ii, 2. 

.\ (-;E


aIDllng quick burning coal:;, they will soon be ,ct on fire. Draw thuu near unto 
the iml'lling coals which be the \'irtue:-, uf gUIld mell, fur tl.ough thull be lIeyer :50 
much wasted and consumcd by thinc own evil lift:>, yet gou,l IIH:'n \\ ith tl.l'ir vir- 
tue:; \\ ill revive and <]uicken th
l' again, St. Thomas, because he did 
himself from the re::;t of hi:-: f
,llu\\'er:-" did not see Christ wltell he ro.-e again; 
when hejoined hilll
clfin eompall)' with tltem again, 0111' Hedl'emer appeared Ulito 
him, and :'u, uf an 1I11bclievillg tlis('ipll', wa'"' made a f.'lithful and true disciple. It 
is a dallgl'rous thing tu fiJr-ake Ih(. cumpallY uf th
1I) that fear God. The Huly 
Ghost de:5cended upon \Vhitsunday \\ hen tlw di:-eiplcs were ga,llf'l't.'d to
ethl'r, and 
if thol1 wilt continue alllong good men, tholl :;ltalt receive the Holy GLo:-t a, they 
" He who adheres to a holy lIIan," :-,ay:oi Sr. Gregory tbe Grl:'at, " frum the CU
eeing him, and of speaking with him, alld from tIle example uf his worl
8, win 
be killdled with a love of trllth." "Sinee you kilo\\' that Illan)" are (.aIled, but 
few chosen," ::;ays Pope Adrian, writing to St. Hildt-'gard," join YOllrself to tlte 
number of the few awl persevere to the end in holy conver=-ation, that with your 
si<.:ters YOll may come to those joys which' e}'e hath not spen, nor ear heard, nor 
the llt'art of man coneeive(l.'" "As in the world," says Dionyr-ius the Carthu- 
sian, " one dra w:-; anothpr to 
o in a l'eligious community one atnads a lIolller 
to virtue, 'A brother who i:-; as:-,i
te(l by a brother,' says Sololllon, , is like a 101'- 
tificd city.' COllsidel' deeply the quality and quantity of tht. perils in the world, 
and act fur your s01l1 a:-5 YOIl wonl(l in case of a h-'mpo,'al dall
t:'r; for what YOII 
ha\'e to fear is the los
 of the Iti
dll:'!'t and illcollllllUtaLle good-the etprllal God- 
Irrecoverahle and everlastil)O' felicit y " Now this was one ofthp :l(1"all:a\rf F- flll'- 

ni:-,lH'd hy mona
tic life. " Holy men," we read, "attl:'nd not to 
ood I'lut'(.:-, but 
to good cOl1\"ersation ill places," "The place of the just," says St. Gregory, " is 
a good conversation 
 tbe pla('c of the just is the Lord." "Hence, in the form- 
ula of the promi
e made by stranger
 on applying for reception into a mOlJastery, 
extract('d by 
Iabint)n from a ver
' mwipnt commentary on the rule of 8.. Bene- 
dict, by Hildemar, we find tlwsp words-" Coming from distant provinces tll this 
monastery, hecallF-e the conver:-:arion of the hrethren of this place plea
e:-, me: and 
because mJ conver
:ttion p)ea
es them: therefore, I promi:-,e stability in thi
astery, atHI by this writing with my own hand pledge my:;elf that it shall be per- 
If we refel' to fad
, there win he no difficulty to find the verification of these 
views. " In all nges," !"1nys a modern historian, who is not Catholic, " the clergy 
who lead a liff. 
epnJ':1te in the world have been affeC'ted by the influence of the 
passing' ('Ul'rent; while the rpg'ular 01' monastiC' elPI'
Y, thong-h hearing- the storm 
of human passion..: roar :It a (li",tan('e. escapt'd it
 fury, and pur
ue<1, without allY 
important revulution, the pven tf'no(" of its way," And in anotlwl' history, W

* On the Contempt of the 'V odd. S1. Orner, 1622, 

t Præfat. in IV. ::3æc. 


:\1 0 R F seA T'II 0 I. I C I; 0 11 

are told, that the e
peri(,llct' of all age<; has shown the ,,\'ilí-' 1111(1 d:m
('J"!. tn whi('h 
isolated pri
t..; are expost.tL ,rilhout <lnultl, 
ucll is tht' purpol"t t.fhi-lOrit'al 
testillloll}'. The 
ax(lll t'hrolliclt', in ....t;.n.Itt'1' to En'Flalid in 1 be )'e:lr 1087, "'a"\'
"So it wa:; in those day:, that little righ(c'Hl
IIt'-:' \\ .l
 in thi8 bud \\ ith :IItY 
men uut with the IIl11n k:, allllll', \\ he..en'" I ht'.\' f:..n'c1 w..}I."* 
ll'l'h,'" Pa !o'l I II il'r 
, ., that the flItlna:.;ti" ilHitllte wa
 th,- p..ilwipal ill:-itl"lllltcllt by "hi('h tile 
dll1l"ch ill Fr:ulI'e \\a.; reft'rllll'd an. r tilt' di-a:-tt'''- undt'l" tll(> IW'(' (If Ch:ar:('- 
lllaglH'. "t In dièct ever}' \\ hl're t-I-c it \\ as the 
lI\l'. 11 \,II1'1. t goes -0 f
tr a- t . :,3)', 
that at one t'pol,h tll(' 
piritual gl'niu:- of tht' took rt.fllg-e in tli(' mon)...., and 
that the mona
tare \\:l:' all asyllllll ft)r tilt' CIIIII"l,h, a.... Ihl' Chul"('h II,lfl h ('(I fi'l' 
hllmall HOt'iety."+ 
Petl'r of Bloi
,'on of London, alltl a ...t.(.ulal", :'lIl'pli(.ating the ,..o\"('r- 
n plllltitr tl' ('on\'cI1 a cl'11ain pari
h dlllf'('h imo a ('i...h'1't.ian t'oll\'t'nt, on :U'- 
COUllt of tit(' int'ol'l"igihl.' lUanl\t'r
 :)f tht' :.; t'ular ('If'rg'
' of thl' p1a(
, lI-t:; this 

ua)!l': ,. Con\"t'rt thi.. ..t,"(' of "willt. int . a tt'mpll' of God; and kt thi:, 
<It'll IIf ...ham"lt.:.;..; :,iUIll'l'" IH.'('OlllC .J. d \\ t'Hin)! fltr thu:oò.t" \\ 1.0 
'k tl... fiwe oftllf' Gotl 
(If Ja,'oh, amI wllo \\ ill make it a pal mli · "f pka.:mn', and a ,...;alll.tu3r)' of the 
Holy (:hll:-t. "s 
The IIltHwstery of I
\'e to the ClllIn.h t\\ f'1\"c ar('hhish..p
, twel \'(> 
bishop-, :u1\1 more than one 111111t1rPt) m;1I1
, Thn'(' of Ill(> grt':lt....t I'''P( ", 
GrC'gor) YI I., Urban 11., amI PaSt ':11 I I., 1':1Il1t' th.m ('hili)'. TII(' CIIIII"(,h of 
GII11 \'('ncrah 110 1(''iS tllall 1\\"(,'lIt)'-t\\'O :--uinr.. \\ 110 Wt'rc monks of tht. mOlu..(('I'Y 
t. n'rtin, at t't. ()nlf'l'.1/ Thf' ar('hhi
IJflI' elf 
Iay' J1t'(. U-..(\() aim t ah\ays to 
he drawn fi'olll Ih... ahhht'.'" of Fnl,la, 
 Un ,.ult'rill!! ,h.. t
mrt of tilt' mOIl:J.5tl'ry 
t. GI'egory, oil th' C..liall hill at I: Hit', you I'(.:ui in
('riht'Cl tlu. n:1I11('- of tllf' 

reat :lUÙ laoly bìsh"P::ï ,\III) i
IIt'(1 from th:lt hOIl:-'f': amon.F..t \\hi. ii, art' thoSt. of 
81. .\ lIg-u
lin, 81. LaUl'emiu
t. Pl'tl'll:-', 
t. Ilonllrin-, all al't'hhi:-Iwps of Cantt'l"- 
hury, St. )Iellitlls, bi-hol' of I nnd"n, 
t, .In-tll
, Li:o.hop t,r ({od, ....1('1', :lIld 
Paulinu.., arelrhi:-hop of YOI'k. In the (('nth, elton'nth, anù tw..lfih C 'liturit:-, it 
t exclusively the lUona:'terit,...; whieh :mpl'lit'f) 111('11 \\ ol1hy nf t}J(.' t'pi...- 
copac)'. The-e pontiff:' rctaim't.l till' hahit, :lI1d p,'r:-l'\'t'I"pcl in tilt' 1"t'g'lIlar lif<<', :IS 
we read of St. Cæsarin'i of 6\rlE'
,'::;1. (;l'l'lIInin "f Pal"i
t. ..Ellwrt uf Yurk, awl 
other",. Sf) l't'no\\"nNI \\'a..; tilt' :Ihbey of "-\1. \1"idor, at Paris. for it
 di 'iplilll' anti 

{'it'nce, that lU:lIlY Frelll'h hi:,h..p- !o.\mght to prlÞ('UI"(' n'gular l.mUns of that Iwu..e 
to place in their <''atllt'.lmls ill thp roolll of s, (,lIla
. Thr Elldi
h ClulI.(,h I'C- 
garded t;t. Yic.tor's as Il1e .......lI1illal"\" of Ilt'r hi!o'hop
, St'\'en cardinal..., two art'h- 
hops, six bi:;;hllpS, allJ fifr.\'-fonr ahbots, in tilt' ('''III'S(' of thf> Ì\\'t.lflll e'f.ntlll"Y 
aICln", came from that monastery. ** IT"w immt'n:"t.. a
:lin \\"
 tlU' IHlmlw.. of s:lil11s 
· P. 292. t Recberchfts de la Frflnce. J.iv. Iii. 19 t lIi"t. tie Frnnt'('. i. 2/i1. 

 P..t. ßles. Epist. ('Iii. I Chronic. S. ßUlini, Prnlo,!. ap, \fartrnf' Tht 
atlr. Ant'cd"l. iii. 

('halln:\t. lIi!'t. Fulò, n". p. 111. 
H ßl1læl1', Hi,t. ("nl\ers. Par. ii Lic.lIner Hu'!o von. 
t. Victor urlll tlit. Th. "lo1! Hic-htun. 

iner Zeit. - 



given to the Chur('h by the a1lbey IIf 
Iaxil\tin, at Treve::;? How many ilIu:;- 
triolls Illen by the Ill"n: t stery of II ir!-'('hall"!* )Ielro'e ai.bey gave 
t. Eata to the 

('e of Lillll,starll, St. Edil \\"aId to that of DUl'II <lm, St. lluisi!us to that of "
tel', and "r alh.'tJ, tbe ullcl.. of kin;; )Ialcome, to tltat of :::5t. Andrew, who, ho\\"- 
eVl'r, rcru;:;"d the lll\'itation, and died lae' e as the humble ùi
iple of St. Bernard, 
in the odor of sanctity, in 1155,t 
..A.heillard hilllSelf point. d out th.. reasons of tbe monastic state being so rec- 
olllluellded, and cOlltra..:ted tilt' d:mgt.r of thc lift. of ded
s in the Wlldt1 \\"itla the 
security of the lUona,tic life.::: 10 Suell was thc esteelll of the latter frllll experi('nce 

f jiS utility," 8aYs .John Ðc\'otu:-; tile c
lIIo"h;t. ., that to ('allou...; \\"as 1Il'(.scribl't1 a 
life in community under: a rule, PI.ter Da'lIian in Italy, I yes of Chartr('..; in 
France, and Egbert, 
rchb:bhop of York, in England, adding mOllastic vow:, to 
the canonical i"stitutp."
By the institution 
f St. Chrodegang, bishop of 
Ietz, in 760, the :-:ecular clergy 
were appointed to Ii \'e in ('ommuuity like monks. Duch, however, was the noto- 
riety of tile muna
tic pre-eminence in regard to ,eligion, that ill many t1iuee
tht' ('athedral... were :;;erved hy monk..;. In Germany, fi'oll) the time of St. Boui- 
L'lCe, they pu::;::;e:-sed tile catheùrals of Saltzhurgb, Eistt.'<.], Freyhollrg, Hatisbon, 

Iayence, alld two others, whence the very name of 
ters was derived. Xine 
cathedral..; in England were similarly served, as thú
 of Canterbury from the time 
of killg Ethelbert to the re\'olution of the :,ixteenth century, the archbi:.:hop being 
::;al"ily a monk, of York, 'Vinchestel', Sherhml'lle, Rochester, 
onvicR, Lin- 
di,fal"ll, DIII'ham, Ely, awl Covelltry. In France the epi,..copal church of Toul 
was ser\', d by mOil ks, lli:) wa.s, iu Spai I), that of Tuled, I, and some others, ...--\ t the 
vel'Y head of .ill the Chrll'cht-'S, in the Lateran Ba-;iliea itself, Benedictine monks of 
l\IIIIIHt-Cas:,iIlO were estab};shed. in the time of Pope Innocent 1r., after the slaugh- 
ter hy the LOlIJba,'d
lIld in the church of St. Peler, by ()I'(ler of Pope Gregory 
III., Bt'nediclines ha\'ing served the basilica of 
t. Paul from an early age.1I 
The s:lme services were rendered by the '"endicant oJ'ders in lattel' tim
s. Sixty- 
six cardinal" -160 archbishops, and 2,136 bishops have worn the habit of St. 
Domin'ck; simple friars, without birth or 
,rtltne, who had been chosen onl)' 
thl'ollgh regart1 to tlwir virtue. 
O\'er the dllor of the Capuchin con\'ent at ..Altorf, I read an inscription, which 
s:atø1, dlat thi:5 house was fiHlllded by the illh:lb:tants of the town" for the aug- 
mentation :md 
ervi('e of the Catholic religion." Xo happier expre.
:,ioll ('ould 
kn'e heen ,..elet'ted. Pope Benedicr X I'T. 4yled the ahbey of Sr. Gall," 'Talid- 
i,:-,imnlU stahilimentulll vene religi'lui...; ;"'; an({ six years afrerw:nxl,-; he ('allt'd it, 
" IlllIstl'e ltlolla:;;teriul1l S, lhlli, \'alidi..;silllUlI1 i:-,tlld propngnaclllulll veræ Dei 
religiolli,..." 'Vhen 
y Pl'rsllasion of the good and great king Jallle...; of Art'agon, 

"" Tritl1em, in Cl1ron. Hirs. 
+ Yied'.\bbeil, iii. 
I )[abìl. Præf. in III. and V. ::-:æcnl. Bcn. 

t Jon!!elin. .Notitiæ Abb, Oni. Cisterciens. viii. 15, 

 Instil. Cànon. Lih. i. tit, 3 
": Breve, 1749, 


)[ 0 H. E S (1 A T II 01. I C I; 0 I:, 

Bareelona am) &rago
a fir4 rcc"pi''l'{l the two holy famil it:"' of 
t. Dominie a11(l 
St. Franci..., the objel't of tlal'
(' eitit's, a
 thl' Spalli:sh hi,toriall s:t
.:-\ W3' to lIIakt' 
head against tilt' two grl'at l.\.il, of ign111"U1H't. allt! a\'ariec.* 
It is a problem 
'd tll be ....Okl.ll, \\ hdhel" n'ligilln ('alt loug ('..ntinut> ..ncc,ti\'fI 
awl ill purity, wherc snch hulw;trk
 are W:lßt IIIg. In Englalld, it \\:l
in the reign of l\lary, that the Catholic I"digioll wa... pel'm:ulf'lIty r,.stol"{'(l, :IIHl 
that eYer)' thing woulc) he wpll ag-aill, althuugh tltNI' WPI"t> to h.. not mort' mOlla
terit's, Thl' oath:'\ of tilt' nllbility, (II0Ilbtl......; all hono"abll' 111t'It, a... we ,honhl 
now :o:t)'le them,) in the lIalllt' of thp ",holt' kilWtlotu to tlett.nd that faith, \\t>ft' 1I0t, 
howcyer, fimnd ci"ite sutliciPnt to an...w,'r thl> pUl'p"S (Jf :511(,h c,tahility. But to 
pro(,l>e<l. Thp utility of tllP ('ont('mpbti\'t' :tlul in'('I'iUl' lift. h.,ill
 1'('('ogllizl'<l ill 
agf's of f:.tith, 3S a n'.('('.....ary t'OIl-l'C}tII'II('P, IItClna...kri,.... \\l'l'l' kllown to 1)4,' illclispt'lb- 
able. "I1"w II('C ,,...-ary it i
 to pl"lIyid.. rclr th,. quiN of mOllk...," ,'1.\.... P"p(' EIWt'1il 
IlL, writing to \\ïLal.l, abhot ofCorhy, "appt'.!' from what \\
 <l01l(, by Ihc 
C\'e:ltor of :llllhill
"S, wl1('l1 lIt' ch.fclld(,<l tll ("III
' of 'Iary 3:!:,in...t 
" II'it be tru(' in 
(,IIl'ral," :1... 
t. BOII'\\"t'ntlira r("uark
, " t!.:lt lUort' ('lrc'UlII
ar requil't<1 for 
lIod than fi)r t'\'iI,"t it i... in n particular lI1alllll'\' t'('ltaili \\ith 
arll to this hi.rill'"t ancl 1U"..t divillP \'irtlle, ., fill'," a... Richard of St. VIC.t,,1' 

ays, " it is to b' nut .tl that tht' gra "(' of th - ('ontemplatin' lif(' l' ('apt'... from II... 
mIJrt' E'..s,:,il.\' tl1'm that I)f the aetin., but it i... l'Cpairl',1 with mill'll mOrf' dithc'lIlt_,..,,
\Vhih. rllC'lI all thos,' whu \\0111,1 :'Òepk no otllt'r \\orth ill lifl', hilt tit(' illllC'r \\ortl, 
of th" slluntlllt':-\..; of the sO/ul, IIlU
t !u'o\'itle 
llC"h (,il'('lIl1htallc'.'
:1'" will t'II:,1.I,. them, 
at It'a...t. \\ ithin tllt'ir mind.. to ('..n
tru('t :t p.a('(' of p 'a(",> \\ ho a..pirt' to tlU' 
hlghc'st lift. IUU
t I,'a\'c Il"thill
 'lluloll' that c'an c"lIlluc
' tit -;"c'lIrity-that tht')' 
lI1ay not. likt' otìH'
, h.. 
'Ihjt'ct t,t pa...,... alrt'rn It,'I)' .Jt'I'usa)pm to Bahylon, 01' 
frlllU a pla('e of P' ar'e a IIcl (1'1 it't to one of ('onfll ,ion :uul t'apt i \" it.",11 h For t II(' 
world," ..ay
 TllolU:'s à K"mpi,," kllo\\...:;o 111;111.\' mode... ot'tlet'(.iL ancl \\ it'h('llm......, 
it ('ont rin>... ='0 many in\'t>lItioll:o', alld has :0," III a 11)' cl'lal'l'd:i, that no OIlt":-, Pt'at.., 
(.'an b. :;aft., 110 OIiC" tài,1. firlll, 1101' ('all p\'eu au)' 011(' t'a...ily 1.,. illll( . 'nt nlllt.:,=" lu.' 
:-öl'palate him"e1f fmm ,he t'row<l of IIIl'n and' '(.k .Jl'
U'" ('hri
t, It> lll'al.lIim Ìt.'4lCh 
Iii, (;ospd in dp:'\PI,t pla('(.
," " Th .rcfi)I"('," ..llltln -jn
 novi('(.s he ad(I"", U KO Ollt 
with .\hl'aJ.:t1l1 f,.om YOIII' (''OlIlIt\..'', :111.1 f."01ll ."tllIl" f:lthcr'.. hOlls", :lIul ('''IIH' into 
the holy land, that is, into dl(' lIIona..;rie lifi-, th:tt YUII 111:'.\' I('arn (1.,eiplilH', :u)(1 
='l'r\'(-' tilE' Lltrel YOIII' (;cH.I fait"full
' all dIP cla\'
 of your lift.."" "I h)\\ ('all :111)' 
OIl(' retain the s 11m In . tlf pt.ace," ('xdaim
 :;t, .\ 1....11 ,ti II , ., whu j, tell with .Iis- 
('01'.1, an I cOlltl',r... '?"** 
Tht'j ('tl)l"t.>, ('\'t.u till' :uh'f'I'...:t riP... of l11(m
ti(' I ï
. pxdaim with COWP{'I', .. 0 
.,;pd sef.III:-<'OIi 1'1'11111 :t jilTing' world! RplI,(';1t ha..; pt':U'P, and much se('uret; dIP 

* llcrn:mlini Gome
ii de Vita Jacohi Arß
. r
iù. ii. 
tAp. )1 artelle. V l't. 
cript. ('..11. tOIl1. ii. 293 
t 8t. Don. ('fllIlpem1. Tl1eol. V ('iii. Lib. iii c. 10 
I Hlch, ::,t. Viet. 
ov'tlorum. . 

De EruditiOltl' IIominis Intt'r. I, ..., 
itA De ('1\1(,('h. Huel 

 0 F F.A I T II. 


mind from all a
!aults of evil." ::\!oreover, mouasterie:s }>,sed, in a hi
h de- 
grt'e, that iufiuence of place whi('h wus lIot unobserved by the wise men of au- 
tiquity, as when Cicero suys, cc tanta vis adlllonitionis il1e
t in 100
is, lit lion :-iue 
causa ex his nll'llluriæ dlld.a sit di:;cipJina."* Hl>nee, e\'t'n o('(.'a...illnal \'i
it... to 
thcm wcre dt'emed 
alutary: in allu:'jion to whie}) opinion, 
I ichdet exdaill1:-. 
cc \VIa)' should wt> ridicule the.,e,l agt':-Ö which beh'iY(
d that the)' could fl
from evil by ('hanging plal'e, tra\'el from =--ill to ::ill.llctit.\., ]('a\'e Satan with the 
dre...;s which \Va..; laid a...;ide ft 11' I hat of t he pi Igl'i III? I=-- it not :õolllething-," lit' alld...;, 
" tù I':-('ape from tile inflllcnee of pl:U'"g and (.l1stl)[n...., tD (,hallg-e one'...; ('ountry, to 
oril'ntalizl' IIl1e'
 self to .1 new life? h tllt're 11II[ :l had power' of infall1ation, an(] 
of blilldlH:'s,,; in :;OIHP places, whethel' ir he Ih.. Charmette... of ROI185eall, 01' the Ff'r- 
ney uf V"ol1airt>? L('t liS nnt worulel. If on ," allce401';') loved pilgl'illlage:-:, and at- 
tributed to tlll'1ll a virh1l' of reg-
" tIcuct' , f'r,llll k nowin
 what munastcries fUl'ni::hed," SL Bernard says to 
those who dwelt within them, .C I ue..;('ech you, brethrpn, by the common 
:,tudiùllsly profit hy rhe IIpPllrtullity gi\reu tit you of WI ,rking out yoÍtr :oah'ation. 
Ht're ,'"Oll ha\"e no soli('itlllles, Y un h:lve no nE'ed of thinking about markt>ts or 
:-;ecular affilirs, or l'\'l'1l ahllm food amI ('lothing, Pl..l('ul a \'obi.., magna qllidl>m 
ex partf> d iei malitia et solli(.itndo vitæ, Sic abscondit VO:"Ì Deu..: in abscolldito tab- 
e1'llacllli :;ui. \7":l('a(e itaque dileeti...;::;imi, et \"idpte, qltoniam ipse est Deu
Tim=-- wa.; ðllpplie,l by mona=--terie..;, what the StaJyrite :Idlllitted was necessary to 
tht-' cClnt('mplati\'e life; fur after =--a
'ing that" lllaD alone, \}f all otlwr animal:õ, can 
be h:lpPY, inasllluch as he ha"5 the powel' of cOlltRmplation ; and that, a", far a.. 
t here is ('ontemplation, there is al-=o happinl-'s,,;;" he add
, ,e yet there will be SOI1lE'- 
 f'xterual wanted; tH'nature is n,,( sufficient .)fït:-;e]fto contemplation, but the 
boo)' mu
r p.,......eð6 ft,O<! and orher nece:-õ..,u'ie..;,"9 which necessity the m()nk
8elvp..; rt'c,'guized, for c,tlIP fir..t impediments to col1t
Illplation," says 81. Bona- 
\'elltum, "ma.'- be fmlll th. b.)d.\', a.. when it sllff'el'''5 violent hunger, or thil':-t, or 
Iona..;tt'rie..; we!'(' intt'mlt'd tn provide thi... external suppleflwnt, ß1I(1} 
cOll:-,eqllf'ntly, h.,' enahling' m"n to a(lopt the contemplative life, ('onft.
ITed hent->fit 
"pOll an illlmell"'<' das..; (If 
fI('iety" For how m'm)" al'e thel'e unfitted for au)' f ther 
lift', hut that congt:'llial with the (rlIe phil,)...;nphy of retirement and pr:.lJer, "and 
\, hu feel," a:õ Plato Ray:.;, " où ßlWT/H' à,lÀw; íTozoûvn," ,; The multitude is 
composed of mell adroit in I'peech, allll for communion with the world accom- 
plished ; "but," as the poet :òa Y:5- 

-"Otherj:: too 
There are, among the wlilks of lonely life 
Still hi
hel, men for contemplatio!l framed ; 
Shy and unpractised in thp strife of phrii
e : 

Ieek men, whose vt'ry 
nuls pt'rhap" would gink 

* De Finibus, v. 

 Ethic. x, 8, 

t Hi":f. elf' F,'ance, ili. 55. 
I 'I..,!it. ViI. Christi. Ivi. 

t Serm, 2. 
.- E!,i,t. ,'iii, 


l 0 H .E 
 (J A T 11 u LIe I j 0 H, 

Beneath them, surnmOlIC,'elln such inwrcourse, 
Theirs is the lllllg'uage IIf the heavcns, the power. 
The thought, Un: image, and Lilt: 
Ileut JOY I" 

'Vhat an a:,ylum dl) Illona.:,t 'rie.. f'lrnish t · YOllu
 mcu of this ch3I'3ctt>r, 
iug fl"Om the braz
 of coM wI/ridly wisclllu, .. illl>:\.perieuoetl in it... t'all>talat iOIl
, UD- 
sullied by the tarnish uf Its vulgal' wants, :,ici
 of it....; f
t'lI1alltie", and 3I1XIOU" Lo 
cast off the lJle
lIl re
tridi\Uls it ilUpO
, whicn bind 
 tÌl'II1I)' Ly tlteir Illllliher, 
thOlllrh sinl1'l y bO cUlltelJl ( )tibl,.1" fhe ant.:Ícnt.. ha.d l'\.ulI1 l )le
 to a l't.'rlain clt'lrt'ce 

 b Þ 
anal.'gdlls to what Iuight b. utl
rell herc. Xicia"i wa., not mad., tOI' a ('rucl and 
uujll..t illvaller, aUlI whell h.> IlU,lel'lunk th> ollic,>, and p
riôhcll after ..ueh 10111" 

, thel'e is lilt Ollt> who elo >.. nut la tlt'Dt hi:; f.Ut>. 13tH ill Chri..tiau tim> 
we find in
tallces :It t>vpry :-oft>p, lilt h.. IHt'1tl (If lIu> LOI,.I of, he I sl('lo" w bCIi 
Eelward proposes tuullupt a ccrtaiu YIHIIl,r luan a...; lai:-; palrt>, Bruce illtl'I'POSt'S, :-ay- 

-" gay Ed\\ard, n
This i" no youlh to hold tby bow 
Or fill thy goblet, 
Or beur Ihy me. 
e Ught. 
Thuu art a patruu al: to wild 
.Ämll!luugutle88, for !.hi!! orphao child. thuu not bow apart he ,;h.:alø, 
Keep.. lonely couch aOll lonel
' mcal
BeUel by far in yon calm cell 
To lend our I..ahel, 
'Vith faUll'r Augustin te) share 
The peu.ct:ful clmu
" of conv. nt-pra
Than wanll,'f \\ 11<1 advcntuft.s througb 
'Vith such " reckles
 guide ac; 
'n1I, " 

And so when Bi'uee with ,hi:-- 1M'.!.> "crt> in the convent of his royal sister, he 
says to hcr, 

.. H. i
 a buy uf 
entlf' strain, 
And I have propuscd he ,,111.11 dwell 
In Augustin the chllp'Hin'
And walt on Iht'I' m

lind not hi.. tt>UI"!t : 1 've Frrn thrm flow 
 in the Uta\\ di
!-oh't tht, !-OnW 
 a "-ind youth but faudful, 
Unfit a
ainst the tide lO pull. 
Aoel thoqe that \\ hit the BruC'c wou1rl 8RI1, 
Must It'lirn to t-trive wIth slrt'Ii01l\ml gale." 

Age too, after a lahoriou.; life IOj,rht f' e l thii "ant m,)re keenl y "=till as when 
, ... , 
BOllrdalouc beggell thf' general of hi
 order to him te) rctire from th" 
world to soIittl<1e ; an.l s UlI
 hv violence con,'crw.1. amI Ii-en ahove the wans 
whic>h h:l<1 whelml)e1 and ,nnk f1t n m ,I')\vn, \Volllcl n"ed. the samc t--hclter; for, as 
D:Ul' e 
i ngs, 

AGE:s u F F A 1 T 11, 


-" It may not be 
That one, who looks upon that light can turD 
To other otljt::ct willingly his view, 
For all the gooù, that wiH may covet, there 
b SUlliffi 'ù ; anù aU, elsewhere ddective, found cumplete."$ 

For all such per."Ïons, life in the worlù wo"ld have been IInlllinded hiltt:'rnes
contr-..l::;te(l with what Pctrarch writing to hi
 brothel' Gerard, 
tyles " the quiet 
poverty, the sweet lei:mre, the united fellowship, anù the cele
tial peace of the 
..A. great Engli:,h philo
oplwr has the courage to aelmowledge some of thp
p ad- 
c.;:, "f()r some," he remarked, " l13ve little POWCI' to do good, and ha\'e 
likewise little stl'engdl to rcsist e\"il. 
ran.\' are weal'Y of confli(,ts with ac1- 
Tt'rsity, and are willint.! to cject those pa,sinn:i which ha\'e long Imsit'd them in 
vain; and many are dismi
:;e(l by :Ige :t)lIl c1ispa...:es from the more laborious duties 
ociety. In mon:.tsterie:i the weak alld timorous may he happily shdtel'ec1, tire 
weary may repflse, and the }wnitt'nt may mcditate. Tho
e retreats of prayer amI 
conb'mplatiflll have something 80 congenial to the mind of man, that p<,rhaps 
tIwrc j..; s('arc('l.,' one that doe
 not pm' pose to c!n:,e his life in pious abstractioJl, 
with a fèw a.",;slJciate:-ì seriou...: a:-ì himself.::: 
But it was not alone to mPIJ who embraced the contemplative life, that mon- 
asterie..;; were deemed usefhl ; fOi' a.s t hcy Ii \'ed 1I0t for them:,eh'('
 alone, the \\ hole 
world it wa.; beleived, rec('Ì\'ed benefit from the pra
'er8 and worship offered up 
within them. St. .Åugu:-:tin in many place...: remarks, that thO:3e who are deyoted 
to th(' contemplative life, conduce not a little to the good of the republic by their 
'ers, and many felt this a...: pel':;;onal to them
el ye..;;. Thus I \'es tIe Chartres, 
writing to a monk, 
ays, "RenH'mber me in your prayer
, ve:4ræ enim orationes 
quanto quietiore...:, tanto sauiores."
 \Yllen .John Francis Picus of 
W:IS deprived of his telTitorÌe
, Baptist, the 
Iantllau Cal'melite, haying written 
to him, ,aying, " I have heard of yonI' mi
fortlllle, illnstrioll:;; man, and to speak 
ellllou...:l," what I fee], yon now seem to me great"el' than when you reigned ;. 
ÍlI1' it i
 greater to pro\'e one's self worthy of a kingdom than to be a king; there- 
Íl1rt', r 100"e 
llld honor YOII, and in my pl'ayers are alwa)'s with YOII. And 
So likpwise are all the brethren who al'e here with me in Chri...:t. I deem that a 
\VreÌt.hed kingdom whi{'h ,,"oul(l d('prÌ\'p one of the sweet ddights of sway, and 
of fl"ielU1; unih.d in the study of philo
ophy; and before all thp king(loms of 
the world, I would prefer, Diocletian like, the silence of the woods, and the 
beauties of a garden,"-T]H:> pl'ince a('knowledge<l the henefit greateflllly in these 
words: "I ('an no mOl'e believe that yon do not as,ist rue with your pra)"ers, 
than that fire ooc...: IH.,t burn; tor thi:;; is the property of you, and of allIike you, 
who more immediately wait on Christ. By yom' assistance I think it must 

.. Par. 

t Var, Èpist, Lib, xix. 

 JÿllDson's Rasselas. 

oJ.. Epist. ü. . 


:\1 (J 1" E:, (" A T II 0 T. I C I; 0 n., 

have comc to pas..:, that tltc Wl'ight of SIÞ mallY ('a1arnili(>
.:e..: m, mllc.h more 
lightly than I ('<ouM t n'ry ha\'(' II0p",I 01' c'Xi)('("l'(I."* 
Co The C:trthll:-ian onlt 1'," :--a)'... Pt':ru, 
lItorns, "('oll:t'r, advalltag'c\ 011 thc' r('- 
public Ly it:-: prayt'rs, by its mcriH, by its (':\alllpil', by ils writill
;o" by ir
d..., amI b
y it:, temporal a:",
i:"ttalwl.."t .. Th.. f'ardHl:o. 311 mUIII"s," h. 
Ut1tl..:, .. I1'P c1aily in thl'ir l'ell
, c'c.'rlaill pP!'lIliar prayc.'r, for all l,ilHl
 of "'01'1'0\\9 
allù Ill'l'c:"iti,.s that hd()n
 to the.' I
U'(' ; 
, (11l11111,1
' thcy 1" fit (.t 011 all tlte 
c.lèlllsion..; allli III i'l'rit.s of 1 if
., 011 the.' pOIll p:", of pI" hale'" tile' am bi t illlt of dprk:-:, t hp 
cllriosity of :-tudcnts, the t'lation of the.' I. arn..d, th.. c:\al'tilllls ofprillc'ps, tilt' ('rafts 
of th.. litigious, thl' aclillati 'Il
 IIf ('0111 tier:-., tht' 
pri,lt' of "'Þhlc':i, the villll'nec' of 

ulc1ier:" tilt' eorl'llptiolh of jllc1
(." till' c1i...illlll' :-:ty or ltIC'rl'hallt.., tht' trilmlatiolts 
uf the lllarril.J, the 3V3ril'c (If tl.(. rich, the.' \\
lIIt.. tlr th
 1'001', tflC' pain.. of the 
sick, IIlC groall"; of pri:-ÕOlIt'r:-:, the.' afHid OilS of \\ j,low:i 
Ul,1 orph'III
, tl.c' oppr('...- 
siolls of tr.1 \'(
, tilt t ri hulal :011" of t h" j 11:--1, 
ultl 011 IIIßIIID"rahlc. ot I It' I' C'\"Ï I.. 
ft,r which they illl'C'!':"
lltly I'I'ay."
 Pl', hap.., 
i):, a lI1odl'ru p\l('t, "luN' \\'01(1.. 
apply to mOllks, although h.. thillk... Illlt, "'Il' ...C'lf-applovillg \\orlel, that scar{'t> 
(leiglls to ulltiC'c him, 01' (1(' '11)-; him hilt a ('-,"pht'I' in the work.. of God, I"('cc.i\'e
advalltage of which :-he littlc tlrt'ams, faOlIi his Iloi:,d "" hour.... Pf'I"hap:, 
owes hea' sUllshine :uul h. r mill, amI ph'ntcous har\'l.
t, to the pra
'E'r' 11(' ma1.p!<-, 
Wllt'll, I :-aa(' likp, hc m,'(litat(.
, :11111 thiuk
 on her \\ hn thil1b. lIot r..)r her,.,P}f. 
Forgive him tlU'II, thou Im:-tl('I' in {'oIH't'rIlS of littlp \\orth :111 ilìlt'I' iu tile hnit, if 
author of IIU lI1i
Olllt' gOlKI, h,. '- 'eks hi.. propc'r happill
"; h.,' nIPallS tllat 
may ad \.alll'C, hut (':Illllot hinder thine. .\cI'ount him tlll'1I all ('III'umbrall('p on 11lf' 
:-tate, n..'('c..i,'ill; allclrellùl'l'ing nont>; fi'f h
' hi.. pr:t
'l'n;, :h \\t'll a
 hy his 
fair example and his influcm'e Spt'llt in :-oothillg !õ'orl'()\\, ({lit ßrlling- :",tritè, alld aid- 
iug indigeuce, he SCf\'('
 hi:"t l'oulltl".r and fl'I'ollll)f'n,p.. it \\..11 (.,r it-; protlctioli."
" It \\'as," S:lY;:, anothel' of hi') :o.l'Ct, bill lately" to s.t t the paUl'rn of a cc- 
tial lifl' upon earth, that mell wlm ('lIteucJ (Jf'4'pl
'. far 11101 e (Ju'ply than OUf- 
1St.'I\'c:" illto the' glorioll
 of Chl'i:,tiallity, plalltt.cI daI'CHWlwllt tllP bu.l, :Iud re- 

ul\'(d to perpetuatE' ft,r e\'er comnllmitit.. of i
 milli:)t,.l':-, \\lm:"tC' IHl.,iu
I'rofe:-:-illll :-houlc.l be l'rayt'r. The)' wisht J to rc"'''l'\'' :-ome :-"01:;, wh"rt> man, 
free fnull tile trammel:, of tll(' \\orld mi!rht Ii\"(, in his lIatural -..Iatp of constant 
l'Ommlilliol1 \\ itlt II 1
Iaker. Thc..)' knt"\ that O\'l'l' tllP gn atl'r part of IIIP world, 
n',., :-ills llIakc
 the n
r)' heavclls a:ol it wpre of bras" that dl(, (I
\\'s of God's 
hlt.s:-ing call110t pa:--s throu
h them; am) they kc'pt Ol't'lI, in tht" lIli,l...t or c':lI,h 
()l1le aCl'c..
l'S to God, '-ollle of till golden 1.Id,lt'1'S of pra)'pr Ly \\ hi('h 
men's hl'arts as 'e11tl to Him, ancI hi:-; hOIllit ic'" (lp..:(,t'II(1 upon 11:-, The.," hear!1 with 
an ear of f:.iith, whieh in Us is cleaf or lo,t, till' :-on

 of all cl'('atl',l thill}!" morn- 
ing ancll'vl'llill
ing up Lefi)re thp thl"One of their Un'atCH', an.1 tht')' tholl
ht it. 

lirand. Epist. Lib. iy. 
f !d. Lib. iI. L iil c, 2. 

t Pet. But. De Vitu Carthusians, Lib. ii. t, ii, c. 2- 




haJl)e Ihat no \'oic(' Rhould join thl'l11 from m
n, hi:-: OWIl dlO:,en children; :mll 
they kept their ('Ollllllllllio(J with allg-els ami I'a:o;t gellerations of 
ail)t..., and lile 
ho:-t of spirits with \\ hich th
y were ahout to dwell, by uniting tht'ir hYlll8 of 
prai...e, in time, ill 1'Òpirit, in the very wOl'd,.. tlH'ffiselv(':-ö, with the prais(ls aud tllauk:-i- 
 of a worJd aho\"f}." 
I u reg-:ll'd to philosophy ami Jite 1 'atllre, it woulll he long to de...('rihe the ad- 
f'';; rl'
 frolll the Illonastic in...titl1tion, which provided houses ill <.,ities 
:mll ill the ('()lllltry, in whieh were men li"Íng :Ipart fmm tIle worlù :1I1l1 ahove it. 
" It i::; sinful," ::;ars Card:lII, who h()w(,\'I.
r always take:; the lowc:,t 
r(lulld in hi!:) 
reflections, " to think men in mona:-:.tic ordprs unfortllilate : for \\ hat calamity 
('an it he to 
erve God, to apply tl) letters and 
tlllli(>s, to live with"ut 80Iicitudt-" 
to have f'O lUany excellent comp:mion..., :-:killed in Illany thing..., as I lUay say, 
knowing the secrets of all 1110r[al:5, to be :-öafe froll1 the auger of princes, from the 
improbity of magi:,trate:--, frlllll the injllrie::; of the petulant, to travel through all 
countries at the expen...;e of others, and to find a hou5e pl'
'pared e\'ery where to 
oe re\"ered by all nwn :IS sacred, to be deliverell frl)ll1 all perturhation" and sin:" 
and cares, and cupiditie;;;? If you are in health you have many companion:, 01 
s, if :,ick you :o:ee 110 one weeping, out many encouraging and consol- 
ing yo
e who desire to reflect on the more spiritual benefit,;; arising to the learned 
men them1'Òelves, who enter mona:,terie:" should read the first epi
t]e of Pt::tru:-t 
Delphinu:" prior of the Càmaldolese, to Petl'us D()natu
, relating the nlOtin
which induced him to embrace that state;t and to di
cl)\?el' the importance of 
such retreat:-;, in regard to 
tudie.;; ami to socidy in general, one need only ca
t a 
glance around us at the consequences of aholi:--hing them, at what Plato descrihe:, 
:IS älÀOl dJ/epúJ7tI(j
ol, seeing the p1ace of philosophy de..erted oy those who 

laould cultivate it, and jumping into it, which i..; the sad exhibition now pre- 
:,cntell here; " for as these studie;o; are still the mo
t glorious, men," as he 
,. of imperîect aud unfiui:-;hed l1ature
, dl'sire to partake of them; though, as their 
hodies are llegradell by their lahor
, so their souls, are worn down and reduced 
to <lu...t, as it were, by theil' mechanical art:,,"! 
Philosophy, comparing the f(umdation"i of 0111' age :md those of Catholic time:--, 
will, tllPref(uoe, u:,e word.;; Hkc those of Raumer, who, on vi..iting thp rllill
Fountain's abbey, exclaime(l, "How mi
erab]e, stunning, and :"tllpif)'ing, is 311 
the noi..e of YOlll' Itla('hinery compared with the sanctl1:', tbe gloria, awl the rl'- 
quielll f->ternam. which :-õtill echo froDl evpr
' stone of the
e silent ruins !" Kot to 
return to .\ ristotle. who :-öa
, that perf('ct happine

 I" 'in contf'mplation, :md tllat 
men are happy only a
 f:u' a
):lrti('ipatl-' ìn that dídlle ljfe,
 rhe holy Scrip- 
ture::; <1edal'e, tÍlat retreat alJ<Ï ieisul'e are ,'eqnìred fi)J' WlSliOffi. ., Saplel1tiam 

* Bier, Card. De UlilÏlate ex Advers. cap. Lib. iii. c 21. 
t Ap, 
Iartene, Vet, Script, 10m, iiL p. 915. t De Repub, vI. 

S Ethic. x, 8. 


 C6\1'lIOI.1l"1; Ol

in tempol'c o('ii : l't qui minoratl1l' in a(.tll ilH
 percipid ('am." .\frer ('iting which 
words, Petcr the Vl'nprahl(', ahhot of Clllny, c1t'm:tlHI:o:, how (',m all)' 011<<' \\"ritt> 
thillgs pl'l'lainill
 to \\ i:o:dom \\"110 ha:; 110 p(,:lel'flll It.i..uft,, aUII WhlN> \\ h..le life i..; 
one pc.rwrbed Lmsinp-:'1.* Th(' ('u,tom of trollhi(':o:, as Clcel 0 !-a
':o:, ùcprin'\
 th > 

I'ntl(' men of nlt'I'I')', amI l'oll:o-('cI'H'ntly untih tlIPIil tor th
 taulllall :-tmlit....- 
" Sam ('um olllnilms hori... ali(I'lid atroeit '.. tÎl'n \'U(('IIIU"', :&nt a\l(limll:O:. t'tialll qui 
mttm'a miti:-simi :O:IlIllU'. a,:o:idllitatl' lIIo)(':.;tial1lm ";l'n"l1l11 Olllnl'1I1 humallirati:- t'X 
allimis amittillllls,"f \\ll<<.'n al1l1.., c'll'I'
 lxdll,i\'dy ú('('IIIHl'(f "ith amlir
of lIIen, there :trt' Il,ft uo p('r'oll
 of pac'ifh' or.tlt-r, with leisurl' to ('ulti\'ate the 
 that ('a:o:t =--II('h a eldil'iolh li,rht of iell'aI h,'auh' U I )OIl (11f' hlllllan e'.- 
C '. 
i=--tl'IH'l', wlit'11 tlll'r,' UI"t' no pril'st..; to (' In\l'(
,- "ill. lIahll'{' in tIlt' "\loel..., or t\l draw 
..ieh IIH'n thithel' tor a m .ml'nt' \\ ho lIli!..;ht ther
 bl' awal
l'IICII to a :-('IISC of ctc'rllal 
Ihings; \\'ll('n poctr
", awl all work.; of ima
illatilln. :I
 of wisdom. lx'l'ome the 
domain of I, gi
t..:; 01' literary :5bn..., or tmdcr::, in ,\ riting, ur proml, sullt n, 
:o:pitc'flll, di..t'lu'h:mh'Cl :0: .lIatOl...., "h,), \\ hafton'r th(.
' ilia)' pr('h..nd, arc di";
at tilt' (.motion..; of the :O:'HlI, a:o; well :1' at tlu' l'njo.\"IIH'nt...; of mind :11111 of :--,'IIS<<.', 
111('11 Onl'lI sworn and for:-m om. llIlft,rlllllatf> hc'in
:-., who 11:1\"(' no IOIl
('r tlu> 
thollghL3 of yo lith, of\"irtue, 01' of fÌ'l'I(I,IIII; \\h""e arc' \,ithel'l.t!; \\IHH> 
li\'e:; :lI'e worn till[ ; whu live ollly to thret' illlprc.:o-,iun.., l"roti..m, l', and 
priùl>,":t: will not the ruin or litl'l'atlll (' to!}n\\, ..1nd IIIU..t not philo..oph)" ItlUlirn 
..ioll nfth.....;.. :B,\'IIIIU'" in whu'h the lIIell that \\'('r
 to introduce IIl
r to 
till' world \\el'l' trallll'IIIIP flOlII till'ir youth ill ilw Ill'wi(' lo\'e of Gotl. "ithin th
abode"') of tme 1)(';U'c? CO" pPI' 
'I)'i:) Ih the 1111'11 of EII
I:llul whil'h \\":1:0, the fìr,1 
natioll to aholi:-h 11101l.....', " tlwt (Ioing goo..l, dl:-.intt.'n':-ted good, i:i not 
tracle," 'Vltat hf'l'Oml':O; of philo!-oopL.'" ill 
udl h:mù..? It wa... frotll nHJl13.,t('riE'::J 
that eallll' fill-th Bll'n wl;o...e tm I
 \\'a..; Cl')ing (ll:-::ttt'r,.
t('(1 J!ood ; atHI, therefore, 
I)('c.t atlll \ao!y Ilu'n, \\ ho "Ol1gllt to b('n"ti
 du' worlel, h:an' al way:-- cl. sin.c) 
theil' pl'()pa
atioll. One c,f tilt' tilrl'(> thing.. which Haymollli r .uJl
' had at heart, 
hefi,re laying cl 0\\ n hi.. Hie for t!aE' lo,'c 01 'hnst, was that monasteri(' mi
ht lx- 
t'.;tahli=--hcll ill all parts of tl1f' hal)itahl.. gloÏlt>. 
'''ith r('.;pt'd. to sOl'ial :lnH'lioratioll 111 g('(H'ral, tIll' 11'-(' of lIIona,t('ri,:" \\as no 
II's... ..\,ide'llt t.o tho" "ho f.IIJlHI.cI (111'111, mill to all "lao Ilacl p,})Cril'llec oftlH'il' 
eft'('L3, rlil" V :o:t:lIIll'ut of "ï II i:lIl1 till' "ion... (Ink... of 
 \C'(l'lilaim , :-}"'-'a h iu
 of his 
lIlotivp..; fc'r fimmlin
 tilt' IIl P ua..t('I'Y of CI1l1l
', in 910, will pro\"etlll' iìr,t p:lrt uf 
this propo,itioll; fc)r :Jft('r 

 that h> lIIakes II1Is fcmnclatioll, in ordet' that 
thert' Illay hE' a \'E'nl'r:lhlc, !tollSC of pra."C'I', fàil hfull
' fn clm'lIll'd \\ ith vow
Sll pplicat ion.... with a 1"':1 "('11 h. ('On ,'pr.:1' i, n :111,) all cf('..i 1'(' atHl int('rual ardor, and 
pea..;el('H..; intl'pa'ip
 to thp Lord. hp a.1,1s, ,," p J)rf',,'rihP p..f)('('ialh' that this (IIII' 
dOllatif)ß ma
' hp for a pprpNlla1 rpfÌl
e t.') t!tp poor who Ip:1\"e th(' world, \\ hI) 
' nothing wilh thpm hilt a go()(1 will. that :.') our prO\"i!'\ioll may be 

* Epist. i. 

t Pro S. Rn"cio 6\ tn. r. 53. 

t Titnon. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


made their abundance. \Ye dc.",ire also, that as opportunity and power may he 
aflin'ded, there may be from this timf' forth, for ever, dail
" {'xhibited works of 
mercy to all the poor, to :-,tmnger:" alld b tra\'eller
; and r ('onjure 311 secu]ar 
princcs awl other:-:, hy GOll and hy the :-.lints, aml hy tl)('da
. of tr,'nw'Hlousjudg- 
ment, to refrain from in\':ldillg or diminishing thf' :-;uh.;tancp of tb(.:-c serv:mts of 
God; and I bC:,PCl>h the holy apostle..;, Pt.tcr aml Pall], tu gilaI'd rhi..; honst' from 
c\"il men; and r in\'lIke the wrath of dIP ...\.lmighty upon whoe\'(
r :--hall in\"ali- 
date thi:-: testament, which is mmle f
 11' his lo\'e and in honor of bi:-, holy ;o;ervant:,,"* 
The latter 3:ì..;ertion i
 \"erified hy the mo(lel'l1s themsel \'e..;. 
" flere is a con\'ent of twe1\-e perimn
'lYf' a ke('n oh
er\'{'r of the mallners of 
nations, speaking of 
paill. "the four elde:--t are occupie(l a:-: priests, with confc'- 
sian, preaching, worship, awl tlw instruction of youth; two other:, ha\'1' chargl' of 
the church of the hOIl::5c; tbe !'ix uthel'.:; go out to bpg through the eity or ('Olmtry, 
from whieh they bring home wood, wine, or y('gctahle:;. The gift:; are 50 beyolld 
the waut..; of the conYPlit that ew>ry (by tl)('5e monks 110uri:,h abundalltly fifty 
poor of the neighborhood. I h:n'e often as:-ói4ed at these di4ribution:-:, alill I 
ha\'e lJe\'er :o'cen the superior f:.til to ask after such of his 
ts as were ahsent, in 
order to :--cn(1 them prü\'isions. Such i.:; the :öour<'e of thi:o; pretended :-,uperstition 
of the pcople of Bpain and Italy, and I conclude by a
king, is it po..;
ihle that 
twelve men coultl be better employed for the 
oo\l and 
ecUl"ity oi' sueiety ? Bp- 
sides the materia] a(h-anlage, in re"'peet to agriculture, how mlH'h i
 a village en- 
lIobled b
' the li\'Ïng education affi)rdt.<f by monks in preaching, confcs
ing, cate- 
chizing, ami encouraging confraternities, and ill:--tructing children."t 
It was 110 wonder that the ruin of such huus/-'..; wa:;; bmented hy the people. 
Speaking of the sllppre
sioll of the smaller Dlollilsteri(::8 in England, \\T eevpr :,a)'
" It was a pitiful thing to hear the lamentatioll that the )>eopl
 in the coulltr
made fOl' them; for there was great hospit:tlity kept among- theru:'
 The los:-; 
of only one mona
tel'y-that ufOliya, in ] :1t)O, whi<,h ,,'a..; hurnt-is recorded by 
the lIurtl1erll histor"ians as a lIationa] calamit,\., equal to that of the pe::5tilence of 
that dreadful ye31'.
"Xow hear the testimony of one who 10\"e<1 them 1I0t: "Half a league frolll 
ays B()urgoi
n, " is one of the most famous Carthu:-;ian mona5terie
Spain, containing 
orne of the fine,.;t painting-,.; of Zurbal"3l1 amI Luc Jordanu
The silent illhabitanls of this charming a,.;y]mH make u:õ: almost pardon thl,ir opu- 
]ence aud pious indolence by tlleir tendel' solicitude f(n- the two most intere
ing agE:':' of life; they begin the education of thirty poorchiJdrell of tÌ1e neighbor- 
ing tawil, and tweh-(> old men } )3:-,t \\'orkìnCT come to fiJli,.;h their <1:\\',;; l wac('ahh' 
Ö ,. 
st them.)"" .. The monastic order/; ..;}y
 a modern historian, :-:!waking of 
Endand ill the time of Lanfranc>, "became a blessing to the natiou; not oni)' 

* BibHoth. CluD, 2," 


t Rubichon rlu 
Ié('anisme de la Société enFrance et en Angleterre. 

 V oigh t. G. Prl-u".sens. \". I Tableau de rEspagnc. iii. 


)1 {) R E :-\ r \ T II () L I (' I; () H, 

were c'harity ('
erci:-ell, 3
riclllttl1'(' c'''{tcmlc..J, 1l'11
11I1l alill m Cl raJ1l) iIIC'IIJc'atc'll, the 
lJl'ighhOl'llOotl kept in ppal'l', hUI, a:-i :-dl,.ol.. w('re' Opt II' cI ill ('\'cr
' dio(.p..c., ('iviliz.'l- 
tion W3.::) rapidly allcl widdy difJ'uS{'cl tl1r n llghollt thl' C' IlIlItl'
TravdJ('r:oi at tilt. pr('''I'lIt Iby :lr(' 
tnH'k with tift> lI:-C.11I1 I tti.'c'l
 of a lI,at,'rial 
ordc'r prodllc'c'cl hy the III.ighhurllOod of a l'OI1\'('II1. "TIle' approadU'... to I {IIC'( ta," 
:-:1Y:-; Bourgoign, h on till! wacl from '[a,1rid In Sar:lg-o
Nl arc all c'
c'l'plllll1 to the 
frigJufll1 :lppcaranC'f
 of lilt.' cllunu')'; 1
JI' thi
 \"itb!!e he.ioll
'" to a lIlona..t"ryof 
llenl'clict i Ill'''', \\ hiC'h C
l1I"1'" to r('i
1I rounel it ('Cllllf
JI.t, ('1111 j\":ltioll amI :-lIadl'; 

t ri king- d i m'rt'Ill'c' in Spai II lwt\n ('II t h" po '
....ioll:) of ('('c.}.'...aa..t ic'.. :md t ho!'t' of 
thc ric.helSt by propril'tol's, "hid 1 I.. t':\plaiu('cI Ii" the I" rpetual J'l.:-id('IIt'c of the 
011(' amI the aL:-;cnce ofth. Ot!WI'."t Y('t tilt 
(', \\"1' II1I1..t r('llIl'mh,.!', '\l'n' tJw II a..t 
3ch'anl:I!!<<:-;; fi)r it wa..; "ith .\ \'it.\\, to th(' re.Ji!!illll
 1)('11( fit re'''lIltillg' from tht ir 
hhorhood, that me'lI, in :l1!'.... faith, (ll', cI to livc lIear TlI' III. "'c' rc.:ad in 
the allllaJs of thc Capllc,l.ill", that ill 1,'))'0, whl'n a C'1.II\'l'lIt (If that oadc'I' \\a.. to 
hc Imilt ill tilt' \'ali('y of La
alln, tlH
 :-ul'rollluling tll\\U
 c'lIntt'ucI(,cI with l'.lt'h 
otbf'r rC'8pcdil1g- thL !'itl' to hc' eho!'l.n, [.'1' l
('h \\ i..l.c'cl that it might he huilt in it., 
immcdiate \'il'iuit),:, \\lIO (':111 clouhl, hut tllat tlw iJlu:o:triou... 111('11, whll, like 
COSII10 el(. )[c.clic-:
, f"ul1cII cl 01' J"C.huih abh..,y.., wc'n' :wtllat cl IlO Ic 

 \\ ith :J \"ipw 
to utility than to a cIi,play of their ()\\ 11 m:J.rllificenC't'? 
L.hillon, :Iftc I' J"(.mark- 
ing- ill \\"h:1t a T('\'l'l'ential lig-lit monl..... 'H're regal'lled by .TII..tini:m :111(1 hy the 

l'eat amlll arl1l.clmt'1l of prÏlI1itivt' timp.;, c'olltilHH 
 tlm,: " F'ol' who i:- tl.('I"(' that 
h:IS ajll:-öt S!'lht' of ('h..i:o:tian pi(aty, alltl \\ho l,,{:Lmin('-; till' thill
 hdim' (
o(I, hilt 
IllU..t e
tc'c'm tllUôC m('u \'C'I'.'" u..cflll to th,. l'iHlrc,h, who f'wle:lvor to ('ol1fi)l'lU a..- to the Jif... of Cllri..t; \\h.. ("(.It.hratc' till' \\or,hip ofnotl \\ith :111 th' 
cl('\'otioll (If whidl till')' :ITe c,.lpablC', ot1i.'rin!! lIU'ir ho,h' aud Soli I a... a c'on-;I:lI1t 
sacrifil'c of }>I":li..e; \\ ho rdaill tl.... :lIIl'icnt \"C ...ti
('.. :I1ul 
p( ('jltlcu of Chri..tiall pt ni- 
knee ill the' l'hurt'h; who opc'l1f'tl pllhliC' !'Ö(.ilflOJ... of \'irtIlP. \\ ho, by tht.i,' lahor, 
tl'ansmittllI thc ml)lJUll1c'nts of :11lc.iC'1I1 \\ ritill!! to pOI'\:l'rity ; \\110 gave c'x:lIllple 
to clcrlis tu illstitute lauclahle . IciC'tit:O:; \\ hC) ert'(.tl'II a", many lao:o:pitaJI" f.'r the 
poor as mC)lJa:-,lerils, ill \\ lIi('h the cìi
 ,)f the soul "erc' ('un el ; in '\ Jllc.h hap- 
(ismal illnocl'lIc'e \\ as prl :'1'f\'t'cI ill\'iobtc a , 01' J't stCJl't cl ",hI' II lo!'t, :111<1 in \\ laid 1 tll(' 
Wa.lltS of all th.. nc.(' wt're 8I1ppJic'tI? '10Ila
:1I (' hOh.I..:, in \\,Jlic.h not alone 
the cloistral floek, hut, :IS I.,(','clt'
 t('stili :-ö, the whol., worlel i!' dC'li\'('n'll fronl 
thCC'OITllptious ofthc: a;C", Fina.II,\', \\"hl) C'.111 :O:'lY tJ1'lt they we're Ihe 
ci\.il allcl (,h..i
tiall J'('lmhJi(" who C'O\'('r '11 witia to\\'l1o.: awl \"i11a,rl" SO m:II1Y prov- 
incc:; h .ÎOl'I' Illlinluhit 'II :1111 d( =" 'I'r, aclornlCllh. III ",irh c.lifi('fs, (',.(l thcm 
with lettc.r:-ö, allli hy gi\'ill
 I pi
I'op:lI tl'HI nast01
ll ill.... itnt;()(1.... hrollLrht "'0 many 
 uf p:a''::ln8 to the f:litil ?"t 
.\ p'nllag'ol'æan 
 licl of old, (, that thll:-:' who ('OIl:-titIllPcI my...tC'ri('... an' 11tH to 
be dc...pist.d, fi)J' that thc'sc a,lmonish "1l'1I ...('Crt.t 1,\', t Jlat \\ ho"\'t.1' ..hall (Iepart to 

... Europ. in tile 
[i,1. '\:'!"'. ('yc1np. VII]. iv. 

t iii. 

: Pr;crat. in IY _ 

E:-; OF F


Ibò{':-, IJIH'xpiatel1 alld ullinit:atlJ will havc to lie inllw r:-e<1 in ordure, but \\"ho- 
<<:\"cr goe... away purged anll i1utia!cd "ilI d well with the gOlls. u * Sow, Wl' may 
affirm, that nwna
, in a 1I1O:-t t'fff'(.tn:II m:lIllICr, an
werl'd this great end; 
while, as Petru... 
lltorm; remark..:," the corrupt nUl\IlIer:-; of men :.:uffipiclltly show 
what '"croal pn.achi))g can do in thi,.: a;.rc,"t "::;c(,llbr:-:," say.; this author. " wh.) 
perceive what Carthn,i:Ill"':' ulldertake thl'ollgh d":.:ire of tbe ('elc
tial cOlwtry, arc 
]l'll to cOIl:-:ide,' that the entrance to he:l\'ell i..; not :':0 e:J:':y, but the narrow way.":t: 
USI'fhl thPII was tbe merp remembrance tÌlat a 1110na:-,ter)' \\"a
 near; and mark 
now the effects of :,ub,titnting lay proprit'tors fur the poor of Chri:-;t that were in,ralllx, Glastonbury, or any other of the..;e celehrated spot
. Shall I ('al] 01(1 
philo:.:ophy, awl demalHl what 
he thillks of the change? lIeI' word.; would be, 
" not with a life tlwll which I ('an ('(\Ilcei\'e nothing- 1II0l'e funl, wretcbed, or con- 
temptible, will I compare that of all Allselm, or a Thomas ill th CIOl:-:tcr. ,rho 
that has eyer Ilad allY commerce with the mu'cs, that i:.:, with humanity and with 
leal'lIing, would not mther lh-e Ileal' that monk titan thi=-- lord? Come now, pre- 
pare Scotns, Bona,'elltnre, Dominick, Frallei:o;, what domain
, what palaces, win 
you pl' to their delight-;?" Ifow u:-;ef111 is it to s('e pa:.::.: through the street..; of 
!'ome great (.apital one wrapt up in 
able weed:" which of them
elves proclaim 
many utterable tbin
:;, and aho,"e all, faith! Truly 1 felt it :;0 in Ihat happy 
Florence where, amid:-t the di II and pomp of the gay tltrong, you sec the barefo<,ted 
friar, or the ::;01e1l1l1 hooded man, con\'t'yillg' by their ::;ole aspect snch a S,)lemll 
Jc:;..;()n to the ri('h, and such sweet consolatioll to the poor, "The mere :-:ight of 
one of the
e monk..;," :-ay
 b1. John Chry
ostolll, speaking of the hermit..: who came 
\lltioch," c(lllld reeoneile Illen to the calami tie.; of Lhis \\"01'1<1. 'rho would 
nllt lallgh at death \\" hcn he sa \V tll<'lll ?" Ask now any of the unhappy exilf':-> 
wh'l have fled frolll tht' per
ccnti()n in 
pain and Purtugal, what i..; it of which they 
most feel the want in London, where, as the poet says of hi

.. we grow early grey but never wise," 

thf'Y will tell you, as I \Va;;; a..;,sured by one who said \'Tal
.ntia was his home, that 
it is of lIJolJa
teries. That is the want of wants: it is the conversation "ith these 
pious reCh1'3es: it is the peace which flows fmm the mere sen
e of h
t\'ing accpc;:s 
to such m('n, But thcre we fin<l them not. So dis('ot1so1ate the..;e poor exiles pass 
h d)1' lOll!! strpf'IS of the million-peopled city, which i..; to them a fruitlc..;s 
desert, \\ here, as tÌ1e poet 

.. each one 
et..l"s his mate, yet his alone, 
Beloved and sought antI mourned of none," 

'IO,.eO\,('I', in f'stimatin!! th.. 11":{> of 1I10nastel'ip
, we llIu:.:t take it into account the 
t whi('h thp)" imp:u.t('d to a wh..I..> conntl'Y, ('ounte'racting, bv their local in- 

* Jamhlich. Adhortat.. 3ff Philosoph. 13, 
t Iii. ii. t. ii. :!. 

t Pet, Sut. de Vita Carthusial1!1, Lib, ii. c. 2. 


:\1 0 H Ese A T II 0 L J( , I; 0 fl., 

tlnèll(,(" the I)aneful e!fed::. of thnt !H,li('\' of TIIl':-(,u:-: ill \ttica, \\ hich men in 
modern times ('annot {-'yell bO:I:-:t of a.... 0\\ II, \\ hil'h (.lIn....i....t.. ill (.t'lItnliil'illJ; a 
Ilat 011. dra\\'iu
 ail illt. !"t.....t to Oltl' :-.p.,t, awl makin
 it :-:upn.)I}t..* \\ kit all illll')"- 
1'..;1 i... 
i\'t.1l to B.II.}!o...., Yalladolid, alld 'roINI", hy the'S \\ ll.l')' 
(',I)HaiJl! To what a disblll'C aroulld dOls tilt" CI...rt)'('II=" of )liraflort'...., with its 
magnificl'nt ..epull'hl'cs, shc(lllIstre ! It w:t.. tlau.. thar, ill 3
t'.. 01 faith, the aura('- 
tion ami the ('harm \\ert' diffiJsc,I (',"pr)' wlll'l"l' It\" ItIP.t11S of 111<'''(' in...rimtion...; [1')' 
tlu'moua..teries h:ul charms fi)r all ; thc tl an.Hcr might \\ t,1I10\'e IIwir IlOspi:a111
gatt.:" the pOOl' tlH'ir ('olln..: fm' di":pt'lIsin
 ('hariry, the anti(l'mrian tlll'ir lHlil(lilJtr
the :,{'hobr their lihrarie.., the arti
t tllt'ir paintiug..:, an\1 the ....aint their churclws, 
Truly it \\
b wdl fill' an lI
t)1'tal... \\hell tll('n' \\P)'.' tho..t, hlll
' mountain.... 
" \\ hl'l'c \\"('1'(' h('anl tilt' h\....t IIlUrnUII'", of earth anc.I tl.t, fi),:"'t :'onwl of IH'ayen." 
TheI'l' i.. a pOt.tie illfluen(,l' in th.. \'l'ry ,....Plltf')U'f'. \\ hil'h r,'('onl tlwir ('
i,tcn('(', :IS 
when we h('
u' of the T ri...h IUl.JIII".; whi{'h at the first :,')\JJI(] oet-Ill.. a.. if to clispd from 
the f.1Cl: of that glorious i..lalld all tIlt' dolII' "fInw pro
:li(' :I:"..,,()('iat iOl1s \\ ith whieh 
it h:l;o; beell envelop!'() hy the IIIl'lI who III\()t'l";-.t:l1I<1 not it.:: dt'
tiIlY, on whose 
tOIl}!U('''' it i..: a:-::,ocÏaÍl'tl \\ iw uu uthl'r im:wt' bl1t that of lortllil'IIÍl'll:l1Its allli poli(.t'- 
mCll. Hut let U
 nth'm) to the practi('.ll 1"1 'ult.s. "That is the fÌ1:-.t con"('(plCnCC uf 
a religiuns unit')' L 'ill
 rt...."i\"ell into a ('it)'? Imlllt'diately tlWI't' is a structure 
di,,:co\"t'r<'l.l \\ ith a door whit.h npt'l1__ to all com'...
, tilt' poor 111:111, th" Hllu1t'nl, the 
retired of1il't'I", all tilt''tl au(1 frit.tuB-:o'''' "an' tlll'll('f.f.,rth a p o il1t of IInion 
where the COllllt!t.=--...: ....l.nriJllf'lIt.... uf ta....t., (,ollll('('(('d \\ ith heallt.\' :lIul gral\(lpur of 
Joealitr, arc l'nli
tc.J Oil the )o.idc of flith, to tlt'strtl," !<-ill with ill them, :uHI to bet 
up the gloriou... throuc of Jt')o.u",. Xow cHIiM a "-olitary ('lIrate ('onfc)" the :-ame 
killd of bl'ltl'fit as thi",? Lt'ihllitz, a\'()win
 his 10\'1' fcH' tht
 mon:l..ti(, ordpl':"', ufter 
eUlimcrating the 
 \' hidl tllP)" l"(1)(l('r :ltl11
 "\\ hO.'\"I')" i... i
llO..allt of tllt'8e 
s, or tlt'..;pisc.. them, I.a
 only a narm\\' awl \"111''':11' i(h-a of \'i.-tllt', alllI :-tupidly 
believes that he has a('cnmplisht'l.l all hi..; ubligation.. to (;dd \\ 11t'11 ht' has extt'rnally 
cltarg('d :-ome u....uaI pradiel'''' with thaI hahitual ('oldn,''':-' wlti('h I
 11t'\"er accom- 
pallit.a with :my 7.(':,1 or any :oot'llti IlII'nt"" To ....uch .'en"IIl'f' tll(, ill 11:"" rioll'" IIWI) in 
CatilOlie timc..; wert's .Jtlum ohn'lxiou=-,. l\.t)':lrl,h !"p..aks of hi:-; own h:lppill(,
living' ne;u' the hOllse of thp Carthu..i:m.., wlt're 1)(' can f'ut('r at all tillle
 3... ifolle 
of tlae f:.unil.\"t "r alltl PiclI... of 
lir.1ltdll1a," say 
laNilill"" Fit'inll
, "latply 
 on tlae hiIls of Fit'Sllle, 
 th,. \\'hol{' plain of Flon'IIt.t'. :1I1tl (li....- 
iJlg ahollt lIlt' lx'st' for a hou
', 1)t'hol.lill!! the plal'(' ""hert' tilt' \\ i:-O(' Ll'on- 
at'd .A1"l'tiIlO, an,1 Pandolphino, alltl Pl't ')' P..ilipp", h:ul (.IHH'n r.)r tllt'ir \'illa:-:. 0 
h:! pp
' PatH 101 ph, ('rie( 1 Pil'n
, who, le:n"i n
 pn 1.1 it' affiti )':"', i nhahitf'1 I a 
a('rt'd hOIl;-'('- 
I :0'3)' !;acrH1, for )war thii-> :-,pnt i..; a gro\'(' 
llrr()nn,It>,1 hy t \u'llty hon....(.s of religious 
order:,."! "The nf'i
ltbo)'hood of a nlOna....tcry wins me !->Iill," woultl l1lan
' say 
in the langll3gp of the poet, "I l1t'\"er fralllt't1 a \\ i!"h, 01' (orltlpd a pIan that flat- 
h'red me with hope of early b1i:-:-:, but there I laid the :-('Pl1l'." 

* Thucyd.ii. 15, 

t Epj
t, Lib. x. 1

t :\11.11
. Ficini
t. Lib, ix. 

AGE S 0 F 11' A I T Ii. 


Thus useful to all, we may remark, in fine, that m()n:l
terie8 conferrell bt'ne- 
fits in a more f>
pecial manner 011 a das... of men :-utfering from irremeòiable 
wound..., who, without that re:-,onrce, would have been tcmpOl':.lIy :md prohahly 
t<)r ever wretched. U The slIi('iùe of the middle age:-,," Fay!' a late editor of tile 
chronicles of St. Denis, "wa:, to enter a tllona..tery;" fill' the monk was not like 
....Eoln..:, who send:; rlys
es away from hi... shores merely because he observes him 
to be most miserable. 

H"Epþ' if(, -vi}6oY ()ã66ov, V..iYX16u Crüó-vTûW' 
Ob yáp }.LOl fJi}.L1S i.6rì f(,oJ.ll;i}.LEY ovð' å1C01li}.L1tE1Y 
Ayðpa TÒV, uS I(,E ()wl6,V à1tixl)17Tm }.LalLápE66z-v."* 

In ages of faith, when men were thns pl"O:-,tratell without hope of recovery, not 
seJf-:-laughter, as :\Iortimer !'ay=', nor jl1
t death, nOl' WaI', the arbitrator of des- 
pair, the kind umpire of men's H1i:-,erie
, 1101' the flying to intentions savage wild, 
more fierce and more inexOl'able far than empty tiger:', Q[' the roaring sea; but 
the cowl, the harbinger of peace, with 
w('et enJargeruent did di
miss them hence. 
Youth, indef'(l, has offen little thought for what the future may bring forth, and 
the world seems made fin' it

.. Quand j'e8tnis jenne, ain.. qu'une amour nouvelle 
!\e se fust prise CD m:, tenllre moelle, 
Je vivois bien heUlelJx : 
Lors je vivnis amoUl'eux de moy mesme, 
Content et gay san'" porter face blesme, 
Ny les larmes à J'æi1. 
J'avois escrit au plus haut de la face, 
Avecques l'honneur, UDe agrcable au dace 
Pleine d'um franc desir : 
Avec Ie pied marchoit rua fantaisie 
OÙ jc volois, sans peur De jalousie. 
SeignpHr de mon plaisir." 

Thus sings Ronsard of lais .routh, Lilt how changed was he when hesllngthlls ! 
The worlJ was no IOllgel' the ...;arue for him, \Vhat is its society to tho
e who 
ha\'e stained the childhuod of tÌ1eir joy, or who are dragging after them the long 
chain of dis3.þpointcd hop('s? 
" .A good society," as a Frellch 
llthor ::I3.Y
, "provide
 for ('\'el'y thing, eVPll 
fOl' the wants of those who dt'tach them.:el ves n-om it by choice or by necessity."t 
" Omnia dllplieia, uuum ('outra unulU, et nOli fecit qllicquam deeb:"e,'> says the 
holy text.! God prO\'i(!t_,s a contran' thinO' fi)r each that there m:lv he a I'eruedy 
. ö' ... ., 
for it, How consi4ent then was it with the or<.lf-'l' of di\'Îne Providence that thert:. 
should be for tho;;;,e writb'n in 
our rni:-òfortune's book, to whom thf> \\'orld is not 
a friend, nor the world's law, a refuge such as monasteries, where they may ex- 
claim on entering, "Oh, here will I set up my everlasting rest, and ::hake the 

* x. ;2. 

t C, ::iodier, 
léllitations dll CloÎtre. 

t Ec. xlii. 32. 


.:\1 0 I
 Ese A T II 01.. : C I; 0 R, 

yoke of ill:lU'pi<,i()ns:--t:lr
 1'1'11111 thi:-, \\'OI')d-wearil'l) ftf'...h !" For, a, the poet 
"Tlu' be;t.,t h
L-; his asylum in tilt. l'l)('k" thl' sb\'t' at th.. aJt:ar ; U ('ity call 
to another city to delt:.1lI1 it; ftlr there is llothing of III 0 I.ta I::>> whi<,h i, Ilap1'Y unto 
nll."* )loved by these con'ldt','atiolls, a grl';lt j....n.n('h I'hilu:toph. I' of tlo1O 
pre,ent (by, de.;iriu
 the l'e-c,tablisilllJeJ1( (If tll(' n.ligi"u
 or<1t.r., in Fnw('., 
t.'xcbims, "Lf>r u., grant to \"irlttl' that right of :Is
lnlll \\hidl crime h:l(l formerly. 
There are alwa.ys upon cal,th lll"n whc) art.tà with lil
.'sjournf'\'J :11111110 one 
cau be :,ure that "ollle day 01' othcr he will 1J0t Lt. of th(.ir IlIIlIIber." 
Such then, in brief, were sOllie few of the useful 
 to \\ hieh mOIl1l:,tcr:Ci 
:,crn.d in ages (If flith, and, ill con<'lu:,:ou, a!'e \\ e to be told, tllat tLt' timc ftlr 

uch ill-;titution
 to be \'alna!lle is fur ('\'er I'a..t, awl tIH,'
' fulfilled ,Il"- 
tiuy? But a
 t;t. Grcgory says, I. I..; not l'll.mity ,till ar :-t:lkl', amI call thcl'l' he 
t hen too great 
l'(,lII'ity fi)r lUan '?" Hu'au'l' tilt' \\ u: Itl put:-. 1111 lit W all 111\.t iOB:', 
(loe,.;; wisllolll require her <,hildr..n to L(, I{.
 alld 1, So':) I"('m,,\'( <I fWIIl it? ..\1'(' thl're 
110 colltemplati\'e :,ou)..; now in til("(' 
i<lùr ti6l1l'
, "h'l \\0111<1 bc:-t thri\"l' ill s:meti- 
ficd relin.lt1l'llt? DII('" the 11ll1l1:l1l h. at.t 111) IOIlt.f'r in any in,tan
 I'(>({llirl' as,()Cia- 
liun widl the faithful? An' all men 1I0W fit 1.11 :-trl1
dl' :Ig-aill,..t tile 
tl'ealll of the 
life which is at {'lllllity with (;011"! ..\IHI \\ 111'11 bt. .Jt.rome paint
 tit{' dial III or 
s ,Iimtle, tile s.illne..;:; of tht: world atHI it..; (bll
t'r,', i
 this all lInilltelli,riL)e Jan- 

P recalling nothing that \\ r 
CC aUII feel? \r:.1:-, tlll'rc {'vcr an u
e in \\ hil'h 
all tle,h h.Hlmore COI'I'uptt'<.l it
 way, wholl the frif'n,l
hip (If the \\01'1<1 was more 
dallgeron..;, aOtl wh
n it \Va-..; more (':\IWtliput ftH' mall\' t,) :-ep:tr:ttf' tlaem:-:.,h't s from 
it ? Yet there are e\Yeli PlÄ'ts no\\' who :--l'l'lI1 to that tIlt' a!!e (If 1II0Ila,tt'l"- 
i('..; is pa..t, ai if thc\. could nl) loug"'I' 
I'\.e any lIS .ful purp(l
, Bllt thi., is a 

reat errol'; for were on.' of 0111' rnine I ahbt.y:, to he rdnlilt 
tllli peupl. ù again 
with II1l1nl.:
, irs old inhabitants, aftel' ::ìhelterin
 only the ow)et and tll.' hat ftu' 
full three hUllllred J(':lr
, till' IH'W cOrJ)er.:;, 011 th(' fir,t .lay ofopl'niu1! till'il' !'I'hllol, 
mi;.dlt hl'
in with the ftJl'lUnla, Ht"I'i .li('(.halUl1
, It wOlll<l 
l.t>m :h if Lur ontO 
lIre try night ha.l illtcf\'t'Il
illce the
' h:ul b,t lIH't tl1t
rl', Tlu.rc would Ix' noth- 
ing to r..traf't, lI o thillg' to ch.,m!!e; ft,r till' IIllln3.:o'tic> life 
prin!!" from a 
whi,.h lips J....Pp ill tl.(' human hp:1rt; ...0 tll,lt stlJ,h iu')titlltion:o" how'\"er lI:itioM 
' rage anll ('OUll'n.1 :1
_ tl)('lIJ. ('an hur fulfil d. ...:inv with the worM. 

· E\lrlp. 
II t1p. 

AGE S u F F...\ I T 11, 




IXG now tile thought:; of mell at \"
)rian('e \Vitü th
{ ' li t 11 tllll' '''''1'"",,1 :tgnill-t gro>" crw,.,., OlU'l'urpoôe IDa)' he resUI",,1 with 1111- 

, r 
 gllar(kd simplicity, as if we talked with fril'nd", who lIudt'rstood II
, SO 

j It'Ì u
 mount , reader , . fi)r the \\"a\' is Ifln g and nllH.'h uncouth th(' road , 

f - 
! i '... perhaps, even threatening ,what A('hil1ps so milch feared, the }wing rnr- 
ried aW:1Y by a Tnollntain torrpnt, like a slH'phel'd bd by wintry floods, 
I have read in the annals of Corh)', in Saxony, how, ill 8.58, Ahbo, d13mlwrlaill 
in that abbey, peri
hl'd in :1 river whiie only proceeding to visit hi
 mother at 
helU. The !-'tr'eam, being swoJ]en with the rains, carried away the incau- 
 lUonk,* Holy hands, however, like those of 81. 'Yilliam, have often con- 
trived a safe passagf> for 
nch poor pilgriltls tll the de:;:ert. So take we courage, 
for one will i
 ill us both, Let some guide lead on to the abbey! we enter, at 
:111 evellt
, on unfrt-'quenrcd ways, All! how docs the 
('tting forth on such a 
t remind one of happy wandering,.; among the va
t 311d noble 
cenes of na- 
tnre! .fin' amid :o'nch, in gener:ll, wpre mona..;tel,ie..; fOUIJ(l Is there a ",ilù :o:olemn 

l't, or' a smiling be;l11teon
P()t. fat, aW:lY amilI,.;t the woods and mountain
which would haye :-:pellbound a Sah'ator Ro..a 01' a Claude? There we are al- 
most sure to find the pp:lct'fnl abode of monks. 

Semper e.nim valles, !l-ilvestribus undique cinctas 
Arboribus, divus Bernardu:5, amænuque prata 
Et ftuvois ; juga sed Benedictus amahat, et arces 
Cælo sl1rgentes ê quarum vertice latè 
Prospectus petitur, 
ecessum p1ehis uterque ; 
Sacrarum scripturarum s(udioms uterque 
}Iusarum et Phæhi: non quem colit ethnica turba 
Sed quem Chl'istico
æ natum dc virgine nedullt, 

St, BasiJ, indeed, who wa.. tIlf' first to establi:-,h a regular and con
tant disci- 
pline by a general in:-,titntioll 
II' all monks, oròert.d that monàsteries should be 
in the lwigbhorhood IIf ('iti,.s, in ord"I' to affilrd a
..;ist:l1I('e to men, St. Benedict, 
who ill th<.' '\'f'
t supplied a !'imilial' in4itntion. fl'om the same motive g:1ve monks 
..ion to e:-,tahJish their honses in cities 
md towns, which befì>1'e that time 
had lWC-1I int{ll'dietecI to tltem, The council of Trent ach'i",ed that mona
e:;pecially of women, shollld, ",1!I'ren'l' it wa..; pO..;:õihle, be transferred to towns 

'* A1=-- LcilJllilz. ::kript. Br uus, ii. 


:M 0 R E 8 CAT!I J L! C I. 0 H, 

for the :-ak(' of many a(IVallt:lg('S, "hi('h gavt' risl', a
 ill Paris, to :Ihh,.)'
 in th(' 
heart of cities, retainin
 the title of lh(' \\"ootl in whidl Ihl')' had hI fcr(' lU't'n !oiit- 
uated, But 8till inllllmcrahle mon:l:-tl'ri,':, ('Olltinll' d tu l'xi-t ill (If ::,Crt 1'130('1':0-, in 
spots \\ here t'\"CI')' thillg 
.'l'1I1t d to ('all the :Ollul to <''OlIlcmpbtillu a.. in primitivc 
timc3, in the dcs'rt.; of PUlltIlS, alld :.lluic.l...t the cave., (If Cappa(lo('ia, For afwr 
the apo5tlt':", the fir
t mllnks n-tl", d to \'a-t 
(\lit\1(It..:--, for tilt' :-:tk(. of pra
 ('I' and 
mc\liI3tioll,\'illg cerwill l'unUUUn mle..., :1..'" 111,1)' bt.. (...lif'l.t4'(1 frum Phil(
æll:". St. JefLIffii' argiles from the very name 
lolI:\('hu-, Ihat Ihe prll(('.,:-or ...houl,I 
witll\lraw from the com mOil hallllh of 11l{'n; 3011(1 
t. Chryso-toll1 rpl1Iill<ls the 
inhahitallt., of 3 great city that tllt'Y nre oLlig-'ll to :ulmiu. OftI'll the happillf'
allc.l peace of the holy men who live a :;",Iitary life in the mClulltaill'" filul tle.,l'rt..., 
where Ihp'y are fu' from all worTdly ('301'('",: :uuI in (li-('lHII':-ing to tll(' p('IIplc of 
Antioch, he calls the mountain.; all(l WClOtl:o- tilt' tab('&'uacl(.s of tilt' ð* Ccl- 
ebrat d werc dIP cloi",tral CUIIII1l'llIitil':' in E;ypt, at Xi tria, 011 tIll' 1lI0Ullt'lill, 311<1 
at Cellia. iu thc (l"..,ert. Frolll thc laue!', at a (Ia,- alltl a uidll':" J 'Clunw\, f
into the wil<1t'rn..-".,; wa., S('etlH', \\ hCfl' 
Ja ariu=" li\'t.<! Lilt 110 Irad
 led to it, :U1<1 
there was 110 watel' all the way, S. IIIf'U l'O ,],1 ollly h.. 
lIi\l,d to it h)' tlae 
In the time of St. .J,'r,)ltw the (wllibitc... had "'1Ic.'l'('ulul 
(,lIt'lally to tit.. her- 
mit:", li\.iw r in t'omp.lIli..., of lIinc tll
f.ther, \\ ilh a kllth to J!o\'crn (,3('h ('ommlln- 
ity, The zcal tÒI' buildillg' Ihe:,'> little :L-
 hUll.. \\:.1" 
nat. Dllrnlll('u
 the The- 
Lau u:,c(] to ";P"U. I \\ hole &,)'s iu t'ullc('t in
 :;t01l(...; frllm tIll' nei
h hllrin
with \\"hieh he built one IIlOuaslery C\'(,I')" )'ear fi,l' Ih(l
( who ('ollid 1I0t huil,l fill' 
themsel ves,t 
The advice of Cuwle\' , ,. that wc Olll _ rht iu the choi('c of a ..itllatiun to re(!3.rd 
., b , 
abO\'e all thin

, the healthfulllcss of the p]ace for the milld rather than fill' thc 
bud)'," \\"a.; al..;o that of the mon3stìt' f.,lllllll.r.... Tht: oldc:-t U1oml:-t(,I'il
 (If the 
south of Europe, built ill time... of 1'(".1('(' :uHl .."t'lIrit)" Wf'I"(' mostly placetl on the 
sca-coa-t, or on the hank., or ri\"cl':-, all I ill pla(','", ('asy of :H'l.'{,:".;, TAI(':-l> mOIl- 
a-teries, as Faul'iel OOS(.r\.".... heeame fi)('u
('", of ('oulIIlcn.ial al'ti\'ity : but thCl:-e 
which were built in timcs of (,ollfu...ion and h
ITOI', ,1I1rill
 the \11\'3')iun of the har- 
, or that of the \rab' ill Aqllit
lill(" \\el'e cIIlIstrll('t..(l ill llae most hi,1ch'll 
I'S of JU' HIIlt:ai 11-, (}I' ot 11('1' d":-l'1"t p1:a('('c:, wlwrc tlll'Y bt'(':m1l' th(' kf'l"Iwl of:lu 
agricultural populatioll ill pl:IN'" Ih'It ha(1' OIII
t l'U \\ iIc11)('a-t....
 In gen- 
eral. lnwt-vcr. lIIuh.r all (''( "'. !!1"pat :lIlt'lltillll \\':1'" ..hIm 11 tu tIle choiCt' of 
locality; ftH' tilt' influPIIC"s of 1I:1111rp \\'1'1(' kno\\"11 to hI' thp (.hi..f"'III1"('cofa fet'l- 
iug which is c!o..:('h' allip(l to pif'h" : :111<1 ill thi
 n':"lwc! tll(' nWIII;:.,; cli,l hilI fi.IlO\v 
ill the track of LiB IO\'f'rs of ,wace a lid \\ i ...;()om ill' t 11(' :111 C'jf> 11 t "0' M. Thp PJ- 
th:agoræm.. retirc(I to (I\n.1I in ]01wly (11':""1"t p1ar'f'zo;. Thp Pbtolli('i:lll'" :11\(1 btoi('s 
use() to frequent gro\'es 311d pol't!(.o:-, that bcill
 :ulmolli:-:hNI hy th(' 
r:t\'ity and 

* Horn. .'jQ. li9. 
, '70
1I vi ..!!}. Xic\'ph. ii. 3:). 

t On(Irr('c:. di\' Chnc;.lli('hl' 'fy!-fik. i. H'II. 

 IIi"t. <<1(' h Î.:mh' 'fi,. ili. Iii. .1.....\ 

A G R S 0 F .F A I T II. 


beauty of the place, they might think of nothing but virtue. 'Vhen Pbto taught 
his di
ciplcs, he \Va,; sf.ated not in a husy ('ity, or a InXlll'ious cabinet, but umler 
the aerial portico of the tt'mple of )Iinen"a, ()II the pr.mwntory ofSunium, whence 
Jon have that superb view of the lllolllllains of .A ttica au(l the va.,t {>xpan.;e of 
the ::.-ea-of that great anll l)f_'autifulllaturc whi(.h can of it...elf, without the elo- 
quence of\\'ord
, exalt the 
oul towards it:; Creator,* 'Vhen Cicero and his friends 
proposed holding a discourse on philu
ophy, they repaired to tIle groves of 1 he 
academy, " maxiruc quod is Iocns aL onwi tUl'ba id temporis vacnus esset."t 
In the fir:",t cent ury of our æra, 11lCn had begun to r
ad the Go:-:pel of 8t, 
thew in the gal'dens of .Åcadell1u
, and Soon after we find the mouks in such b(.auti- 
ful groves a
 that in which the lesson..; of Plato were imparted, or else in wild 
and solemn region...; still fal'l her remove,l froll1 dIP perturbations of men. 
" 0 happy dt'
ert !" exdaillls St, Ba:<il, "refuge of tho:--e whom the worl(l per- 
secutes, and whom it cannot endure, cou
olation of the afflicted, re:,t of those who 
are weary with the tra\'ail :lnd llli
ery of this life, place of refreshment and of 
peace ngaillst the ardor of pas
ion:;, of 
afety for the body, and of freedom fi)r the 

olll! Thy rememùrallce shallllcver tlepal't from me! 0 Jacob, how rich and 
bf'alltiful are thy tabernacles, and thy tent:;, 0 I
racl! 0 
olitary life, holy, an- 
gelif', blesbed ! :Ko tongue can expre::;:; the sentiruents of love which I feel for 
thee! no voice can paint the joy with which thou dost fill my heart !" 
" It waç; ill the solitude of ThaLOI'," remark the lIlona:-tic authors, "that Je
Christ \Va.; t1'311sfigur
d; it \Vas ill the solitl1<le of the garden that He prepared 
elf for Ilis paf'
;jon ; it was in the de:õert that He combatte(l a11<l was f'erved 
hy angels; it was in solitude that Hi,.; precursor prepared :fin' Him the paths of 
justice: it was from the :,olitude of paradise that Enoch was translate/1 ; it was in a 
solitude that Agar beheld the angel; it was in a solitudE' that Abraham saw the 
my:;;teriolls representation of the ineft'a LIe mystery of the Holy Trinity; it was in a 
solitUlle that Jacob ha(1 the vision of ange]::;; it was in a solitude that l\Ioses sa \V the 
burning hu:öh, and that he received the law."! " If we search the Scriptllre
says Hugo of St. "ictor," we find that God has scarcely ever spoken ill a crowd; 
but whenever He wishell to instruct men, He manifested Hiruself not to natious 
or to the people, but to :--ome few illdivi<1uals, separate from the common herd of 
men, in the silence of the night, 01' on plains, deserts, and muuutain";."9 Henee 
Can1inal Bona sings-.. 

.. 0 solitudo mentibus 
Orantium gratissima I 
o vera cordis suavitas 
Jgnota vnlgi sensibns !" 

The emperor Lothaire wrotp to R:lban :\fanr, when that abbot had retired to a 
Lermìtage, and though the object of his IC'ttel' WfiS to introduce him to vi
it his 

* Michßud, Corre'spondance de l' Orient 
t Dositl.1ée, Vie de St, Jean de la Croi:,(, 

t De Finilms, v. 

 Dc Arca )Iorali. Lib, iv. 4. 


)l () j" E 
 T 11 l) AI ( I 

o H.. 

('ourt, he adlllit:-ò the \\ i,dolll of h s dlOi('t': flll'" the ru,ti(' 
fllitll<lt' of mountain,..," 
, "ddight<.: the interior lUau more than the l'I'gal :--plt'udnr of ('it iI's; for 
tllt'l't> no CIl\'}' dect,in':) the tralHl'lil ùrl'a:)t \\ ith a ch l'(, I 1'..1 a"pect, Ilt)r hugua
mIOl'IH..,l with fbuel'ing color" \\ ith mutual wid
l-dnc':-, fahl'it'.lt >..; dec.('l'tiol1. " 
For how mall)' in fact nUl,t it ha\'c bc.'en relief" to quit th(. hu,y h:ulIlt:, and tl1 
inquiring looks of nwn, ami \\alk in solituc}t' ,,!., Itcligioll ill the doi:"ter did Lut 

al1ctify dl'
 pc.'a(' , :,uch mouruer..; "ought, pCl"mittiug c'al'h !"lill to ret,.in hi
dilectioll mu) to 

.. This shadowy (I('<:c>rt, unfrequcnted wood, 
I better 1.Irool.. 1 II lit a.lIlI i:.hiug peoplcd to-vns. 
Hcrc can I sit al,mc. un
cll of .ut), 
And to thc nig1i1ingalc', compl.iillill
Tunc my di'ltre....... nnd record my \\,0('8," 

She knp\\, in f:1(.t, that a I.(.tr,'at amid
t tilt' lo\"(..ìy 01' the :-oh'llln 
'('ncs in which 
lllona4crics wcre pla.,('(I, ("au ,,11..'11 app(':I'(' tl". bitt,'I' ullq uieUH'
' \\ hidl tl1l'intl'r- 
COIII'SC ufmcn ucca...ion:) ill tilt' :-OIti. ()ri;..:.c.'11 :-41)":- of 
t. Jullll tilt ];apti:o.t, &. flying 
the world, he \\(,Ilt into the J ',crt, where' till' air W:.l::. Imr
r, amI heaven more opc'n, 
and God more fi.uuiliar." "\rl1l'IIl't', () lìoJ. is thi::. }W:U:C \\ filch flu\\ s npon me?" 
clai 111:- a Frt'u('h P(wt, dt'..:crihi II
 the d i \. i 11(' hc.'llC'd iction in bol itrull', "whence 
 faith \\ itl. which my hC:lrt ovC'rflO\\:- ? 
'al'('l'I." a .: w (by:o. h:,,'(' t lap'l,(), 
ami it seem:; as if:1Il .J.g-e, as if a \\orl(lllall pa'
 (I, a.. if, "('p:ll'atl'(1 frolll tlwlIl by 
an imlll(,II
l' aby
:o:, a new man h:ul ('UIIlIII('II(.t'(1 \\ ithin lilt'. ..\11, il i;o, }w('all-.c 1 
ha\'e fUllf1l1 the pl'are of tial' (Il.;crt, amllcfl that cruwli wh
rc all pc U'" pNi...lw") ! 
It is Oce:ln,c till' 80111 of luall is likt> a lilupill W3\'C, \\h/),c azure i- tarni:)ht.d Ly 
en.'r}' breezc that rumps it, Lut whl'1I tl.e \\ illli clip.; away, the :-Ul,f:1C(' rc:--ulIll':o. 
agai n its 
111l)oth };]acidit)'." ])1) yon not pl'r<.'ei ve in (,ffl,(.t, <'0111 pall ion \\ Ilat a 
pl'aceflll illfluell('c pervadl's thi
 \\hole rp\riou? The monH'nt \\C l'uter thi..:. ,..i- 
lent of :-,ol11bn' pilhS, we' 
C(,IU tù )0"'(, all rt>Collectioli óf th,.. world's discon.ì, 
am! to catch Jistaut harmoni(.
 from the vcr)' mu,ic of heaven I 

.. 0 
ing fiolitlltle, 
COlUp.ution or Ibl' "i..e Rnd fOod, 
Thy shades, th)p silence, uow he mine, 
Thy charms my unly thcUit. ; 
My hnunt the hol1nw cliff, ,,'hose pine 
'VnvM o'er thr 
loomy 8trrnm ; 
Whencc thc ft1\('J'{'d owl on pinion'! 
 fimn the ru"thng hou!!hR, 
.And do" u the lone \u1e ...ul'4 aW.iY 
Tn more profound I"('P08(, !"* 

To monks the wiltlcl'llc;,.-; Ira.; a 1II,":o'tl'riOlh tlllr
I1f', .. I :I'i,ur' 
'nll. F:ttlrer," Bayn 
Antonio De Guevara, the Franl'i,(':m, wl'itill
 frolll Yall:ulolid, in l,):
,), to the 

· \r urcls\\ orlh. 

AGE f. (\ F F A I T II. 


abhot of )[Ollt";CIT:lt, "that I nen'l' fOlm!1 my:o-p]f ZIllOl1g
t the great rod"" at 11 1 
('ragg,\' hpights, and palh Ip:-s woods of 
.-,rrat, without detcrminin
 to lead a 
bettpr lift' in fmlll'{', alld \\ idIOm feeling 
ol'ro\\' for my p:l
t sin
. I IIp\'cr passed 
b,y it without going to confe..;..:illn, amI ('elehratillg with tear:-" and pa"s:ng a night 
in watching, and making alms, and l'e:-iolving to COlT(,('t lilY life, 0, wOllld to Gild 
that I were in this countr). what I promised to be in that holy place !" 
In general it ..;uffices to hear the names of the :mcient abhe
's, to know in what 
sort of scenery they are placpd" Campus arnabili:--, 3;') Camaldoli is caned ill the bull 
of it
 illstitutioll- ,r alIi:; umbl'o..;:t, that y;tllt")' of sweet shadps to whit'h St. John 
Gualhert retired in 1038. .:\1ollte 
ereno, Yal-pwfonde, Haute Rin', Bl'auliell, 
Fountaill";, Clain'aux, Sept-Follbine..;, Cllirliell, Trois-Fontaille:;, FOlltl'roid, 
Bonne-Fontaine, Bl'allpr
.-SU\'h are the :--\\"eet, harmOlliou:, name
 of 1l1OlJa:.;tel'il'!', 
derived from ft)untain:s, rivel's, wood..;, islets, mOllntains, vane
's, hi
h elid
, 3tHl 
ca\'el'l1S hoar deep in the shade of pines; names whieh h:l\'e in them!'eh'es a power 
to charm the ear, like those of the Serf,ides in the Iliad, which re('a11 the heauti- 
ful translueid things in the dim, cool grottos of the ocean nymph:ö.* 
The Spanish writer,.; cannot treat upon the rivers 31)(1 mountains of Spain with- 
out mention of Ihe mOllasterie
 which rendel' many of them so illll:..;triolls;t 311<1, 
indeed, if the" and science of the ancients eould n:5:öociate tIll m eyery where 
with occult \'il'tues, it wa
 ea..:y tOl' the minds of holy men to fall .in with their 
beautiful :-ng
e4ion, that wherevel' a ..pring ri:-,e:, or a ri\'el' flow:-" 
be offen,d, 3n,1 to feel a strong de.3ir(' to impart to them thetrlle llOlilles'J of
ami beneficit.nt reliO'ion. "
ho in a(re
 of faith could write :1 hi:ötol'\' of wood..; 
ð ;::- - 
and omit mentit)n of the monks and hermit:,:, or dt'st'ribe the mountain fill) 
of spring
, }l11ripa 811PclJ, , and not make mention of the abbey on its 
ide 01' 
summit? The foundations made hy t:lith obliged olll authors tlm..; to blellll with 
geography philosophyanJ ascetieism. It often 
uffices to hear the names of th" 
places adjacent to mona4eries, to know the savage wildne;:;s of the localil
', at 
least, in early times, when not only wolves and Leal's, but enormou:-; wild hOal's 
wandering in band=, by night through the wood
, all1lo
t as dangerous, made hi
walls neces:-al'y for the encIoslll'e. Thus, in the immeòÌ:lte neighhorhood of:::5t. 
Gall there are places with such names a.;; these, ". olfhalden, Baer 11 egg, Baerí'n- 
bach, "Tald:--tatt, 'V aldshaIl8PIl.
 Tile house diaries of the abbey:, exprebSly men- 
tion the vi:-;it:;; of such IH'ighhOl''';, Thus, in the curious annal
 of Corby, in t:-ax- 
ony, \\ e rcad a:-; fi)n)\\,
: "This Yt>ar, 923, on the vigil of S1. Ylt n
, two 
came of their own :Iceord l1lto the mona:--tery, of whom one W;\S taken and the 
other di..;mi:,sl,d, Hfn('e we have OUl' Porta Cen'orlHll. This yrm', 1131, a wolf 
wa" c3ught in our orchard. It haa come fl'Om Sollin
en. In 1140 our hI1l1t:ö- 
man mpt a bear in SolliuCTen holdil1CT in it.., mouth a /laked cr\,i,w child. Bein:! 
 _ <::> 

... xviii. t 
ndreæ Re
enl1ii Ehoren!';is .\.ntiqllitatum Lusit
miæ, Lib, i. aDd ii. 
t IldefoDs You Arx. Oesch. ùcr St. Gallell, i. 


)1 u n Ese A T II 0 L Ill. U H., 

alone he eoulll not kill it. Thi
 year, 1
13, Oil th(> fc..c,t of the tllrf'p kiug
, while 
m:ltiu-: wcrc singing, a dog-wolf enter('(l tll(' ('}IIJI"f'h, widmut injuriug au)' UlIC; 
only 011 going out he killt,tI a gHOSt'. III 1 
75, a sll('-wolf with hl'r wlll'lp.. was 
found OUl> lIIoming VCI'Y early in the dlllrt'h of Bone.l('n, I)('ar tlac altar, the portl.!, 
uot having l'hut the door.* 
Thl' vt'nl'r:lhle fatlH'r \\ ho show('ù me O\"l'r th(> hermit's convent of Camaldul i, 

aid, " "T(> ket.}> the.-e do
:-; to tI(.felld u a
t the wolvp
; fi)r, in \\ inter, when 
the :-:now lie:') <I(.cp, thpj coulll overleap all(' \\all of ollr ('ul'loslIre, 
ul(l f
ill UpOIi 
II" at night, a:-: we went to lI1atin.. in tlae l'hllrdl, Th . ('old, inllel'f'd, i.. 
 ; hut 
we _"e happy in sl'rvin
 Gild, :uHI tht'n \\c ('njo
' tht' glorioll') vi(.w froll1 thit; high 
mountain. "Te b 'C the 4ar..., pprhal':', more briJ!ht at that sol('11111 hOllr, auù we 
31lmire tlIP work.. of the ('I" atot," .:\othillg, in f
ll't, ('all l'
ect:(1 the heaut)' of 
l)l'dacle from that hill of 
ali, Oil \\ hidl cit. 1{"ltIliaM !-a\\" the an
h:,,>, The 
h('rmit, as Ill' looks do\\ n UpOIi tht' \'a",t \\ ihl t!al't of the (Iu'ply dlannellCt.1 allll 
)'Pt IIII\Oa!'ietl .ApelJllinl'
, call db,t>rn h('\ ollli th'lll the pbiu... of Uan'lIlIa alld th > 
lint' of the ...\driatir, like a 
Oltlt'li thrl'ad 1)cII(ath till' ri..ill
 1'1)11; "hill' on his 
Il'fi till' 
rl'dih\rralll':'l11 ;s at ti 111('... di..wcrllihl.,. \\111 n mona...tCI,iL wel e ah 111- 
tlUll('(1 aftt'r beillf! phllldt'rell awl clemoJish('(1 by I.arluwus iU\':lllers, the wild 
bt'a::;ts :-0011 recovered uudi..turb(d po,,:-" iOll or the (rl'Olillll as tIll' lawful propri- 
etors. Thus aftcr tht' death of thc l\nly monk \\ ho rt.mailll'el at Om'he.;, within tho 

pal'e of ;>U yeaa"S, the tr,'t:':-; havin
 gro\\ 11 o\"er it anc I dlOl..('() lip tlIt: oratori(.... anti 
, it became the abo(le of fe!'oeion:, allimal:"!. .A fit'I' that intt'rval a ('('rtain 
pril'::;t, H.,
told, f!'oUl Beau\'ai
, beill
lClltlonil'llcd ill a \,i..ioll to t;(.'(>k out tho 
place of St. EVl'Oul, came into Xt'u:o\tria. nlld anl'r mallY da\"s bl.ilw at \Iulltftn"t, 
ovcreù the ancient churl'h, h}' IIlt'an
 of c'rtain ,lit phenl:-, \\ ho \\ cre led to 
f()lIow a stl':I
'('(1 bull into th(' (lr>pths of tht:' fi)l pst, wh(,l"c tlll'
' fOliliel the 0111 walls 
co\'ered with 1II0
!ò: aUtI ivy, \\ ilh KI"t'at tn'cs gro\\ ing hoth \\ ithin alltl without 
the ruins, The 0111 I))ell tliell a
rl'f.d that this h
lIl bpt>1J the rdl'1'at of::--t. I<:\'roul. 
Sc Re;:;toltl came anti fixClI his hahitalion there; 
lIld GII:l10n tll' 
ll)lItfi,rt, a nohle 
ht, who hall piou;o,ly propo"cl1 to f{>store nil the churl'b and abbeys that 
had heen ruilll'li ill the timb of ealamity, rebuilt at his m\ n ex pens > thi., ahLe). 
of Onclll's; tll(:> workll)('n making' IISC (Æ the ancient btones \\hieh thl'Y fOlm,1 
there in abulldanep, alOlI
 \\ ith thl' tomh... of many noLle ppr:-I)11!'; t()r kin
,.; and 
bishop,.; had been laid to rel't there in till' oJ,Jen tinw.t 
o all'o \\ 11l'1I tilt' n,ll1e:, 
mouutell t lae 
 'ine, in 
cJ 1, and burnt till' abhey of .J I1l11il'g
, till' \\ ild anihlal... re- 
turnl.-'(l to the 
Pllt, anù r
-:ort...(1 to it fOl' thirh' \"!' IlurilJtr the tinw it n.maillld 
. . , " 
de.;;;olate. Scnnl'tíll1l'-: while :uJlllirill
 th" sd\"3n 1)f':l1Itv of tllt'ir :o.itR, the visitors 
. . 
tc Illflllal'tic ruins 
a.", with an inl('ntioll rhat ."OUTS mOTe of hate than Iovp. 
" The ffionI"s knew well how to ('hoo:,p thpir groulld." nut not to oh t.
!'\'(' that 
it \Vas tllcil' lahor which fhst malle it fruitful, it i,.; ('{'I tain that they seldom ehose 

· Ap, Lcilillitz, Script, Brunsv, 11, 

t On!. V it. Lib. vi. 

t Will, of J umiègcI, i. 6. 



what mpn like the
e would covet; for it was either pious and generous laymen 
who dlO:-ie it for thcm, 01' e1se it \\":.1-; to regiOll"i wild alld desert, OfU'1l mar:-:hy 
and ('o\'en.d witli \\"000, far be)'olul tht> bOlllHl", of social "aunt
, that tlw)' l'etirf'd 
to builtl their J11011a:;tCl'ie:i. Such was the 
a\"agl' d
I}Jation of tllc island of Ler- 
inti, and :--U illfecttd wa::; it Wilh poisonou
 animat,., that 8t. HOlloratus, bishop of 
Al'lec;:, who built the monaster)" there in 1:W, \\'a:-; af[cnvard.; ilHluct:d to lea\'e it, 
when he hllilt a COD.vellt near the summit oft1w A Ips, Though notwith!-bmlillg 
the incoll\"ellicnce::; of that is1alld, it became tIt'ar to 1I10111\:S, awl olle of tht'ir mo"'Í 
lebmted abode:,. 
Thc'se Lincoln washes, when Ramsey Abbey wa
 on all islalld,* or that Rom- 
ne,)" l\Iarsh, where the Franciscans had a COll\"ellt ill liü-l.t though now the re- 
formeJ mini
tel's are dispensed from rc..:idence 011 it, in c()ll
;del'ation of it
brity, \\"011111 not, n
uredly, have heen ('ho:-:en b
" our 
acious S}wculatOl'f: [01' 
their abode. \\Y e should find to sneh nlPn 110 grants of fore..:t in the original :-ell:-;e 
of had::; lying out, rpjected-fora
, inchHlill
 mal'shc:5, dc:,(>rt hills, :md eV('11 
as we do to the aobeys. In the ('haneI'::; of Chilperi(' to the abhey of St. \Tinl'ent, 
afterwards of St. Germain, and uf Charles the BJld, to 
t. Deni
, and to St. Ben- 
ign, at Dijon, we of the forest:; of the water it fOl" in old French the \\"ord 
was appliell to both \\"0011 and water. 
""hat i:5 the donatioll of Hugues, duke of Burgundy, on settillg out for tlae 
cru:-:ade, to the abbot and orethrell of the Holy Cross? It i
 the de...ert of Lach- 
ocr, that they may cultivate it and live 011 it. ,rhat is that of Raoul, Sire de 
Coucy, with consent of his wife Elide, and his children, heirs of his barony, to 
the monks of Prémontré? It is an uncultivated tract called the Haie de Blai
seconrt. c'The Ianll of Croyland," says Orderic Yltali
, "being marshy and 
hollow, a5 the name import..:, king Ethelbald, being about to COJlstl'l1Ct a stolle 
church and monastery, on tbe site of the wooden hermitage of St. Gnthla p , c:lu!,ed 
an innumerable quantity of oak piles to be sunk down, 
H1d tlwn from a distance 
of nine miles from a place called Uppalollde lae cau::;ed firmer earth to be earried, 
,amI :'0 laid the foundations of this noble 1110n3st(')"\' which he loved during all 
, , 
his life, and which from it
 fir:oòt :flHllldatioll to thi..; day, ha:-, been con
t:mtly in- 
habitcli hy monks fnIl of I'elig-ion."
O\ bbot Ingnlphus gives a !'imilar a('- 
count of this .f(mndation, which resemblelI that of 
t, Frobprt in the sevt'uth cen- 
tury, of whom we read, that " de
iring- to find a place fi)r retreat from the worlò, 
Q.lHI many gl'eat 10rd
 being anxious to honor awl 
el'\"e him, he, nevertlH.le
judged it inexpedient to a..:k them to O'ive 3tH" } 1Ol"tion of their lands in fa\"or of 
l::> , 
 projected monasten", 1f'8t th
 soIitarv life of hi..: monks miO'ht he afterward..; 
, _ I:) 
di:;turbed by the too frequent vi:;its of !'ecnlar henefactors. Tltel'efi.)re, by cpIt'8- 
tia) inspiration he went to the coul't of King Clovi
. who gave him a marshy com- 

.. Hi!'t. Ramesiensi
, i. ap. Gale, ii. 
t PaFquier's Recherches de la France, ii. 15, 

t Walding. iv 

 Lib. iv. 


l 0 R .E 
 CAr II 0 L I \J 
 \ 0 HJ 

mOil in the 
 of'1'I"0)'(':-':, eallt'd tht' L'Isle Gt'rmaillc. Thi.. ll1ar
hy pJa('(\ 
bcin:; part of the royal dom<lin'i \\ a, full uf lakes :lIul \\ (.t'tI" amI brnsh wood; 
hilt till' lwly man, Ly dint of diligenct', :o>Ul't'('t.tltd in tl1ail1ing off tilt' "atpr, 
allli dc Iring the grouud, alltl thclI he ('OIl,tl'lIt'tt.d hi... little ('t.lI... alltl oral or.".". 
The origin of Cisteau\õ: was ,.;imilal'. Hohert rile Xorman, ,Alh('I'it., allcl Stf'ph('n 
I ht"lint" all :Erwlishlll<lll , after n>mai I)in
oll1e t i mc ill tlw wood of 
I (\It.... I) It' 

, 0 J 
whl>re tlH'Y laa-I ercctt>ll some hUG in lO
tð, and ous 'rve(I 
 tbe Bl'l)l.didin,' 
rlllt>, rel11o\'t'll with twcnty-on,' brethn.'11 10 a 
pot c.,lIctl Ci..te.all\., 111:11':-1.." :IIIÙ 
wOl)dy, :lI1tI dl'

I't. 'f'aI' the \\'00.1 whil'h sltfl'oulldt.(1 it. \\ :,.. a little clllIl'('h t
the cOII\'elli('l)ce of the II1I:-;b:lII,ìlll('n ,,1.0 tilll.(1 tla(' l:uul
 adjoi II illg-. I1t're \\a' 
a l'i\"\11et fl'tUn a s()urec ,.;aid to be l)l,t1t1I11I..:o", "hi(.h tlo\\(>cI O\'l'r ill dry, :ultl :-lIl1k 
ill wct wl'.atlll'I', like th
 foulltaill of till' ( al'thu..iall", Fir,t tilt')' cui dll" n rlit-' 
rec,ls, eleared away th. tI.l.f...., :lIld thpl) built IllIt.. \\ ith Ih,. hou
lh By tll('ir )a- 
blu' the place b 'C.lfne wholeJNIllC, :m,1 tlw 
Tmlll\l \\ a.'i gi\'cn tu tlwln Ly YiseouIH 
IbYllaltl, allli Ot!n, duke of Bu/'
ul1tf.'". flit' duke' 
1II,setlul"III)' built:l )odg-e fin' 
laim:-;e1f a()joillillg tlH' mnll:l...ler)', to \\ hi('r. III' 11'( tl t>> 'n tire 011 tll(-' fe
Henry, hi..; ";1>('011,1 ...011, tool
 th,. hahit: dJt> tluk... \\ a... in their ('hur('la. 
1'11('y a.C:311mPll the white lIIult'r-laahit ill 1.(111)1' of tilt' hlt.
,(.tl Yirgiu. Fcw, ho\\- 
('\'cr, came to })in the/11 ulltil the arrival of 
t. B'rll:11l1 in tile 
c\'t'lI1h )"t'ar.t 
In tIJ.. ul1(>iel1t mon l..;til' ùipltHua... and ('hartpr.. of I tal)', tllt'r(' i.. notlCt' of I1JaIiV 
WOI).):-;, of which lIot a II':l('c ))0\\ ('\.i
t..:, C:)
iIlO, Fad.'I1:-(', 
lIhi:l('(), \Y IIlturllo, 
B,>>hbio, Pompo
l, fillli XOI1:llltUIa, \\"t'r
 all (''lIc.tetl in \\ il,lcnw..:-.:'...,t Tile 
:1l1l1al", of Cm'h,", ill t;.IXOII)', r,'(>or,It'11 th.. f.l1l11tbt iOIl of that ahl)t')' ill the.:{' \\ tmI
" In th. 818 religion ht'
all to 
Io\\ ill a wtt()(Iy 
St. B luif:lce, wl"Ítiu
 to Popc ZaC'h:lI'
', make..: l1H'ntltHl of Fll,(la in a WR\" not 
more eall'ulatl'(l t,>> l'
t'ilt. tilt-' l.n\'y of II))' rnlltt'tuporari(.:-. "Tlwl"l' i
," he 
" a p1:1('(' ill a tIp.. 'rt of \'a..;t ..olitlltlf', ill tht' mitl
t of Ihc lIatioll
 to "hom 
wc h:,,'e prcache J, wll('r(', laa\'illg huilt a mOlla
'. Wt' lIan. 1'1a(,l'tl monk
Ii \'e 1IIHlpr th(\ I'ule of t5t. Bt' iet, mell of !'uaict ah:4 i lIellee, l'Ollt
'1I t wi t h dlC 
lahOl' of tht'il' own hawI... r ha\'e elt'4lic'att.d it ill hunor of the TToly S:l\"iollr, 
anel ill this p1:.('P, with thp cOIIS('nt of "Ollr pipt\" I h:1\"e tWopo"'t,I to g-Í\'c my 
hOlly, worll witla old ag-c, a littlp I'P..I, aud th:lt it m:)\' lie here after dt'alh."11 
,rh{>n mOllks dill ('hno
e tlll'ir c:roflluI, it \\:1" nftt'U in :, a tlf'
prt })('opll'tl h)' thp 
I'tOl"l115 :11011(', sa \'(
 whplI tll(-' ea
1 e hri ng" 
OIllP h 11 ntc.r':-; hollt.. and t Iw "") f t I'a('k
hl'r there, ] [ow hitl"()I1:-,ly iH !-hal'f''' are lH'apf'tl around, mdt'. harp. :11((1 hi

h:'stly, anù "'ca....ed, anti ri,"ell." bl. B dd(.ri(' l'f'lirin
 luto a 
o1it11tle, follo\\"(>(1 
a f:lIl'on, alld fh(.d hilllsdf wh..rc it :tlig>latf.d. fll1 :t 
pot \\'hiC'h \\'a
 tlaellt'c' (':Ill. (I 

rolltf:.lU('on, \. \\"hite (>'Iglc :-oirnilarly J!lIidC'.1 :--; . Thiprl'i, C'hapbin of 
t. Hf'mi. 
St. (;eb..hard. rdleeting' whether lac should f.l1l11lJ the mona::-tery of .Aclrnontc..; ill 

* Dcsguerroi
, lIist. tin Diocèse de TWYCB, p 204. 
tAngelo 'Ianriquc Ci
" tn. l. f 
[urn.t. .\nliq. Iln1. :\'tl 

 .\p. LicLnilz Sl'npt. llrunsvic, ilIu
t. iii. I ... non 1'1 i..t. 

BY P.LV. '
', '-' 


..\ l
 E::; u F .F A I T II, 


a desert place far remotc from mcn, in a \'alley ou the river .Auasus, fa-ted three 
days while deliberating. The :-:olitlldè plea.;ed, ami the vel')' hurror of ov(}rballg- 
iug mouutain5 
lIn'OIIl)(.h.d it on all si,lt,
, :-:eemed fa\'omble to a life of }wan.nly 
('uutempJation. Keverthele...s, thediffil'ulty of approach to it, there being no track, 
discouraged him, till a cerbin m:ll1, hy naÌlll'{' (leaf and dumb, suddenly spoke in 
German, amI 
aid, " Begin, amll}od will filli
h it," aud never afLerwan18 spoke. 
The lllolla.;tery wa
 aCt'ordingly bllilt therl.* The :õeverity of tile climate in places 
to which St. Gall al)(l other founders of the .\lpiue mona
teries retired, may he 
learlled fl'Om the liturgy of that ahhey, in whi('h we filHl the:,e supplic.,tioni':, 
" Auræ ut temperiem te Christe rogamlls,"t "L't nobi:-: donetur aeris temperies,"t 
amI " aeris blandos f;,teilesllue 1ll0tuS."
 Sr. Bernarù, from the top of the tower of 
St. BerLin at St. Olller, marked the :-:ite fOl' the npw abbey of Clairmal'ai
, and 
what land ditl he sPlect? A :opot amidst Ya
t marshe.;; and limpid lakes, and float- 
jug islalH]s, which Ihe old romance writer:; sppak of a... my
 and horrillle. 
" It is a cUl'
ed place, haunted oy the demon," 
ays une: " I do not know how 
man)" spectres resort there."1! The monks, however, placed there by St. Bernard, 
J'endered it a dt:'}ightful solitude, re::;ounding day and night with hymns of love 
and gratilUde to God'
1 In fact, many of the ancient abLeys were built in spots 
which the blilHl populatiou of heathen times had deemed ill-omeneJ, many of 
them in fore
t:3, ao; Tacitn
 say", " consecrated by the old terror," where monks 
alone would venture to remain, 

-" o1im silvestribus horrida dumis. 
Ja.m turn religio pavidos terrebat ngrestes 
Dim loci: jam turn silvam sa-.;:umqu
 treme bant,"** 

Such W:lS the deep narrow sequestered yalley of Battuecas, so famed in the fa- 
bulous history of Spuin, and w hieh Lel'ame so dear to reI igiol1 from their con vent 
of Carmelites, which stands amidst the steep rocks half buried in the gran's, even 
still almost the only human habitation in that solitude, through which w:mdl.r:, a 
-quantity of wild animals of all kinds. K 0 longer on the lofty mountains in thp 
centre of Italy, and in the dpep woods that clothe them, is one direcÌt.tJ to the 
horrill cave which opf'n!5 its pestiferous jaws to breathe dl'struetion; but, a:5 on 
.l\fount Gar
ano, where stand:::; the 1I)01):18tpry of St. :\Iichael, it is to a house of 
p"ace that pilgrims tr3\'el'i'e them, Thanks to holy Benedict, no longet' is an nn- 
happy llame a
:;ociatp(l with laml:; which tht' Allia waters,tt or with ::my of 
tho:o-e natural '"ault
, sneh as :]rp f
IUIHI 011 the shore..; of Cuma, like the \'a-t 
C:!,"el'l1 which heard the s
)ct'et.; of the hOl'ritl Sibyl, or that terrible C
l\.e in Sala- 
mi..; in which Ellri pide..; was !"aid to have compo!5pd his tragl'dipc;;.:::t The hollow 

* Germania Sacm, tom. ii. li9. t L:ytania Ratperti in Lect. Antiq. Canisii. 
t Antipbona de S. 9allo Cod. 389, 
 Lytania de S. 'Othmaro, I Derthond. 
... Pier!', II i>:t. de
 .-\ hhayes de ,,- atten et de Cluirmarais. ** ..En. viii. 3-18. 1+ 
Eu. vii. 717, 
a 6\111. G(.]1. '\\'. 


l\lOH.ES CATHOLIC!: () It. 

rock:--, with their clear sourc('
, so by birds bclov
d, morc beaukuus th.ln the 
Co)'cian ('.Wl', arc the ahodl's 1I0W, not ofn)'mphs and dcmons, but of hermits am.I 
huly f:lther:-:, who, likc angel.., 6.mctify thclll. 
ayi', that they who bdlOlll thc holy cavcrn of Sf, B('1lt did, helie\'l' 
that they behold tbe thre..:holtl Ufpuullli:-.e. To mall)' hill... UII whiclt mUlla...h,'rif'f) 
stood we wight apply the Virgiliau lille, oUlll BaY of thcm before 
o cro\\ ncù, 

U Tum neque nomen erat, nec bonos, But gloria monn,". 

Such wa;; Ah"ernia. In the hUHI of Flort'nt.-e 31111 di()('f':iè of AI't:'Z7U, Letwt't'n tilt' 
T\'her and the Arno to the 80mh an,l Wl'st t.>xtclHl two lill" of hills flOlll the 
. , 
 to till' Alps, OVt:'r thc"ie ri
,:, an nmhragL'Olh mountain, \\ hieL frow 
the l'ast toward., the Tybc,' h.t
 an as -ut of :-evcn milt---, but from the \\"l',t to\\- 
anls the Cor:-alo the pilgrim has but thrt'C to mount. ["" pon this ri:-(.:'< anlltht'r 
mount, all of rlwk, )'('t he:lutifial tu the ey(', :ulorm..l \\ ith gron...., :llld mi
illg its 
IH.':l(1 a\)o\'(' all the cirpumj:'l'(.nt hl'i
ht..:, t 1 h'l'è ahollld th l1l'rb (:alll..ll'aru- 
lilla, the prickly It-an's or whi('IJ dt'fi>lId the fh)\\cr, ) Coilled from having Lccn 
u-ed as a a
ainst the plagnc L
' tl1 - arll1)' of ('harll'm:.l!!II(" to \\ horn it is 

aiù its secret propl
 w(,l'e divincly rc\'(
,lIN1. Urre are im)>t'nPtrah}(' ('ß\'( rlU;, 
ahrupt anù O\'crhan
ing roek:-, inur'('(.'s-lihle cra'!s, am) prllfolllul gulf"!, whiph 
l'xpite horr01'. This is thc 
eraphic 1I100I1Itaiu of ::,t. Francis, who.... {'on\"('nt is 
built into the t-ille. g,'ery where now are :--a 
n'(l grotto,.;, ehapels, oratoril'S, and 
luiracnlons vestig
 uf huly IDt'n and of the c()n:,Qlation
 of angels. The whole 
place t'xcitb the minù wi:h a l!('..ire aftel' bolille
 of lif(', anll a n'nOUlI('elllent of 
the dt'el.ih of the wllrhl, as if a divine voiee wpre hean), :lyinJ!,'( Lol'uS !--anctlls 

st; finl'lll pe('c:lIldi facito." The 1I10untain was .;ult'lI1l1ly consecratCi) by . '\'en 
, tho:s
 of Arezzo, U rhilw, Fl()renc
, 6\.ssi:-i, Pcnwia, Tifernatn, and Fi .-- 
oli, at which imp(Ising cf'fer))ouy 
t. ßonayclltul".l ua..: PI't bl'nt. \Vlwre were the 
cells of that "';:lint, awl of 
t. ..\lIthlln.\' of Padua, arc nO\\ the chapd" The bounty 
of COSIIlO de 1\Iedi('i:õ, al111 of his \\ iii-, Elconor'e of Tnlp()o, t) Ihi..; cnn\"pnt is at- 
tested hy their arm..:, which are (liS{'I)\"cl't>11 on the hnihlin
", "';:1('1'('(1 \'( :-:11111 nrs, und 
chm':!l books. U thoujovolls :,imple family of Chri..t, dwelling in thi.... d(.
.rt, !'() 
frec fl'01I1 want..:, 8) I'heerful, 80 eng,ldll 'P ; happy is the man who can behold thee 
on the grt'at day when thou tlo...t 80 devoUtly commemorate the grace bC..tllwM 
upon thy holy fuunder, when countIp.55 pilgrims throng thy courts, and kn('el1><-- 
fore thy altar:ot, 
Other mountain
, onf'e atò..:o('iate(l with 11Jgnhrioll
 tradition.., became the chosen 
re..tiug--pbc>e of world-worn mf'n. 8u('h ""a
 the m01Jntain of the hoh' martv
near Grpna(la, which he<>:InIP ..0 dpß.l' to pil!!rims. It ii' SO ('allerl from thp Itumi)pr 
ofChl'istians who ('onf('8Sefl .Ie';;I1" Chri
t thf'r(' during thp pt'r;;;pcution ofthe 1\[oors. 
From the 
umlUit the view over the city:uH) th(' famou
 plain, throl1g-h which the 

ii. 134 

t Wadrling, .\n. '[.n. iv. 

A (
 t5 ().F F.A I T II, 


riVt'l' Genii wanders in many circuils, is said to be OlH
 of the most delicious in 
till Spain, IIere on the spot which ollce receivc(l tlw tears and bloo(l of so many 
martyrs, awl wlwre the Catholic kings had constl'ucte<l 3 hl'rmitage and church 011 
the conquest of Grenada, to IlOnor tht:>il ffil'1ll0ry, wm::' built the 1U00J:lstery of 
b:lrcfootf:>ù Carmelites; IInùerlleath which, were V:1:-;t ('an
rn..;, where till' l\Ioon; 
nSl-d to ('onfine their captivc
, aud where they illflicttd tortllrcð to prcvaillipon 
thl'l)) tu cllIbraec the law of :\IallOlllet."* 
A similar intere:3t was att:u,he(l tu the 8ilC of the celebratt.d mOllastpry of Ca\"a, 
five miles from Salerno, at the foot of the loflY mOllntaill of FCllt'stra, f(mnùed 
about 992 hy 81. Alterius, uf the family of the Pappacarhoui, of the hlood of tile 
ollgohards, which derivell its lIame from the C3\'CS ill flIP metal millfJs of 
mountain, illto which the Christialls fled from the fury of GCllst'ric, kiug of the 
Y' alldals,t That sombrc mOlllltailiolis desCl't of Ida too, which Homcl' animated, 
resounded with the song.... of Dadd, \\ hell in the third and fourth centuries it was 
inhabited by holy mell, whose ruined celIE and chapels C:lU still he seen. 
The I)wuntian tops to \\ aude1'ers, over the OCf'an stream, in heathen alld in 
Christaill time:;, were as..:ociated with very difft-'rent l'('collections. \rhpll Jason 
and the Argonaut.:) sailt'd for\\'ard, home along by the rapid wind, after pa
the bOlllldles
 lal1ll of the Bechirian:-, tbel'e apppare<l to them a bay, Iwyond whi('h 
aruse the tOPUlOSt crtlgs of Caucasus, to the :--un's rays :.llolle acce:;::;ihle. Thpre 
, with his limb!õ: \)0(1I1<} to the hard rock by brazen chains, contillually 
fed with his lhTer, a ravenous eagle rushing upon him. That hir(l they saw at 
even from the ma=3t-head, flying near the cloud..;, and heard his sharp scream. 
ails he m::Hle flap wilh the 1'u:,h of hi:, mig-hty wings. for he had not the lIa- 
ture of all aerial IIiI'd, bllt such :1S beeame a monster so en01'moui'. Then after a 
htde pause, they heard the groaning voice of Prometheu:-: lm\'illg his t'lltrails torn 
out; and the air re-;lIl1IJllell with hi.;; cries until they again percei\'ed the hlo(I<1- 
smeared eagle, soaring back from the mountian. Such were not the 
ound5 that 
came from mOl1ntian

 whell faith had co\'ered them with the asylnms of men de- 
}i\'ered for e\'er from tbe worst of torturers. Then mOll3:,teries stood upon the 
rocks, whose pinnaclf's seemed 
cll]ptured ill tlIP 
ky, dear :I
e aftel' 3g'(' to all 
who p[l
se(l amidst the solitude of distant seas; tH' there instead of Pl'ometilean 
imprecations. arose continnally the saintly orison. and th(-'re, instead of vi<'Íims to 
celf-'stiaI vpn
eance, dwelt cOlwertites, having fonnd ease for all the sorro\\"s of 
their \V{Hmd,.d conscience. and the sweet nourishmellt of peace with heaven; and 
011, to use the poet's words, 

.. How bí'1mtifn1. l1nd C'a1m, and frep they were 
In thl'Ïr young wisdom, when the mortal chain 
Of ("l1
tom tlwy did hur
t and rend in twain, 
.hlJd walked as free as light the c]ouds am
ug. ' 

* Dosithée, Vie òe St. Jean LÌe la Croix. 

t ltalia Sacra. i. 607, vii. 367. 


-'1 U It .E 
 \ T II U L I V I; U l

In the anlla18 of tlH.' C:ll'luclite oròer, it is rclat('.] that 
t. Louis, p:,:o\!-illg in 
view of muunt ('armd, \\as O\'l
('[akeu during tht' l1ight by a Ùlliou.. klllp' :--t, 
that the sailurs de:,pain'tt of !-':.1\"iug tllP \"{'"\St.I, that till' J...illg hl'anl a bpH tollillg, 
and on expre:;
iIlg his astouishnJl'lIt, \\:.1.... toI.1 1I13t it t'311lC froll1 thc slIJitary rl'- 
Jigiolls men who li,'c(l UJH'll that moulllain; ull \, hieh hc pletlgt..J him
df to 
HllHI a. l'on\'l'nt for tllt'Ill in this kingùom if he sIwuJd ('
I'apc' F-hipwrcck, in ful- 
filmcnt of whidl "U"", he (''(1 the Carmelitt:-; at Paris. 
The bl,,:)::)cù tran:-:forlllatiun l'amc on i:",laßlI.. too, :.L!-' that ol)('t' lit III by Druic1i 
011 the cua:,t of IJrittallY, wlu,'re n.l\'ii:-,rator:-- p:ls:5ing by us('(1 to h. ar with It rro.. 
furious {'rie...: allll thc noi
, of barbaric' ('yml,als, It would },(' IOIl
 to elllllUl'ratu 
the i:--Iancls whil'h hceallll' now IlOly,a:-> LiIHli:",fanll', lema, I.It'rills, Lipara. and that 
on the l1(1rth 
ide of tht., l)ay of Iillblin, ('all, d the c)"e uf In.-l:ulll, whl'rc 81. S....- 
S3n, in the sixth cClltur
', Gmmleù an ahhey, in whi('h W:1S the ('opy of the fOil l' 
gospels that was hehl ill sll('h '"l-'Iwratilln, alltl B,
-Er)', c.n tl.ccoa
t of ,,\ "fc,rd, 
where W:1S the abbl'Y f
HlIl<<I('(1 ill th(' fifIh {'l'l
tury hy 
t. l11ar, "hidl hceamc (
cl '- 
bratt'(1 f01' thp !o':ln('tity awl Il'arnillg or th" monk:, ! Thus diù the dreary sea be- 
hold hous(:8 of ccll'stial pl'al" widlin hearillg of its surge. 

, Tho,se trackless deeps, "here many a weary sail 
 sCen nbO\e thc illimitable plaiu, 
'Iorning on ni
ht, nnd night on morning rise, 
t stIli 110 land, to grel't tbc "1&Ddercr spread 
Its sluulo\\ 
 mountain" on the bun-bright sea, 
W'here the lUlul r,)arings of the tempest-waves 
So long have mingled \\ itb tbe gusty wind, 
In melancholy loneliuc
s, and sWept 
The dc
ert of tbuse ocean sulitllde q , 
But \ oca) to tbe sea-hird's harrowing 
Tbe hello" ing monster, 8nrl the rushing f'torm, 
Now to the sweet ami many mingling sounds 
Of holie!õlt impuJ<;cs fl'spoml. .. 

Thc inconvenience attl'uc1iJlg sHeh situations, ollly furnishco occasions for the 
' or greater generosity tow:lI'cls tit(' monk:,;. Thlls, .IS the i
lalJ(l of Lipara 
was too small for nourishing- ('attIc, Count Rop:" Wllù, \\ ith Hoh('rt Guisc
:lrc1, Oil 
the l'xpulsion of the '4:rra"::-o:11I;" had built thl'I'c thl
 l1lona..;tery of St. Bartholomew 
ftlr Bl'ncdietine m(ll1k
, gave to it a f:UI1l in Sic'ily, p:lstun' fclr eatll(', lan(ls f()r 
cultufl', and a 11l01111taill G)r feec1in
 swillf'.* J..l:rncl..: in lakes and ri,rers, were 
:rlso est emcù fitting' ::;itl,:o, t()r such fonnclations. Loch I{('(., in Irelall(l, by r
of the number of monks li\"in ,r in it.; islands wlll'rc abbe\,s had h{'l'n fOIlIHI. d in 

an early age, was (.'al1e(1 " the holy lake." On aln1O:-t a11 tire i
 in tlH' nu- 
merou') lakes of th:it ('ountry, :t
 al..o on tho
e in Ih,. river t;ha.nllnl1, tiler'" \\"l'ro 
monasteries; and so ;t wa
 where skies wcre hrig-hter and wah'r:-; lllorp IwJ1u('ic1, 
a.. KOIwnworth in the TIhine, :\11(1 I./Isle Barhp in the Saone ('3n 
till hear wilnl


* :-:'ic'i1ia :-:'.1('1':\, 11. 

.-\ G E 
 0 F F A I T II, 


011 the Jath'r wa,.; a ßenedictille abh('}' in an ('al'l)' ag-eof Chri!-otianity, with \\hich 
peaceful rHreat ('}Iarlem:lgne \\"a.. su fàcillated
 that he thought of aLùi('ating his 
throne and of retirillg to j.t. lIe had forml:d fur it a great library, \\ hicll the 
 in 1;')62 de
troYH.l. I..elabollreUl' has written a v
.Iuable hi
tory of 
 abLey, the 1'1Iill
 of which J visited witil melancholy ple:l:-urc, The ('(lunt of 
Stolberg bef()re his cunyer::;ioll, \\ a-; struck with admiration on vi
iting the island.; 
Ieillan and n.eicllt
llau, on the lake of COll:--bnce, the site of once cE::lchr:lteù 
mOlJasterieB. He said that they containClI all whir-,h lUall could wish for, aud ex- 
elairneù J 

-" Ilic vivere vellcm, 
Oblitus stultorum, oblivisc.emlus et illis,"* 

The monks, however, had still hetter thought:-; ill ðeekillg the
e solitudes, though 
poets Illay be more able to de
cribe their charm. "There \\a<; a liule lawn)" islet," 
:,ays one, " pavell like mo
aic by allemone amI violet, amI it was 
ll:.lded over with 
 :lIld l('a\'e
, where neither 
llll nor :--howl'J's, nor breeze could pierce: be- 
lIeath it lay gem:', girt by azure wa\'e:o:, with which the clouds and mOl1l1tains 
pa vct. 1 the lake':; blue cha:,Ill." In age::; of faith, 011 such a spot there was 
ure to 
Le founl I all abbey Ol' cell. 
A", you mount the 
eille, when Harflem' alld its high tower, the castle of Tall- 
carville, the d:mgerou,.; poillt of Quillebællf, :llld, in fine, Canc1ebec have pas,p..l 
ivel'y before yonI' eye:" you perceiv
 at a gre:lt di:--tance on the left hank, 
two white towers det:lcht:'d again,.;t the :-:ky, appearing like phantoms on the :-hore. 
Isolab'd at the extremity of otle of the peninsula.., these towers, wllich from afilr 
seem to allnonnce 80l11e great city, ar
 the II f(mntI to be mournful ruins, withour 
any other illhabirallt5 than the family of hit,..!:.;, whuse 
onurou::; voicf's, are htard 
re-echoing: such is the :::ite of the once l'it'h and celebrated abbey of Juruiège, 
whit'h (htte::; f.'om the fir
t ages of diP Frt'nch monarchy. Of a truth one cmmot 
recall to memory the :;.;itllation of many an('ient m()na
teries without delight. 
EveH their enemies burst out in praise, a::; in the lines 

" Lo! ('intra's glorious Edl'n intervenes 
In variegated maze of mount and glen, 
The horrid crag:; by toppling convent crown'd. " 

Oh, how sweet it wasto -;illg toune':-;:-3elf the I..nun of evening orany holy chant, 
in memory chel'i:,hed, while seate..1 011 the hi
h c1 iff 
kirting a tlark fOle:.:t of pine
which hangs uver the Cistercian cUII\'ent at Freyburg which the ru:-hillg torreut 
w:lsh(.'s, ant} :tlmost :-'l1l'1'oumls lleep in the gulf below. Hauteri \'e agaill, founded 
Ly the ('01mts of Gbne before the eity of Freybu..
. was existillg', 011 \\ hidl 
abbey that ...:ma]) bcu;;e llepends. is another sp"t of which the ffif'IBllry must he 
indelible. Thp \'alle,v:5 Leneath the Illona-tery of Camaldoli near Xaples, which 

... R
be ill Deut
<:hiand, ':,!:, 


I 0 H E S 
 A T II 0 L 1 C 1; U l{, 

 on a high mOlll1tairl, rommalu1illg ß vip\\, OVt'r tIw \\ ho] 
 scene of th'" ixth 
book of the JEncid, prp:-,('ltt un illlagt' of pal':uIi..('. " I remcmber," "'3.y... a r(..
cent tran.llt'I', d('scl'ihing e\
('ut, whf.n 1 vi...itt'd It, the \\,()odi whi.h 1'111 ir{'I)' 

III'rolind it on the 
idl' of that mll;;;t pn.cipitoll:' 111OlIlIt:\ln Wt're ju-t co, {'rf'eJ "itb 
freih gref'n lpa\'c" in the month of \pril. :md tIlt, liltl.. lIl"tl(,..t droopill'! pillk 
5vcl3mille4 rmhalmpd tilt' ail' witl. tllt'ir fi-:l rr:UU't>, TJ.(' cllurch of tJ..... ('IIII\'('nt 
was quite filltacI with ...w('(.t 110"(' ray... of tjl mountain t1o\\cr
. .\h. who (':111 
,,,onder tlw oM prophet... in tlleir b,'ight \.ie\\s of wh:lt \\a::I to comE', IOl)!:{'ù 
to :,L,(' the jo
'fìll tla}"" "J.en the ( atholic chltl'<.h 
houlcl ('XI{,IIc1IIl'l' pc:u.dìJl a\\a) 
over the earth !" 
SnIHt'times tIll' sih' of some :Ihlx>ys seem..; to have Ix'{'n origillally (J"tt'rll1int tl hy 
certain remarkahle work:i of natm:p, 01' of C)'dopcan art, of wJ.ich the hi:--tor)' W:lS 
t)ttt'n, TlllIi the chui(',> of UJa.:::tollhury 'f'1li I'onn 'tl.>ù "ith that higl, aauI 
...ingnlar mount, 011 which, ill t1. l".lrlie-t :Igc..; of f:.lith, ill lJritain, Pll31;:.lIH1" :u1l1 
Ihmiallus, tlw mi::;..innal'it,:o. of Pope EI('lIth
riu..., IlIlilt the ('llal)(') arHI (.(11 of .....t. 
l\Iich:u.I, " thai 11(> might have tllt'rt' hOlloI' on earth fi'tlm 1II('n \\ 1m h)" cIIlIlna:lIlti 
Gotl shoultJ hrill,r nlt'll to (.tt'rllal hOllor in h":l\'clI," :Lilt I \\ het' lilt' hol)" 
monks from [I'el:uu.l, who aft '.'wal,a... re...;idcll there, had ::snch diville \'i:)ioll", 
that iUtlulgenæ,; were brallted tu thn.. who cut a \\ay up to it through tlu
gletl thol'l1::7, to enaLle pilgrim... ft) filltil th,.it, \"ow. 1 \,i:,i,e I it on '-'t. ðlcphen's 
day dllrill
 a wild 8torm, \\ hi('h 
t...1l1f d Iih.(.I)' 10 
\\ (('p IIlf not alolle tilt' l'uilll d 
tower, but thl' grt'('11 COliC it:õoelf, IlIlaahit{'d hy a lIumber orha\\ ks allll \\ ihI }'iI'tI:-, 
thein'ry while ht)\Fl'l'ilw l'Ouml, nain rlt d \\ itla tllf> furious roar (If the \\ illtl \\ ilhill that 
 towl'r, ..truck me \\ ith a fi c\i ng- or a\\ e, fht, view on all ...idus COITC:--pOUJ- 
ed, whdhc
 onp rt'ganlcù the s'I".lt!gling villa
t.: of G b..tllllLu 1')" , who strl'ct... 
furm a \'ast ('I'Û
 on the ritJge of the i:o'lallù of \\'alon, or thL rllinCtJ ahh(.
', or the 
vast moot. antI waste of \\'att'l:" that !-ourrolllu.l. tl it in that 
t'a-on, or in tht' di..tau('(', 
Sel wood fore..t, rI.,. 
l-cIiCS of A I fred':i victory over tht> D.llws antI tile lIIoulltains 
of the priuc'ipality. 
'Yhpre it happens that lIatlll'(' ii I..,s iut 'n.
rillg-, tIlt" 1l1011:lstel y "ill o1icli stanJ 
ome colos-al fì'a
nwnt", \\ hidl d('cbrc \\ ith :-.ilent ('IO<lu('n<,<" the perishahl(' 
eh:u'af'tcl' of hUU1:1t1 amhition to ('olljme up a ('r(mJ of thoug-ht:--, nncJ excite 11:0' to 
1l111=-'C IIpoll tlw cl,':4ini..
 of man. 
1IC.h an ill
t:ml't. is J>n':-" ß1(>(J hy that ('OU\',"lIt 
of lIieronOnÙt>i in Hpain, whidl :-,tallcJ.. nml' tlU' ('nOrl11ou" {'It>pllant:- or hulls 
ht out of tilt' g-i
:lI1tie rocks whic'll 
urr()uI1t1(>(1 it, 
o ('(.I<.I)1alt.(I:ls the Tow" 
de Gui..:anJo. T n 
encraI, howc\'('r, Ih(' llOIy fcHmtI..I'
 of mon:1.
tt>ric" prl.fcrrcc.J 
the imrnulahh> glory of nahlr("s WOl'k
. Th(\
' ...tllI
ht out .1)(' pn'(.ipiC'C... :Bu.l dllr- 
aLh' t")I'm.. of tle-ert rC'!!lon:-;, nnll:mnt('(11n- 1 h(\ \':twnintr (!nlf.... or f",'arful cr..U!:-ò, 
like thOSt' that roppie O\'('r tI1f' ahh('\, of 
t, HC')1('(11d :I; Suhi:U'() \":lst m:t ....., (,f 
which fall e
r :1n11 n(,\"('1" inj,;r(' it, or Iii\:(' tho
t. f'o..imattt on 
th(' cl('a!' :lI1cJ rll...hin
 .\ nit), where> tliP 1>le-,;;,.<1 J>:ltriar('h 1'00 lon1! rt>sidN1. Y ('t. 
er dr('al'Y to a str:lI1
 eye, thC'r(' wa:;; sm"(' to h{' n('ar them.. H1'H' !!r:1('iou
 ,}'>)t with whi,.h thp
' \\'I':'P f:\ rniIi:\1', .\
 our 1\()<'f ,,;n,:,,", 

AGE tj 0 F F..-\ I T IL 


" It was a barren scene. and wild, 
'Where nalied cliffs were I uddy piled : 
But ever and anon between 
J...ay velvet tufts of Jovelicst gleeü ; 
And well the mouk or hermit knew 
He"esslS where the "all-tlo
 t'f greW: 
lIe dt'('m:<l such nooks the sweetest shade 
:uu in an its rounds sur vey d : 
And was poct:c impulse given 
By the greeD hill and clear blue ÌJeaven, 

Oftcn sllI'roumled by some :-iteep and al,id wihlel'ne..;
, the 
ite itself is a soft syh'an 
(:K'em'. t'nclosed and bid a way 3..; a de 1 iciolls parad i
Great is the ::mrpl'i
e uf those who pas.; from Preta vecchio to Camal(loli, after 
travel':,ing the 
corche{l and harrowt'd top..; of the barren Apennine:", the with- 
ered aspect of whieh makes one's heart faillt, to come down upon those soft dewy 
lawlis, aud green s()litude
, and (1ark pathless woo{l
, and filld 3D Eden raised in 
the wa
te wihlerllf's,,;. Xothing can ex
eeò the gran(lenr and wildness. :md e'-en 
the 1'lIlIlantie interest of the scenes in whieh mallY :tbbey
 are placed. From the 
8rniling meadow:" on which :,t:lIld:-; the \"a:,t abbf'Y of Eng-elberg, t lie wooded moul)- 
ains which ellclCl:05e it on every side rise up precipitousl)" to the stern melancholy 
l'cgiolls of eternal snow. 
The fir:;t :--ound whieh breaks the silence of the de
ert of San-Lorenzo to the 
pilgrims in that solitude is the bell of the E..curial, ",hidl ha..; appalled many, 
from its bUI':,ting 
u<1denly on them, The bla..:t
 that howl round tl13t immense 
and tl'Uly solemn mOllastery during the autumnal 
easnn, wh('n the court rt'sides 
within it, are de:,cribell as terrific. These 
udden and impetuon.. tempe:o:t5 from 
thc mountains ('an overtlu'll carri3ge
 on the pa:o:
e calJed Lon
a, which le:lds 
from the vilh1ge to the mona..tery. Again, what a situation is that of the con- 
vent of St. Bernard, on the mountain whieh bflar..; his name! ""'hen 
eated, at 
night-filll, het)re the fire there,ollr fatigues alnw:st forgotten amidst cheerful con- 
versation, while the wih1 snow-dl'ift sounded 3gainst the windows, I rememher 
how cordially every onp 
eemed to greet the wet cold stmnger5 that entered a 
little later, as if from fancying how still more dreary mu:o:t ha\'e hecome the ways 
that he him
elf harl ÌI'o(lden hefore thp darkness. Strange wild tales often pas..;rd 
current re
pe('ting thp neighhorhood of monasteries, and it mn:,(be owneò the aw- 
ful !'olittules in whiph thp.,' s;:nmptimec:; 
tood were well fitted to make us helieve 
that there wac;; somp e
('nse for those who related them; for the solemn wildne..- 
of the rocks or woods 
pn'ell to g-Ï\'P tl1:lt strength to the imagination which ren- 
rlel's fictions 
n('h a<;:. th('
e intf'l'e;:.tin!! to m()
t men. Thus we re3d in the nnnal:- 
of Corhy, in Saxnl1
"'. 1.1I111e1' thp (btf' of 1422: "Era;:.mns Drogge, a 113wksl113n 
and fi
hPr, reIatfl(l to tlJe hl'rthl'en won,lerful thin

 of the 
pectt'es seen by him 
in our wood<:, and at 'Yïs
rah flnll Xeth:ml. If the
' ,,"pre a11 trne, ndiJs t11e monk, 
I would write them down among ","on(ler;;:,"* ..:\gain." thi
"{,3r, l04R, it wa

\nn'ìlpc:: ('orheipnqng It!,. Lpihnit7 Scrint Hrllns""icen,,h IIlust. 11- 


1I u l
 C \ T II 0 L I (J I. v It, 

said, that in Bruu:-Lcrg is a great tre.I:5Ure, hidd
u ano ffuanled by a LI.tck dog 
with fiery eyes. Gaspcr lh'lll"CI', the Luuter, 
ay.., that he saw him. \\1IctJ., I' 
hp sa)'s truly, J kllow nut; but l'crtaiu it is, that tra \'cller.. L.r uight, h..1\'c tl.i.. 
yeal' 1>eeu much frigla h'lll.d Ly t:ìpcl'tres un that 1II0UUt:til.." One pour brutLLr 
SeCIUS llot to have thought thelll altogdht'l' tìctitiol....; ftH' \\ e rc
ul in 103-1, ou tho 
fèa..t of St. Jùhn the Hapti
t, u all iglll:'J làulU::i ..('(!ilea'il Ll'Uthcr ::;eLa..
lian, 14.'- 
tUl'1Iillg after (lusk from tllc next to\\ 11 wlll're he ha(I prcal'hed. II i::i 1('rrut' \\ a:5 
such that he dil'll t he next Jay:'* Thl're was a ('ell for fi \'t' brothers Ldongillg 
to the i\LLey of Gri..;
aw, in Sile:sia, at th -, 1ùot of tltc ltiph
l' III 1II0untain.., \\ h..t). 
iu Gerlllau arc callell the l1l()un
liIlS of niallt..;, Lt-cau
e thcy arc of :-tupcmIolb 
heigltt, Leing allll()
t perpetually coven...l \\ jtlt 
IIOW. 01 \r ondl'Uu..; things arc re- 
latcll there," fays all oM hì:-turia'n, c. uf a 
p 'Ire dwelling among tl1 '..;e moun- 
tain..;, anll appearing in \"al'iolH fcJrm.; tu tho:-e who a"l't'llll them. fhc,:)C muun- 
tains, whil'h sl'paral" .::;ilc..ia fì.olU Bol.emi.l :lllli 
IOI'a\"i:l, l'xtclHl to the Carpatu- 
ian chain which llividc::i IIlIn,rar)' from Puland. '1'111' abhcy of Gri
:':.lw o\\'e\l 
its uri
in to the slall
htl'I' of the Christian anu." IIIIl!ca' I [Iury Barl)atll
, the lilts- 
hanJ St. II
dwig(', by IIlC ho:-t of Tartar:;, ill the )"l..L1' l:HI, 011 the plain:, of Lig- 
illg fl'OlJ1 tl1l'ir f:a\'urite hallllt
, monks al1l1 hermits "we III cd to have a pre- 
dilection for the life \\ hich Dallte rather stl"'.tIJgcly (JualifÌt:s, fi$ only preferable to 
the tortures of the la5t or fì'ùzell circle: 

" Oh. i11-starr'tI folk, 
Bc} 0011 a1\ othcrs wretchcIII who abitte 
In such a m.lIIsion, 8S Scarce thought finds words 
To SIWdk of; hett
r luul )'e here on e:\rth 
Been flockOil or mountain guatil. ' * 

Baptist the 'lal1tll3n annc.1 ,. in th":.:e liu!':;; to their ('}1Oice : 

"I1inc d'v. 88Dctique partrc8 in mOlllibu8 .Iltis 
er(' t!oml)s t'lcitas, Chl&rtusia te till ; 
('urmehls ; r..uganns ; .\tllos ; L ml"cta ; Laceroa; 
Et Sillt\ et ::\or.,clis :\pc't i umbrosaque \'amll, 
Et juga 
 ur!-ini facto senis inclytø. ; ('11\11 is 

\bietibu.. turritu caput Cam.lldul:l fi'tnctum. ..

\\That Tacitllc; 
a."s of the Gt'l'lll:lns ....pems trll" of the monks, Cl Ill
t ad of in- 
habiting cities, t}lPY live alltl i
olat('ll, jll..t wh"l'e\'cr a fimntaiIJ, or 3 
field, or a groV'(', ph.a"l'll them :" "Ut r.JII
, ut ('ampu:o:, lit lJ('mll..; plat'uit." no 
\\e come to some :,-equpstel'cll :-õpot " lindeI' a mountain, whi(.h from Hnkllo" n time 
has )":lwnc(l into n C:l\"('1'n. tJÌg-h and dpep; fro II a whi,'J. come... a gentle rÍ\'ul('f, 

\nnules Corheiense.. np. Leibnitz SCI ipt, nrnngvi('('n
in mu
t. 11 
t Ga..p,lr J()n
dinus "\otitiæ .\bh:ll, Oni. Ci,terciell', lwr Univ. Ochem, Liv. \ ;.:- 
* X:.L\.ii, 
E('ll)!!. \ iii, 

6'Ì G- E:j U P F A I T 11, 


" water, like deal' air, in its calm sweep hemls the =iolt gras..;, and keeps for 
evel' wet thc ..,tems of the :sweet Howers, anti rills the gruve with ::;ouml:s, which 
WÍlO:'O heal's must needs tiu'
et all plea..;lll'e and an pain, aLi hate and love wh ich 
they had known befüre that hour uf l'e:-it ?" fhere again we bhall find a cloister 
of the holy pacific, 01' do we turn to the womis undel' the vast shade of bralJeh- 
es to the pine fiu'ht whl're the white eagle build':) her Ill'St; ur to the denser 
labyrinth of other tref':" whw..e (. meetiug boughs and implicated lean's Wt'ave 
twilight o'er the poet's path; more dark and dark the 
hadl's accumulate-the 
oak, expanding its illlmea
urable arms, embraces the light bt'cch, the pymmids 
of the tall cedar overarching, franlP most solemn dOlli,'s within: the parasitcl;:, 
starred with ten thous
llHl blo..;
om..;, flow al'OlHui the grey trunks; soft Illos:-y 
lawns beneath these canupies exten 1 theil' swell:;, fl'agrant with perfumed herbs, 
amI eyed with bloom
, minute yet beautiful; through the dell, silence aUtl twi- 
light, twin-si:,ter
, keep their nuomlay watch, and :-;ail among the shades like \'a- 
pOl'Uu:, shapes half ðeen." There in some sudden opening, which again restores 
yuu to the sun, YOll will anive at the convent, 
()me aucipnt sanctuary of 
holy men, III which, while lodging for the lJight, you will hear the animals of 

.. Ore truces ululare lupi Slib nocte silenti." 

Y Pt the peace of that hou:;e will [(wce ).011 to regard these as the fortunate groves 
amI blissful seat"" amI SOOll the trees that whisper round it will become deaf 3
the monastery's self. Deeply hidden in the he3rt of ancif'nt fore:;ts were many 
abbey:" to which men had to work their way as they could through what might 
be truly termed " a patl,Ie..;s desert, dusk with hOlTid shades." In the develltb 
century there was a mona:;;tery in the for
st of Ferrière, so secluded, that if it bad 
not been for certain iron for
e:" e
tabIished in the 
allle forest, the place wouM 
have remained unknown; but, in 11-1:7, thesp works led to its discovery: for a 
monk of 81. 
Iartin of Toul'llay, being at Rheirm:, and having been éharged to 
fillli out where was an abbey of the name of Ferrière, :;ncceeded at 13st, by means 
of the workmen, to whom prohably he was reft:'rred by some monks of 8t, :\Iaur 
des Fo

ez, who had come, like himself, to the couucìl of Rheims."* ,rhen I 
expressed my intention of proceeding to Bobbio, I was told that from the place 
where I wa
 I should have to Ü:n.eI, eithel' on foot or Oil hor:-:eback, for thirty 
mile...:, there beiug Ill) road to it. ' 
(( The acc

Iurilllond) that mother offive orders of knighthood," says Dom 

Iartene, " is difficult, owing to the wood,.: and broken tmcks by wbich one has 
to pa..;s, It is in a fearful solitude; iu a ho}]ow, surrounded by IUountain
, on 
the borders of France anù Lorraine, ill which latter 
tarlllð half 01 the refectory."t 
"\Ve did 110t arrive," he I:53.)'S, "at the uLLey 'Jf 
Iole5111e until late at night, 

* Lebeuf, Hist, du,Diocèae de Paris, tom, xiv. 
t VOJa1;
 Llttp.H\irc d
 RéL.édictius, 14u, 


I 0 l{ Ese A I'll 0 LIe I; on, 

\Ve havill
 tORt our way in tl1t
 ""1'Olls, wlllcb ('au...
1 u=, to tr:.l\"d two or three 
miles more than were uece...sary,"* "In ordl.r to arri \'e at Clalrvallx/' be ba)
.. which i..: in a vaHe)' surroUDdcII \\ ith ltIoulltuill
 and forP t:o, \\ e had to trove] 
ll'l." two lC'.lgUf 
 throllg!. the wood. OIW (':Ullwt :1pproR('h it \, itilOut f(. -Hllg 
olle'...; heart lUo,'ed "iih illdt...,crihahlc t
t.liJlb"'" which indi(llte tht. 
:lI)('tity of it.'I 
origin."t .. rl1l' ahbt'y of Pr
lUolltrè, [clur It'a
u'ä from L.IOII, i:'\ ...itu:'tt'll," h
::iay:" ,{ ill ::iuch a t: arful soliLUd.>, that 011 . ('all hardly alTÏ\"c at it \\ ithout takillf'" 
a guide of tile cuuntry.": {, \It, r pa
:oiJlg' l
i{'tlrich i a.::f..lill t'utered the'o;t," 
ciays a lUoJ.'rn travcllt'r, {, and auo\'c an hOllr tl...r.' \\ a. littl.. to h.. :-t ( n ('X('cpt 
the noble tl't'C:, whil'h cll('oltlpa"':-l"clml' j hut though J .'oult! :'\"hloltl 
 'l' tift," yard..., 
yet within that (li...talH.:c th.'rl' C'\.iSIt..'4.1 alw8Y=" 1'1"111)" of milllltt' ()I
('(':s to int,'rl'st 
m". ...\tlcr \\'ilHlin
 my way thro\l
h tilt' tm'... fi,r a 'IIn...itlerabl
 time, I :-lld(h'lll) 
saw clo...e bcftlI"C mc, at the bottom (If a 1110..t b
qUt'"t d \'allt')', tile objp<.t of my 
jonl"lIPY, lI.luH>ly, the \"PI'Y :ml'iellt'r.,' of Eht'l'bacÌl. The sd\'au lo\'elim...
alJ(I th.> peact'ful rt,tirem,'nt of this 
P()t I ..trollgl
' fi (,I it is quitt' impo:-
ihl,. to 
descriUe. Tho>> mona...tery lay
' 1
IJ(ath me, "0 (,oUll'lt'H.I) ..;nrrollllllt>d 
hy the forest. that it Il)..kcd a... if, reaùy built, it hud 1)&'11 tlroppetl from h(>:I\"I'11 up- 
un its site. fue il'l"í'gular Imildill}..
, witia i18 (loI1ll', :-pir
1 ...tatue
, aUlI hig-h...]ated 
, look like tìH' palacc of :,\()UII' po\\t'rfui kill
 j allll)', t the IIIOII:I1'e.h has :'I'par- 
cntly no 
ubje('t... hut f
lre...t tl'l't':', wllich on all :-i(le.. alnw...t tOll,.h till'"(.ture, 
311,1 clu...ply t'n \. iron (hc g-ardt'n-\\alls." Thi... (I",;('riptioll I"f>t'alls a:- '.'ne that UlI('(' 
tra''1u.llizC\1 amI apPt:.1ðecl m)' 0" n imn
illation, TIH're i::; a pathless forest on 
tht' ",ct'Pp Illountain..; whi..1t f'n('lo
 tlw ('ouw'nt ofèamaltlnli. "\t:1I1 oJ-ell in!!, 
c:lU:'\cd hy the fill 01':01 mi" t'nOl'mou
 trunk.., I 1I-P11 to 
it f.'1" hour... witl, 11I
of curiou:i ('r.'a.tnl"t.s all arollIl1l"w, :un"n' y tit,. \H'eÒS grutl':;quc aUli wild, Hdore 
lIIe W
h a ma
nifil'iellt r:'lII!!t> .,f .\p,.nnin(.s. l"i('III
' tint. d \\ ith lliC :-.t:uillg :-1111; allel 
nillg in:1 tlp..p gulf helow, :IS if paintecl on a map, la)' the COII\'ellt un a 
Iad!', with it.. int 'rilll" cou!'t., amI cICliMt'fS all dis<.lo:-e<1. ...\.hove the fo
a..i \vdl a.; Il(>n(':lth it in the \'alley, art:> IW:lIItifirl :-Iopin
 pa tures, co'Yt'l"t'cI with 
th.. flod.:s of the nlOna..wry i ami mo..t r. fr.....hiug' wa..... the cool, .1, li('i(lll
 :Iil' 01' 
the bl'l'Cz'3 which :Ire illhalClI among':-t tlll'm. In tile dt't.p :oih.nt t
H.e,t of gi ran- 
tic pinps :lNlHHI the npp.'r lwrmibg-e., it i
' to lo'-C one':- \\3)'. On> {'unl(1 only 
IH'o\'iele a'!ain
t I"'uch an al'Cilll'ut hy m!'t'fnl1
' 1I0(ill
 the rt-lati\'c I' 'ition uf t5 ,m. 
e l('alles..; tl'llllks, the g-I"owth of ('t'lIlllrif'!oo, hlaitecl h
 or torn from tl.e- 

round, and lyin
 a.'ro:'\."" with tl.t>il' \"a:-t 
Irm... illt 'rJa('f'.{ an,l piled in mugnifi('t'llt 
ruin by tht. force of í;OIllt' tt'fl'ihl,. hh...t, whidl h:1.1 mael., an open p:\
0111,'" naked I'o<,ks. 33 it 
wPpt throudJ a <,I.:1"m oftllP monntain. Louel :llltlt;o]ewn 
are tlw l't'hop..; of the woodman's strokf' in that tIlI'P,t. th,. (i..('p l'('fHI'" of whi{'h is 
only broken L)' them and ttrf' tolling- of the ahh('\, oeJÌ. 
('V 'r !'hall I f<II'c:et the 
tÌlunder which 1'0Ill'(1 o\"er that hOI)";p whcg 11:1\' 'there two night.. b
fore th

· VovnS!e T...itlprnire (1(' (1(111
 npnp JjC'tinq, 1

t Th 104. 

t lb. tf. 4


)1 Ù R E:': CAT II 0 I.. 1 C I; 0 HJ 

J.1'riar ...\ntonin of Cnr
ie:IJ a holy Capll('hill J who left his country 3t an (':lr])" 
3g<'>, throllp-h hOl"l'or at thc fi'uds whieh'a('tcl) it, i:) recurded to ha\'t' 
d the <.'011\'C11l of :\lol1te Ca..all', frollll its bt.illg amolJg \\ollcl... rpmote from 
IIICIi. ...\.ftl'l' III<' offi,.c of matills, he IH'cl to 
pt'lill all the remailliu
 of the 
night :lIH) dawli ill the grl)\'l' till it W:lS time to say ilia!"=-' j anc} :--imiiarlYJ "hl'n at 
Perugia, he us.J t.) CI)1)t<'l11pl:IIC in th" gl'o\rl,s of the elm \'l'IJt. * 
\\Te fllH) that the mOllk, '\l'I'C (}llick [0 upprpciate and to intlulgl' tl.i.. I()\'e of 
Hyh'an hl':l1Ity in oth<'I' meD. .A lIIodl'I'1J tl'anllcr It lIs u.. that on the t'\'l'nilJ
 arrival at \'rallombro..a, he returned to rht.' ahhe)', ail".. st:lying- ill the woocl.., 
sooner than he wi..hl'd, f,'aring ll...t tIlt' g-at,...; mi
ht IH' d()"I',llIpon him j a lit I 
'r :-ouppt'r, a
 he 100kt.tJ t hrOlwlt till" grarl'cl wi IItIO\\' on t lit' (lark \\ 110<1:-- :11111 
 I:lwns of that ddi('illlls'\"all', a ml)lIk Iwrct'in,d hi
('ont'c'rtcd ('OUlltc- 
Iwnct-', amI in..t:.l1Itly di\"ill"tl th4' can
e. ,. Yon \\ ish to walldt'r still throu)!h th('-c 
wild...:," 8'lid he; then ('allill
 n lay brother, he u"tll'rC'lI him tv open th 'gatl':--, :md 
wait at th,'()} till their g-lIe
t':oi r('tllrn. . 
" \\"110 (lop.; lIot (ldi
!.t in fi't.lin
 th.. gcntle winll that com<>s f!'Om the watt'r 1" 
demam}... F.lth,'r Di('
o ,rurillo, of the OI'(ll'l' of St. FI'.1Jwi.., in OJlf'" of his Sf'rrnOIl
preached in &rago-sa, "\\111) (10(" Ilot rejoi('e un h,'arin
 till' bin].. ...ingin
from UlalH'h to hran('h in th.. hejrt of a for..t? \\Y!.o is not ('h:II'I1]I d :It tIll' !'i}!ht 
of the ery!--tallilw rivulet \\"im]ill
 from the high mountain:;? 3m1 who c1o('
fi'cl hi... Iwart leap ft)r j..y when h,. ItP:l
 an (.('h" an..wering' him amill"t th(' ..()('k
A\h ! tlIC"C 3r
 inf'-timahl.. pl<'a... , I1.....; :,"'t 
The he.lutr of r h(' 
, hrook.., amI !!ron'.. of Clain'anh i... dcscl'ih, d h)- 
the ahhot or \.I(]l'nh,'rg ill a mallncr that indi('.lt... how 1I..('flil hp'IJ)t'd it. 
" Goot1 GOIl r' II(' t,,,('laim...:, c. what ('Oil"; )l:uion
 dost tbou pro\"idp for th
' pOllr, 
le...t tllf')' ...holiid he ab...orb('(} hy ahlilubnt 
:ulnf'''',;! hll\\ m:IIIY ullp\.iar iOIl" filr 
penitent.., k
t tht.)" 
houl(1 he oppn.....l'tl hy' lah"r:,! Th,. pla('" ha.. mllf'h I,,\"(,- 
liltc.:)S to 
outhe the w('ariet} mimI, to di..pd cart.... aud ono\\', to kindl" to cl<.>\'o- 
tion those who 
t:'ek 0'1l1, allli to r,'rnim] th('111 of thp 
lIpcl"llal sweetn,' .. to which 
we a
pire. The Illl'ad,)w at cventide remind... me of I:ia:w, 

· Durn video t!nft,m, dum 
C'nlio flod.. odnrem 
II i
torias \'C'tC'rum mernnrnnl mihi pr.atn (Hernrn_' ": 

lIenee, in selt'ctill
 t}IP :->itl' II
\\' fcUlllt1atiollS, we filltl f' t1ult att(':ltiol1 
was paid to tlH'thill}!
 whi,.h PlillY:-;o 1)I'3ntifl111y ('
('rihillJ! tilt' ()j..tript 
of ClitnlHl1Us-tl.(' " lllnl1ifi('3 "yh-ar1l1l1 gellcra, montinm afllatn... ß.lltlliUIU fonti. 
llmquc nbl'rta
I n till' fif((.t'nth ct'ntnr..'o, Ulrich, 3hhot of 
t. (;all, prepal' to .'('move the 
ahbey frolll St. Gall to 1:0,",l.l.:wh. alleging fOJ' Illoti\rc. tliC tnrhllll'nt COl1l)llct oftllP 

· Annale!! Cnpllcinorum t:>48, t Serm. for the slxlh }<'ri.ln" of 1 ('nt, 
'\ntiriæ .\bb It. Or-d. (,i...'(". pf'r Univ, Orh, m, Llh. I. 

..\. ü E 
 u F F A I T II. 


citizens, and that in case of war and the to\\, n being oe:;iegell, it was impo:,,!'ible 
for the monks to remain Benter, their mona":itcrv beiu(r with ill the wall:". ., Dav 
J 0 . 
and uight," he says, H we have no rest: by day we ha\'e to cndurl' the cl'a:)clc
noise of carriages, drllm.
, alld crie:;, aud by night the watl'h rouBd, and the 
furcible intl'll:,ion ofperson
 into the c1oi!'tcr. Ull<lcl' :oueh circnm:;tancps the holy 
81. Gall aUlI Othmar wuuld certainly hayc fixed them:-,cl\'e.; el:o;cwhere. There- 
fure, I have chusen the site of Rosch:H'h, where tht're i:; a 1I10st lovely view ovcr 
the lake of Constance to Thnr
:m amI 
uabia, the purest air, a place rural amidst 
meadows, vineyard:". corn fields, and woods, wi 11. ahundance of water and stone. 
There would the abbot and monks he :,afer and more indepemlent thall when 
guarded by walls, towers, and trenche:"," III 1484 I'enui:,,:-,iou fUI' the removal 
being obtailled from the pope, the emperor, and the gcneral <'Impt!!1' of tÌ1e Bene- 
dictine:" the \Vol'k was begun, but tIH' citizens of St. Gall :.l:-,:,embled ill 3. tumult- 
uou:; manlier, and, proceeding to Ho:-,chach, dClIloli:;hed the new bllillIing:-;, deelar- 
illg that they wuuld nevel' sllft
r the beautiful abbey tu be transferred from their 
town. * 
A "000 or a desert regiOl' 
eems to ha\'e been considered an essential accompani- 
ment to a religious hOllse, The monk, like the Homeric hero, had hi:; àypòv 
7l'oÅVÖÉVÖpfOV.t E\'en in the wildernes,,; of Sllbiaco, the mOll:.lstery of 
81. Belwdict ('an boa
t of it:-, little i
ulated wood of olive:;, To cut down the 
trees round the de..:ert of Camaldoli was pruhibited under pain of excommuni- 
cation by Paul lILt Among the nece...:òary thing:-, of which the frial'
 of the 
Franl'iscan order Ita \'e the u
ufruct, the l'ommenta1ot'5 on its rule enumerate, along 
with books, woods and g:ardel\:-'.
 By the con:-titu1ions of tile Capul'hins in 1529, 
one 01' more ('ells should he con:;:lrueted in a :;0li1ary place Ileal" every convent of 
the ordcr, that if any friar !'hou1<1 wi:"h to lead an eremiti('al life in silence, he 
might have a hut to retire into,\! The Carmelite order al:-;u prescribe; the hav- 
ing desf'l't5 ill certain place<,:, one in eaeh province, to which the friars can rt tire 
fm,the sake of prayer amI contemplation, Fuge, tace, quie!:;ce, !'eems to han
their motto, A year was the gcneral perio(1 of remaining in these desert:', tlwugh 
it was always left to their free choice when to leave them. The hermit
 were fil1"- 
bidlIen, durilì
 the retreat, to eng-a
e in any 
('ho1a:-'tic, phil()
ophica1. or theolog- 
ical study. During their abode in the wilderness they were permitte(l to read 
only the huly Seripture:-,. li\,cs of the saints, works of the fathers, amI books whieh 
treat on tlte spiritual life. :Ko secular persons were to be admitted fill' the sake of 
hunting or fishing. The hOIl:-'t>": of the de
ert were to be near village.;. that in case 
i("knes" there mig-ht be relief at hand. Ko one was to be sent there as if to do 
pen3.1)('p, beC3t1Re desert:", a::; holy pbce
, were only for the perfe(.t. Each hermit 
was to have a seperate cell; the chlll'eh was to be in the centre: auò the space 

* Ildefons von Arx: 11. i xxiii. 
S Louis d'Pl1ris, Expos, Lit. de la Règìe ùes F, F. :\lineurs, 

* Annal. Camald, Lib lxxii, 
8 Annale,,; C{\pucinol'um, 


)I 0 RES CAT II 0 L I V I: 0 R, 

t uclu8el1 very cOllsiJerable; that amiù:,t hills auù n.lle)'..;, wuods anù foulltains, 
the interior rccollectlon might be tlae more ad\"alll.'cd. It i:o, one of tIlt 
tages which is on 
Ioullt LilXl1lus,* 
ßy decree of Sigehert I I I., h.illg of AII
tracia, the mona
tcl''y of COlIgOII, in 
the \'a:o-t ftJrest of the .\nlculle.., was to be lIrrountleù b)' au cuclo:,ure of twel vc 
miles ill extent, to ::cf\'e as a ::olitwi<' f
,r the mOil},...., Lut thc)' limiwd it to 
milc::5.t By letters of the bi
laop uf Grenoble in IO
-t, huuter:! were prohibitA...ù 
fruUl pa..;sillg tlac gate IIpOIl the britl
l', which forUltll th\' boulltIs of the 1
,rl'8t be- 
longing to the mOllk::5 of till' Gralltl Chartrl'u:)e. Hilt \\ hile privat ' ùe\'utioll aud 
the rules of religiuu.. orderci thlls co-operatl."tl to culti \"nt.c a love for such retrl'ab, 
ruollh.S \\ere c..mtioucd from ascribing- 1II0l'l' thall tIne impurtancc to thi.. influelll'c 
of loc-ality; u for," sa)":o. !\'l'Sde Chartrl'
, ., n "ither the.. 'ret ù 'ptlll) of th
ncr the tops of motllltaillS l'aD make m.1II happy if h
 hath lIut \\ ithill himsdf a 

olittHle of miud, a 
ahh.llla of the hc,lrt, tralHl'lillit)' of l'OIl,.eicUl..'t.', elt'vatiolll; ill 
his 8uul, \\ituout which, tcpidit)" l'", v..IÎ.. ,.Iory, alltl 
rilous tt'lIIlwst!:) of 
temptatiou::, tll..'ColllpallY every :-ùlitude,"! "fhere is a good awl there IS an ('viI 
d'scrt," says }{ichanl of St. Yïctor; "the fir')t i::s r
1 f:lr from th. tllmult 
of \-iCt-;:" the latter is wh .re \\'
 nud 110 cultivation of man, nl. ..tauI)' of ,'alll,tity 
or of n'ligion, It is a good du-t'rt \\ hen lit) !oo,nlllù breaks the :;iIencc out thl' voice 
of the dovt', amI the 
igh whit'h L'('a.
 '" 110t fhllll tile tlt''c of tli \,ille lovc. It is 
a'll c\"il dl" 'It when arc wantin
luniul Ù, :,irt, tll'ðin-
."s \\ïth this 
distinction, huwe\el' tlecpl)" marked, cn'r." ('ircum:,talU'C of plal.'.' aroulld tll{>aO- 
oey w a..; , to the monastic mimi, redoll'nt lIut mcrely of UcdUt.\ but of thought; 
amI we filul frt'C}ucnt indi('ations of the 
piritual, and illtellt'etllal profit \\ hit.h it 
dt-rivL"tl fwm this habit of inte'lH't
 naturc. l
 .\bbt,y in York- 

hirt', a clear amI rapid :-trt'am pa

t...1 ulld'r the Itt'autir'..l oriel \\ illdo\\s of the 
refectory. The monks wouM draw leðbOlis fl'oll1 thi..; flu\\ ilW ri\'t'r. Brothcr 

icllOla:, l1'aptl'ur was ohservt'd OUe da\' r >clinili'" from a 'imihu' \\ indow , Cllutem - 
. n 
 the rapidih- of the current \\ hii'll P 
 .,1 bclU\v, 1Ilitii he appl'arl'tl to lose 

elf ill an extasy. Some of lhl' monk:,,ed and :I
kt'tl him the can"t'. 
" From this window," he rl'pliecl, Ie I wa
 cousitl..rin!! witla what ha
t' the 
ri \"t'r I an ill order to rea('h the ..en, UlIII I wa... lll
t in a
hmellt that m
n, \\ ho 
an' l'uli
htcllt d by n'a:-:Oll, slloultl not do the :,aIm' in order- to år-ri\.e 
 "ooD ..u; 
pOs.'iihle at the wide nUll \"u4 S{'a or etcl'nal 
Ior,\' ."11 
'\Tlten we sep, therefore, that Ii III pill fcllB1taiu clf'lightful to the cY('S, flowing with- 
out intermission, \\ hich is in the rui,ldle of the \';I..t rd('t'tOl')' of the ma,rnifiecnl 
te..y of 8r. )bria Xo\'a at )!outerí'galis 11(-3.1' Palermo, which was fiHmdt,tl by 
King \Viliial)) 11. in COlIsf'queUCt' of a \'isioll \\ hich he had whilE' hUllting' in the 
forest, we may be 
ure that it wa..; a HOUl'ce of meditation no le
8 fruitful than the 

· P, D osi thee, Vie fie SI, Jc'an de h Croix, x. tAp, 'tíl\rtene, Vet, 
cript, col. ii. 7. 
* Ivon. Carn. Epist, cxcii, 
 .\nnot. in Ps, 
tJ, I Le ::;.lcrc )[.)l1nt d' Olivet, 

A (; E S 0 F F A I T II. 


rdeus c()mlllandill
e IUtJ:o-t ddig-htful views o\'er "('a autl laud 
whi('h the eyl'S are lIe\"er weary tlf behold ing-."* 01' take au ill
[allcc of the \\ ild- 
er kilJ(L ., 111 the provilH'eof \"'iCIlIlt'," 
ay:'J Gervai,c of V'illelmry, ,. i
 tht::' I'ri. ry 
of :::;t. )lichael de Cami:-sa, wllidl is situawd 111'1111 Ihe .,iùe of a hig-Ii 1110untalIl ex- 
po:-ed to terrible Willd
, but rt:'lIllJvHI from all 
IJUIIJ.-; of IIll'n, amI hy pO
illUIl a 
dt>dil'ated to religion. Tile rett.cwl')' is va-;t, amI cxpll
ell to the full fin't'e of the III this i.. a great wiudow like a dlJol', givillg liglll t" the whe,le. \\"Ilen 
storms rage amllhe whole house i:o; 
hakt'll, wllate\'er light:' art' plal'ed ill the Ct'Il- 
h'e of that winllow bUI'll on ulldí...tllJ'be,I as if all wa... still, The walls tremble; 
the light of that little can(lIe is IIlIt m,)ved."t It i:o; t'as)' to divine the moral 
whicla the monk:o; wonld dl':"V. In filet, there 
 to ha\'e been always (.are 
that there shoul(1 be :,ollJetllin
 in tht> aspect al'ollllli them to Hlmish f()()d of Ihis 
kind. Of len, while staudin!! dllring weather that would not admit of mount:lin 
waudprings undel' the cloi:;terecl ardws of Ellgt'lherg, aud of St, Urball'
in tilt' conntry of Solellre, wlwrc monks walkt>d 10 :lIId fro. from \\ ho:,(' (lark 
huod,.; peered darker eyes, all firt('d well Ít)reolllelBplati..n, I used to rt'IDurk ,.flme 
who, in thoughtflll 
uist>, stllod walchill
 the rni...;ts :,weeping ovel' the mouutains, 
ascending and dc..:ren(ling amidst the rocks, or, like that fumf'd artist, Vit>tro Cos- 
imn, the silent till of tht> rain, :IS if it 
ave them plt>asurt>; Ill,'n poilltin}! (-'ithel 
to the ('atde wanùel'iug thr,",gh Ih... rm'ac)lIws, as if to noh> SOIBP Cll1'ioliS trait of 
illstin(.t, or to the challg-ing 11l1
..; of tIiP pine foJ"t'st becoming 3h
ollltely black at 
intervals, =-0 n('al' to the abi)ey, that one lIIight slIppo..e the ,\'ild :lIJimals in their 
delis were within hparillg of tht> hilly ...ollg. There :u'e whom ullthillg mOI'f' de
lights thuD 
ul'h a cloistral \'iew, while g-roup,., are occupied in hOIl'ellllld labors, 
111 the wide adjoinin
 courrs ; man,' thin
..; al'e t,) be done <lurillg 
such weather within the walls by 
ervitors a..; by the monks, who only wait the 
signal of the hell to flock into the rhur('h, where !'w..l1; "go wakpl1 my4ic 
e<.h, 'e..;. Hugo of St. Yietllr bllrrl)\\'S all illla
t-' fl'OIU e 'nlles... of Ihe lawn 
which i:,: in the centre of the material cloi...ter, "which," he 
a.\'!', " refl'eshcs the 
eye.. of it:; inhaLit:lnt
 alJ(l rt-'ndpl' them more capable of l'eadiug."t 
The trees anù rocks were nse<1 by the monkR as sermons to their convertite; so 
when he i,.; healed they led him fc))th to show the wOl1llers oftlwir s)"lv:m 
allli thf>Y together kneel or f.;it b
' those SplitS sacred to Gü<<l aD11 peace. "The 
"h"le 8itt> of the monaster."," 
a.\'s the :tbhllt of Alc1enber
, speaking of Iris own, 
" is good and a
!'I'ee:thle. afforditlg walks ftln of (leli
ht in tht> valleys, as well as 
on thp mountains."s Thus with oUt' old poet these holy men did not 

· f Esteem it vainful to follow fancy's eye." 

,rhen St. John of the Cross was in the mona4t>ry of Pegl1uëla, every morning 

III 8ici1ia Sacrf\, it 1 
* De Claustro Animæ. Lib, iv, c, 33, 

t Gt'rv, Ti1leber. Otia Imperla1in 

 Notit. Ab, Ord. Cist. pPI" nnÏ\-. orbcll, II. 


)10 H ES VA T lIOLI CI; on, 

after ma

, 1w used to rl'tiro tlluilllSt tlw mOllntains of t1lat clelSl'rt for tllc F.,k(' of 
pra)"('l' ami cuntemplatlon : he \I'll) gE'Dl'raIl)' to z5it I}( al' a sprlug' \\ hH'h Wa.'I tmr- 
rounded by \\ ild tI,(.t'S, ulltillH' hl'
tf<1 th
 lx.II f
Il' the t'xerci:--c'i ot the commullih'. 
After \'espel's he u:;ed to return unt.l the hOllr of IH"a) er ill common, Frt.- 
queutl)' he UðL't1 to conl't'al him:--da amilJ:..t tile rod..s. \ IIlCmk fìlldillg him onc 
cIa)' bct\\een the preeipi('e:., a,kt'd, ".\h, father, will )'011 rpmain 1;'11.:'\'''1' amid,t 
the rocks?" to wholll the holy man repJictJ, "\Volldpr not, Ill" "'011; fc,r \\llelll 
converse with them, I have j
wt'1' thillgs to 
ay ill ('()nfi.:--
ioll, tll:\l1 wllt'n J COII- 
 with mcn."* It Wß' allli(),t thl'
 pfl'('ipict's ofPe
ullëb. tilat h.. cornpo
his snhlim .. 'rapbic hl()l,:s;:1.. it wa' in tb.. 
olitlUlc uf mOllnt .\lvcrllia, that 
St. BOllavclltlll1l wrot' his" Itillf'rariuUl mentis in n 'urn," slid hi ,"Itint'l'arainrn 
mentis ill Sl'ipSIIIII," of \\hie.h (;C!"!o'c)J) 
ays, "I ('Our. 1';'; that fOl' thirty 
'f'ars 811cI 
more, I ha\'c \\ isht'ci to ht' f:uuiliar \\Ìrh t he..... trac.t
; unci I()! tit thi
t-, aft
md of((>n rllmill:ltillg tllt'IU, e\'f'n to the words, J han' 
war('el)' 1.('("1111 to 
taste them, a..; 1 find in thf'UI alway:" !-omethiltg 1It'\\ ." From tl.(. fkuruti,'e lan- 
guage of St. John of the Cro.- in the cc.lehl'atetl rn
'stel'ioll:' c..mticlc \\ hic'h pxpr .. 
the complaint of a soul wounl)t'tl h}p (Ii\"ine lon', \\hic'h, however, he compo ed in 
a dungeon in ToJ('(lo, it i
Y to 1K'I"Cl.Ï\'e what a c1eep ..\
ns' hp ent -rwined of 
the cbarm which }j{'5 in Il1f' soml)l'e ft)N'sb allel 10t'I,\' lUoulitain..:, anll tllP 8w
enamelled m('ac1()w
, :mt.l all tIll' 1)t'8util'
 of this a,llIIirahl.. wodd. 
An ingeniolls modern aut hurt ,.,1I
I"e,L- the pmpridy of pbcin ,. iltsc.'iptioni 
ami,1 the wiJc1s of Ð:u'tnlOor, and eVPII of coltst'c'ratirw partic'lIlal' r()('ks tllt're to 
particular persons :unidst those wastc am) ROlitar
' bCeJIP". If :ooU judicious ali<I aC'- 
c O lUpli:-;lH.'t) a minll ('ould fin,) plf'aslIl'P in :1';
(J('iatiltl! thc rocks ot1wl" C'olllltry \\ith 
"fancil'd gl.ltii or di\'illitip
," hy Druidical il1sniptioll:ol to Odin 1111, uncI 
we caD readily comprdlelld the cfl'8irc fc It hy 1II('(litative Jt':rrnf'tl monks, to pla
in the clpsprt..; round them, inscriptions or memorials to I"('('.all tilt' memory of th 
fl'icmls of God, with whom they knpw that tlaP)' wele historically conll
'(I, or 
to impart a g'('ner:d Ir,soll elf eternal wi,cJom to the pil
rirn \\ bo should pa"':i by. 
" hell Ihe tra('k \V:I
 steep and rn
g-('cl, Olle wonl.1 finci in'i"rihed 111'011 the r(){'k
t'lItcnct' to ("eminc) nwn that the 3,c.(>nt to hf'a"t'n i
 !-'h'(>p allc) narrow, 8
read goin
 np to 
IlIl1nt Cal\'arn, at Dnmo Do-;..:o!a; to whi('h convent, :-o() oftt'n 
at the SWf'et hl)(lr of dawn, a holy P1'O"(':,,.;iOIi lJ1ount!1. 
farc, the poct, a diÍ'ÒcipJe 
of'St. ßPllcdi('t, compo..;t.ù \perSE"S descriptive ()f 
rl)nnt Ca iDo, of which the fol- 
lowing reteI' to the mwcllt : 

"ßuc properet ere10s opt", qui cernere ß
Nf>c removet votum 
ernita dttrß pium. 
Semper dimcill qnæruntur 8umma lahore, 
cm per hahet vita beatl\ vian..... 

The only i.....crÎptioD I ohserved am()n
 th(' rl1ill
 of .Nt'tlf'Y A.hbev. wa
 to this 

· DosiLh.ée, Lib. viii, 

t Mrs, Brs)', S.
etcbes or VcvonSnlfe. 

 0 F F A I T if. 


effect, that whoever did not keep tlw LmÜ'n pathway would be prusl'cuted, ('on- 
\'eying thus a hripf hut al'Curate history of the times sillce that abbloy fell to de:;- 
olatioJ) ; but were the monks .
tiJl there, we should douhtle..;:; h:l\'e {{mnd other 
writillg on the tret's. In the wooII:; where f..iars haunt, We :,houlll find lilies like 
thcse: which St. Franci
 placell on an amepcrillium úf a little chapp I, in a heauti- 
fui wood un a high mountain between St. Gc)'mini aHd Porl'aria, Above were 
painted "aI,iotls creatuff'S, anget.:, h())"
, birds, trees, and 80 fiu"th, UlU!l'l' which, 
wa" this in,"itation to them tu prai..:e their Cn..utol'. 

Timete Dominum, 
t date iIli honorem, 
DiglluS Domillus accipere laudem t'L hoool'eQl. 
Omnes qui timetis DCUIll, lalld
lte eum, 
Ave l\bria, gmtiu plena, Domiuus tecum, 
Laudate cum, ('ælum et tel ra univer:-.a, 
Lambte omnia ftnmina, Dominum. 
Laudale Domiuum qunniam bonus t"st, 
Omnes qui llogitis hæc, beoedicitc Dominum, 
Omoes creatnræ, ]uuùaLe Dominum. 
Omocs volucres cæ1i, laurlatc Dominum, 
s pueri, Jaudate l)ominumo 
Juvcoes et virgines, lalldate Dominllm, 
Dignus est A\.gnn
 qui occisus est, acciperc laudem et honorem. 
Benedicta sit sancta TrÎliÏtas, 8tque indivisa Unillis. 
lichael Arch:lugele, defeude nos jn præ lio," 

A}as! when shall we find in our wood.; aud lawn:;; a similar in:,cription! But 
irun ham mers, and not the pmises of God, res\)lmd now on the '\' ye's woody !-'horej 
allli manuÙC'turers, impelled by w3.'l<lpr'ing boilers, heed llot what would have de- 
lightl.d Aldhelm or Shakspeare. 

.. 0, hetter were these banks assign'd 
To spirits of a gentler kínci," 

And now if fmill the pl'Ofit which ho]y monk
 drew fl'ol11 the beauty or grand- 
eur of natural scene:" we turn to consider the :"weet influence whil'h their habita- 
tions impartell to tho:,e scenes, shall we now di.;covel' that the sen"ice was l'el'i p- 
rocal and adltndantly repaid? 'Yheu roarnin.g' through the woods, or alollg the 
shores of om" dark northern lakes, or climhing up the ro('k::i of the wild muull- 
tain:; which hang over them, in comp:my with the pretty playful goats, \\ould it 
not increase our joy to know 1 hat 
ùrne holy rnona..:tC'ry \\"a,., ueal', that in an bour 
perhap6 we might be in the chul'C'h, a
sisting at their !'01eu1l1 ve:,pers, :md hear- 
ing diP insf1'lletion., of some man of God? How :,weet allli !'o]ell111 is the m
of:1I1 :lhbe
een throllgh dark wool1
, thl'oll
h ",hieh hO:1I':-e winds wh istle wildly! 
and when it i:i the sole obj{'Ct, how Il1w"h m'll'e s\\'eC't and :,ol
mlJ is tilt" mlli'ic of 
its adjacent grove rmd...r th
 hreeze of Bight! Our poet sa.\'
 that tire chief man'p] 
øft}le wilderne:-s hE;! loved wa..; a lone dwelliJ)
, huilt h)" whom or how, none of 
the rustic people clearly knew, further thau that it was reared fm" peace and for 


:\1 0 RES CAT II 0 LIe I j 0 R, 

reI igion, hy some wise and tender lo\Oer of his kind, ere the ('ri me
 of our 3goe had 
beell anticipated in th
 Christi all \\'orltl's young prilllp, ill heigllt o\'crtoppllJg the 
1J1\1 :-car<.
e l't'l'lIling a work of human art, hut as it wcre Titautic. o:5ucu 
was thc ancit-'nt abbey, :'t.'l.ming to have gl'Own out of the mountains from th liv- 
ing stone, lifting itself in ca\"erns li
ht and high; alld how did its voice ('harn. 
that de..:crt and overcome every other harmony! like the binl which fascinated 
the Illonk, 

II Wbo beard not, saw not, felt not aught 
Thro' tbe wide \\ orld of plea,ure 1\1)(1 of pain, 
Save the full flowing and the ampl
Of that celestial strain. "* 

Yes, happ\" i" it ft)r mt-'n whcn holy pile... are bC3ttered through th,.-,e \'al('8 and 
fore..:ts when the :-:pirit oftllc monk... is hO\"l'rin
 through dll'lll, breathing a deep 
ami :,olclIlIl beauty, and ilUpartin
 t,) c\"('ry thou
ht of the human mim) B hue 
of hrightnp:o:s ami of h('3vclI: for thl'n rel
..d"n's voi('f', which givt':oI the luart ex- 
p:lI1..;Îon, ami yet peace COIllt'
 to dlt'1Il in 
 H throll
h the whi
pt'ring wood
and frolll tlH" fountain..:, and tlap CK)'tI'S (It't'p of flower'"" and from the bn.>cz<' 
whether' low 01' 101111, :ultl from tlU" rain of c\'('ry pa'sin
 (')01111, nml fmm thp sing- 
ing of the .;umu}('r bird..;, frolll all ROullds auel frOIll all :,ilenre." For my p.u1, 
if it he pel'lnitred me tu pl"l)Claim a peNon:l) pxperienrf", if I had Ilt>vpr Be('n AI- 
ten rive or Vallomhrllsa, Carna)(loli, or St. DI.h.lD, the h".\utips of our lovelit.'st 
scenery woul,l not delidlt mt" :l!1 tlH'Y now ('3.11 do, I !'hollhl spe them with quite 
differPllt P\"f"
. Thp lawn.. woultl not in
pire :lI1Y bright con:-,oling recollection!', 
nor the deep forests peace. 

· Trench, 




" _
OURNEYIKG onward..;, and thus continuing to hegUIle our way, let us 
 h L"" , I ' I . I f ' I . 

 pal' passages tWill mlelent \\TIUngs re aÍlve to tIe Ol'lglll atH Otll\( atlOn 

?f some n1tlna
teries; fm' there can be 110 tllemt' more 
uitable to this pil- 
grimage, since many of these religious hOllses were the fruits of a journey 

 on tlOt O1'on horseback like our own at prespnt, ollly illvolving dangers and 
"1" snfferinrrs very aifferent from what can lw our lot. 
ð . 
" The pI'oscrih('() man," according to the old German Jaws, " W3S to be led into a 
fOl'est so far as to he beyond th ù he:u'ing of a troop w!to waited at the skirts, who were 
to cry out rhree tin1t's. ...\.fter that he became an out1:. w, aJ/(1 might be slain hy 
whoevel' mt't him."* The heart of f,)l'est.-; thlls legally abanduul'd to outlaws, 
was, however, vi
ite(l hy other men ofa very diffel'ellt clas.;;;, who sought the peace- 
ful joys of contemplation, the C1)fiVel':iiOIl of thf'se ()l1t('a
t!', and the transfc)rmation 
of tile very desel't it...elf into a pamdise, fulfilling the ùi vine prophecy which said, 
"Collsolabitur Ðt)/uilluS 8ion, et cousl)lahirlH' Olllne:i rninas ejus: et pOllet df'
turn (jus quasi delicia..;, et :o'olitudint>1l1 eju8 qnasi hOl'tulll Dumilli: gaudiuID et 
lætitia illvellietl1l' in ea, gratiaruIU actio et vox laudis." "
ho were the
e other 
men? They were monk:.;, and some of them the 6r:o't apo:.;tle::i of the northern na- 
tions, as heroic Perce\yal-; or Pel'cpfo1'est5 a
 ever figured in the fabling of old ro- 
mance. Through romantic valleys, befin'e deenlt.a iJ)a('ce:o;;
ible, they pierced their 
way, and through those vast primeval fore"ts of Gerl11all)" where Ihe f'qllirrl'l, 
leaping fl'Onl tree to tree, could traver5e seven leagne,;; without df's('plIdiug on th
gronnd.t The first apo
tles of Chl'Í"tianit

 hni1t ('ell..; in th(' Black Fortst ulldel' 
hade of pines ana oaks, T1l11
 we find Sr. Fl'idolin at Seck ingell, St. Offi.,n 
at Sehol1ttPrn, St. L:mdnlill at and St. Trlltpprt at tbe place which 
yet beal's his name, If Wf1 hac) the (It'bil
 of tlwir jClurllPY, bpyowl a doubt the 
intere4 of m:Il1Y heroic fhhles WOllM spero pale in comp:lri:-:on, In 744 St. Sturm, 
the di!'ciple nfSt. Bonifa('e, wlth 
PIl ('omnanion
, ha\
ing' piel'('ed into the ,-a:-t 
desert of H('rsfi'lc1 on the hank!': of thp F'nlíb, erectp,l th<>rp a mona;;:tery 1111der 
the tit1,. of tlw Holv Savionr whi('h òeriy('(l its name fl'om that river. 1Tere wen' 
o . 
Soon 400 monks assemhled, besides a multitude of dpp P Il(l:mts,! 
"The herdsman of the parish," says the ancient German laws, "may advance 

* Micbelet, Origines du Droit. t Grimm. 

t bcbannat, lIistoria Fulùensis, pal's 1. 


:\1 0 RES CAT II 0 L J C I: 0 R, 

into thp fclr(lst with his troop, no; fir :I"; hI' (':In rp:l('h with throwing his stick.". 
The interIOr lllu4 Ilave been ..;uffil'iemly dangerous tlH'n. Ilowever, the pa,tor 
of souls was to l>e mOl'c con rageou
, and tl1<<' mon k 
 u('conli nJ!1 y pt'nt'tratA'(1 fIr he- 

'ond slll.h limit..., and otten fin' the l'xprl'
' uf HOC()\ t'rill
 I-omc Jo't 1Il('IU- 
bel' of the Chl'i...t1an flocl", a
 in the in:-t:IIl(," l't.>('OI tied of :::)t. SCillP, or 
t. ,
(oun Jer of tile ahhey \\ hieh hore hi.;; lJallle in tilt' :o.ixth (',.ntury. h \rh, 11 
we re:,HI, c. saw him..elf\\el1 iu

1 in the (loC.'triIU' of thl' di\'in,' 
:riptllrb and 
Iearllc,l in tIjI> mona..tic ruh..., he ..ou!:ht a prop('r plaec to Imil(l hi:-, mOIJ
 he :-tt'31,t'hec.l th,'ou
h th(> ('ollll1ry, :111(1 ('onHlHllli('altc.ll.ió plan to his fri('I1(l.., 
one of his r,>latioJ1"', l'hiolaif, S:litl to him, , 
'ou :Isk lilt', I \\ ill poillt IIlIt a 
 wlll'l'e yon caJ1 p:>bbli,h \'our..t'1t
 if your plan he in'pirtJ hy thc lo\'c of 
God. Thel'e i, a tract whie" bell)IJ!!:; to mt!, if I mistake not, by lu.reHtary 
ht, but the peoplp who inhahit it 1"(', m1ll,. \ViM 1)( 
't.., ancl fi't'(III}>(:o human 
fl,':,h, :'0 that it i:-; not f':I:'Y to pa,..; arnOIlJr th"l11 \\ ithollt a troop of arm( I mt'll at 
olle's ('OlHfI1:IIl'1. rrlap blt,.;...;{.'(1 
.iJl(' :m,\\"prt'(l. 'Slim\ In' thi:-õ pla('(. ill orde.. that 
if my tlt....irt>
 arc coucei \'(.,1 I'y a di\'inp in
tI wt. nil the fero<'itv ofth .':> Hu'n m:IY he 
C\1 into the gentl '11 "
 of d1P dove.' HavillJr thl'u takcn snm
t1H'y ('a01(' to the pl3.('(' \\ hid.ll'u) 11('('11 nwut ionl II. It was a fOrc8t wl.prf' tr 

(I('m(.,1 to tOlleh tIt(> cloud.., :uul'lf whi('h t'lf' !"olitll(lf' h:ul not IH'(,11 (Ji..:tUl,ht'l) f"r n 
long tinw; th(lY wt'rp a...kill
 lum th(\\' ('011),) P('IWtl':JtP illlo it, wlll'n a wiuclill
wa.; cJi:'('o\"el",.d, hut 
o narrow an,1 full of hria..... that tlwy c01l1tI hardly pllt lh,.ir 
foet on the s..Lme lilW, or make one foot f..llow the othtr, so thid" Wt'rt>> thp bralld1e..:. 
Hmvpvel', aftPl' IDu('h lahor :uul \\ ith torn v('<;;tmcnt-=, the
' pC'netl':lt<'t) to th(' ùl'pth
ofthi..; wild fim>st, aUt I at 1f'II!:th tlwy pprt.'f'i\'t>tltlH' lIarrow op{,llin
 ofa ('a\'t'rn,:-O 
dark th'lt thp wild hp:l,t,{'..; WOllld ft'al' tll(' elltl"anC'C, That \\:Hi thc rob- 
ber's ('ave, and th,. ahod.. of 11111.1":111 
pirit,. ,rll('l1 tlll'Y approaC'ht'(1 it, &. illf', :l!!r('{'- 
ahle to Gl,d, howClI hi... km c... al1(1 OIft'rt'cl up a praYPl' with tears, "':Iyin
, 'U Lord, 
wl1'l ha
t ma.,Ie hcaw.n ar1t1 {'.al"th, alld \\ ho 
rantc..'t the prayt'r of those who ..uppIi- 
cate th('(', fmm whom all 
O()c.I pro{'l ed
, :1I1tl without whom all tllt_ ellol,t... or human 
we.ali:ne.....; arf' vain, if youl''Omm:l1ttl that r ...hlllllll fix fIly
.lf in tlti... s ,lit licit', )('t 
me know thy will, and prll
!,PI' tlH'-..e ('ofllmt'Il"I'II1('lIt,.' \\Ph"n he had filli:-:lu'tl 
his pl':l,\'f'r, he rose up and Jifu.,I h:
 h 11lt1, fo IJ(',I\'('II, with \\Ct'pin
 (>yes, Kllow- 
ing, tlll'n, t haL it W:lS I1nù '1' !!l1itl:Iß('e of thp 
nviolll" that he hat I ('()tile to this dark 
fcll"e..t, afrcl' having hh'"H:
d thp 
""lIIn.), I.p:" t ahlll1 t Ja.\'in:! tIlt' fOllllllat ion of a little 
cell on tilt' 
pot where 1lC' ha(l fh,t pllt )Iint..; 'If 011 his 1..1It...
, 'rill' report of his 
arrival camp to th > ('ar:-: of tJI(> n'
 pcople. who ht'iug fIln\'c,l h
' a divine 
irnpllls,>, t'xhnrtetl ea(.1t ntht r, all(1 appJ'o3t'h (I to v::-;it him. .\s 
)Oll as the\' saw 
him, from wol\"(,s they b..calne lamll!O, in..,. I11l1f.h that they whn had hc:>fore h('4"n a 
80111'('(> of t'nor Wf're now tit(' m",:-; of a-:-;i,t1n('(>; mill from that timp thii 
place h'C'amc:> the aLotl. of inwl('pn. nfler bein
 tire haunt of cJ"lC'i ! oOo{>f'i 

· C, imln. fi:"). 

AGE S 0 F F A I T 11. 


and clt'mlln
."* 'Yl}lon 51. Gall askc<l tlae tlpacoll IIiltibald, who knew all the 
tÎc"'l'l't from bi:, habits of wallùering ill uf fh.h :.lnù of laawk
, w}U_.thCi' he 
('011 It I h':ad him to a ::;pot favorable fur a monastcry, tIlt> tlt.'at'OIl replieù, " This 801- 
itmlt" ab.HllJds with watery places, lofty moun ains, deep narru\" valle)"i-', 
and woods full ofLurtful bea:-t..; for besidt.,s .stag, amI flucks ofharrulcss allimals, 
there arc many bears, innumerable boar.
 ami I an'nOll..; wolves without num- 
ber, so that I ft'ar )"011 will he ÙO\'ou1'f>d if )'011 Pllter it." Xext morlling, 
howevel', at d:.tybrl.ak, tlw)" begall tq penetratl' into it, ami about none.; came to 
the brook Stailla, where was a spot that plea
e,l tht' mall ufGoù, which he marked 
with a t'r(l

St. Liudgel' 31ul his brethren beil1K anxious to construct a monastery that 
would be :,ccure from the future dl'solatiol1s of the maritime country, after much 
delibcration fixpd upon a pla('e within a forpst J)E':lr the river Rum, which was 
afrl'rwarcls calIl'(} \r erden. Having pitche,l their tcnts, tllt-'y pl'(--'pal'e(l to cut down 
the tre

 and make a sufficient space, but they !'otoml 
o thick, and their bmnches 
were so interla('ed, cOlleealing' the sky, that it 
eeme(l a hope}p..:
 undertaking to 
set about huilding a habitation jn snch a wil(lel'lle."'s, That night the holy man 
rose I hree tinJes to praYt'r, placi ng himself under a grt-'at tree. After the thir(J 
time the ))i
llt, whid} had been hefore ell'a!' and St'l'l'UC, becalm> obseul't-'ll; the 
moon alllI 
tars were covered with cJouds, and a mighty tempe:-;t bur
t over the 
t.. The gnarled t run ks of many centuries fell heft,re that stern bla:-;l, and 
the l'1t'lllent
 of the world were made to sa\'e the servant=-- of Gml. At break of 
ùay the task was accoJl)plished ; tht-' trees lay pl'O,'ate piled on all sidt's, and a 
1ppeart'd fOl' the site of the monastery". One only trt'e 011 that 
Rpl/t was left standing; it wus that under which the lUan of Grnl prayed; but 
when this wa:; af[erward
 cut down ftH' the u:,e of the church, a 
tone waS pla('ed 
on the 
allle spot to be a Illemorial for ever.1: 
To the vust solitude of the V'" usges, bordel'ed on the ea..:.t by AI
ace 3nd on the 
west by Burgllndy, a region full of high IlJOllntaillS, with hideoll
 rocks risiug up 
allli crownillg them, in a manuel' l'e:òemhlillg ca:-itle:-::, with deep ,'allep. bt.tween 
tlIPID, perfectly black with the quantity of pine wood, and inhabited only by wild 
, many holy men of God bent their :otep..:, amI there built hOIl"'e-:õ of l"l'lig
Thu:-; 8t. Gllnùelbel't penetrated into it in the reign of king Childeric, fixillg his 
abode in thp spot which is now Sen
, where he built a monastery Ululel' tbp rule 
of :St. ßI-'netliet, alld became its abhot.
St. D(,I1atuS, leaving hi
 brethren, wa:-: another who pierc('(l through this tract 
of d(--'slI}atioll: he pa:-:
('d, we read, through diffieult Illoulltains awl vaIleys, till, 
at len
th, ]lC carne to a 
pacjons vale C'ovl-'retl with thick wood, 3nd watered by 
slreum:,. where Ì1e Lnili. all Ol'atUl'Y ulldt'l' the invocation of St. 
hl'tin, ami on 

* Acta Sanct. Ora.S. Ben, tom. 264. t Dt'Vita n (hIli Auct, W'1lafried Slrabo, c. x. 

 Arta g. On!. R"nNL 8:l'f'u1. iv. p. 1. 

 Chronic. :5enoDiensis, Lib, i. 2, ap, Dacucr, Spicilcg, iii 


)1 0 I 
 CAT II 0 LIe I; 0 H., 

the ùeclivity of the hilJ a dlUJ"(.h 111),1"1' that of St. 
lallri('t., nna Ileal' it allother 
in hOlloI' of tilt' m"ther of ('hl'i
t, l'Ollllll wllicll, was a duistcl' 1
'r munL.s. 
It wa.., Iw\Ve\"cr, \\ hell UOlltran \\ a
 L.lIIg of BIll gUild)', an,l t'hi1ò,.bt'J't of, that this (1f".'rt rl'Cci\"pd it..; m"st fCllowlle(l pil
rim :1111 ap"stlt' ill bt. 
CO)lImban, who ar..i\Pt'cl there whcn Iw wa
 :10 )'('a..8 of :Ig('. Bol'li ill Irt.I:IIICI, 
about the year 560, in his youth he appli...(l to Il'arllillg, and ma,le. 
n'at prOtrl t.s.., 
but f('arin
 the tt'mptations that :-,llrroUlul('(l him. Ilt' It.ft hi:" hit th-pla"t', liCIt \\ ith- 
st:uulillg the oppo!'oitioll of hi, IIlllth"I', :11111 wcnt ill to :1ll01 h,'r IH'O\'iIH'C of I r. lalld, 
putting him' .If 1111.)('1' the cotuluct of tll' hol)" an,l 1('arllt(1 
ilcllll:i. III this I'whl/ol 
he Lccame prof'()(l11,1 iu the hilly 
c..ipt'lre', al111 compo
.l :"('\"'1':11 tn_.ati,l's, among 
which, was a Cnml11"I1t'lr.\' on th' P
alm.... The love of (;,1(1 daily ill('I"t'a:"ilw in 
him, he fOI'
ook the w. /I'ld. an 1 h '('am" a monk ill BangoI', \\ 1lf'1"{', aft('r Ih"ing 
sc\'eral year
, he h 'gan to cl"sir(', lik.. _\.hraham, to travel illto a ..trall
l' cotmt..y. 
Aeqll:linting the ahhot \\ith hi": illtf'nt"on, wh." \\ ith rnn('h 1"(,lu('tall{'f' 
I'alltf'd him 
twelve monk;;, he pa
s('d 0'.('1' wilh tlH-m int,) En..!lall(l, :lIIcl tht'II('(' illto FrallC'f'. 
To the ell's,'rt of thp \-ros
".. he (':1nlt', 
u)fl h '('altH' ..,.) ('11:111101',.,1 of its P(':1<'<' thal 
ht' l'e..oln'(l to f('m:l:1I in it. FilUlill
 an 01.1 rlliIH:'11 {':I,tl- (":llIt,tl ,Alla:.:-raï
, he 
made> ('hllice of it fill' his lI1ona
tery, whf're, aft -I' living for 
qlllt' tim,-., \d1ile :--n(1- 
ported hy the eharih p of the lI:ltin."s, 1.(> resoln'tl tu fonnù another ahbey in the 
!'oaml' tIt :"t"rt. In th(' Yt'ar .j
JI), hc cli..;e ,\'<,rc(1 all old (':lstlt' (.ighllllilt'
 tli..t'lIIt from 
the fir..;t, which ha(J 011("" IWl'1I strund). fnrtifl,.,1. This W:IS (,:ll1f'd Lu},,<,uil, in 
whic,h 11<' pla(.('tl his ('Oll1l11l1l1ity; :1I1t1, tinally. his thirel {'Ioi!"fc'r tlf FOlltaill(," was 
similarly place, 1 ill an olcl ('l..tle 011 th. hurel"I':.; pf BIIJ'
IIIHJy :lIId Lorraillt'.* 
This tr:lll

)rmation of ca..tI.."i 
)r pur}) h" of hostililY, into tlU' asylullls (If p(':1c'e, 
mu4 be remarkc,l, a.. nn int<,r('stin
 (.ircIlI11SUIlC't' in thc hi:,wt,y of pwitif' institll- 
. It is ("IS)" to mull ipJ
. in
, I n !1
2 Ht. (1uih<'l't ()r \\ïlX'rt, th(' C\on 
of Litholdl', ehang'c'(l hi
 t'a...lI.. of (
t'mhlollr.. into th,. nHlna
t('r.\P whi(.h 1){'I'amf'M 
celehra(('(1. Ittin
,'n. whic'h ""ern'I', alth,t of:;1. Gall. 
lC'qllil"('41 for Iti
had bl'('11 an t)I,1 ea..tlc, which \.ILcrt ßerthol<l and Ulrit.h had ('h:lI1 lr lCl into an 
tini:m ('onvent. 
In 1137. \\rilliam .It' GhUUl, ofth(' iIIu'-triou:-. fiunily of the count...; of YÎl'nnr, 
8iring tu fimn,1 the Cist,'r('ian IUf) of Ilalltt'ri,.p :I('tnallv cJf'moJi,h. d Iii:"! 
, " 
magnifif'ent m.,tl{', whi{'h wa
 ahollt ,')00 p:u'(''; di,tant from tl.(' :--pflt whi{'h I)(
h3(1 RPlpf't1-(1 {()r tilt' f(ulIHlation,t In :--\I'ain, m:II1.\' oftll(' :JIlI,ic'nt (':J
tks:lIul tow- 
ers whic'I. h:ul hl'f'n IHtilt a
ain...t th
 ineur...ioll'i of the )100...., \\"('1'" ('011 vert. d, 3S 
that of U(.lt.
. 1t':11' Tal'alt('on, into th(' pf'.H'('fnl a,
'lllln, of a rpli
ioll' communit p \'. 
'Vhr>n .\dl'laidl', moth,'r of Louis Yrr., iltstitutl'.J tll. ahhl'Y of:-;t. .T"hn-:m-Bois, 
in the 01,1 
ro\'ingian p:J!aec of rlli..(', whl'''t' thl' ,'{'Ii('s of <:::t. 1.:l1phm
ilH' dl't'w 
crowù, of pilgrims.! or even when Charles the Bald, ill 877, f
HlmletI the aLLey 

* Jonas m \ It, :-.. Column. fiO, \inhtl. 
t Fumlatio "ona
t. <it. Aha 1{IIM, .Lp. :\I:\rtcut'. Yd. 
cript. t. \i. t IIh.t, dl' :-:'oi,:
un<:. ii. 134. 

A G K b 0 1<' F A I T ll, 


of St, CorneilJe, in his own palace, at Compiegne, the metamorphosis perhaps 
wa:; 110 less siguiticative of a U'llIlIIptl uf peace, anù of its holy influence. It was, 
iu{kcd, a favorite act of d,'vol illn in the 111 iddle :Igt.s to eOl1sign tu God \\ hate\'er 
had bf'ell used by wicked men ill machination.. against peace. 
" A certain devout soldier, Oylardus de \Vil11ilio," a..: we re;ld, in the ehroniele 
ofSt. Bertin, "kllowiug that there was a \\ood bt:'twepß Gisne;, and 'Yis
al1t, in- 
habited hy robbers awl I11m'tIel'ers, atHI thert'ft,re ('allell Z"uù"ll\'elt, or the fit ld of 
siDlH'r:o:, purcha.;.pd the property through a dpsÏre to pUl'ge it from 
uch all evil, :md 
having dri ven out Ih(' robher...: anù nHlrd(,l'er
, he huilt a chapel and COIIVCllt 1 here, 
and placed lay brothel'=-' in it to st'rve the poor, al1d :-ihow ho:-:pitality to travellel's : be 
o vt'npratl'd in that wood, that he uSl'd to be ('aBed St. OJlan1. The 
wood ilself ch:u)O"ed it,..; nam(-' and became ZalltPnvelt , or the field of saints."* 
;:, . , 
'Vhen hillod hati foOtailletl the 
oil, whether shed in ranged battles, or in single 
combat, hou:.-:es of peace antI of atonement rose. 
In the 
;lme chroniele, we read, that the mon:l:-ötel'Y of BeI101ocu
, in Flandel'
 ftl1ludt,d by Count Ellstache, and endowed for the soul of a C't'l";aln knight 
whom he had :-,lain in a tournanwut.t The abbey of Slotp, in Pomerania, was 
founded in 1140, hy R:ltishoru::;, prince of the PI)merarians and .Yandals, 011 ac- 
count of the murder of hi::; brothel', Duke "... artislans, who, in 1136, was 1
il1ed by 
robbers on that spot.! 
\.ftel' the great victory, in 13-18, the Teutonic knights 
finmded the mon:l:-tel'.\' of Kï)nig,.; berg; and after dIP battle near the Rudau, in 
1370,thc grand master, '\
jnl'it'h \'On Kniprode, found",d the beautiful Augustin- 
ian conn
ut of II('iligenbeil.s 
In many of the ancient klsiliea.. of H"Jll(" we find t:lhlpts sn
pended, contain- 
ing a 
hort history of the Cil'clllllsranc\'s attellliing theÌ1" foumbtion; and if a sim- 
ilar cu...;tom dOe3 nl)t exi,.;t in m()lJ3sterie-;, the ('allse mU:3t be very ditfel"ellt from a 
want of material,.; to rendel' slich accounts intere:"oting. The houses of tll(-' monks, 
like tllO:-:e (If ::o;ome HoLle f:.u11ilie-; in the world, had thei [' traditional, amI oftI'll 
historical, claim to an origin truly heroic, :-:ometimes terrible and ineffably sad, 
and not unworthy of being sung hy poets, .A hol
y cOll\'ersalion, or the praise 
of some friend of God, elicited wilhout premeditation from the lips of youth, were 
sometimes, it is trne, the sole facts which gave rise to snell fou\Jdation
, or derected 
their dt'stination. L('vil iu;;.;, on his return from Jerusalem, after !"pellding some 
time in the n1Onastel'
' of La C
l\'a, came to 
ronnt Alhancta, intending to build a 
lnOluJstery there. ...\ certain ..:ch"I:II' bny coming' to him, the holy man a
ked him 
whether he could !':ing well, and the lad :lnswel.illg' that he ('0I11d, he ordel'f'd him 
to :-öing whatpyel' fh,..;t came intn his mil)(I' 1wing 
ecreth- n'soh"e<l that he would 
l)la('(' Lite church undcl' the ill\"oc:ltion (If \\ hate\y(-'l' :-.aint the hoy :,ÌJollltl Eel(>ct Íor 
;ubject ofllis song. Scholar.": then must h:.l\"e heen generally more pions in their 

* Chron. S, Bertini. c. xlii, p. i. ap, )Ial"tcne, Thes. 
\nec,iot. iii. t C. xlii P 1. 
f Gaspar Jongclinus Xotit. ALL. Ort1. Cist. iii, 70. 
 \ oigbt, Geschicbtc Prcl1ss('n


)1 0 H. Ese A T II 0 I.. I (; I; 0 J

selectiolls: at nll evcllt,:o" bo
' =-,t1I1
 tl1c.' l'C
p"Il"C, .c 'Y't pi (.I..t'l:I 111ea," MIl the 
rest, \\ ilh grl".1.t :;Wt-'(.tIlC"S, Thl' holy Ulan :u'('ordill.ry phw\ c.1 th.. mOtt
l..t('))' un- 
der tho iuvo<.'atioll uf blt':;
L't1 )hl')'. * 
)oth, (hi. i:; a :-implt, alld Ino..t IIl1pn tt,,,<<l- 
 COllllllCnCCllJellr, and dlat of man.'" otllt'l'=-' \\ a... no Ics..; b(,), bemg 0111)" 
omc \\ ord:) 
of ÙCV"Hlt l'
h()rtatioll, '\ hf'll 
 .mc holy pil
rilU npl'ai'Scd hi channCtl vuice to p'Jllr 
on evil men thc lo\'c that lay hon.rillg' within hi.. 
 ('Y". At 
, th..: \\ a!l..; of ilUm(,lI
 lUona..u.rit... 1I..(.d to uri&. ill :-;olirar
' pla.('(':"" as \\ e rea<<) 
in the f:lblps of old of the \\all... of rhd){.
 bcill).! lIIovt'fl hy tilt' ulllsic.' ot'.Amphioll's 
lyre. Gratitu,le led to mhers, 3.:) \\ ht'll \Yallill
, a l'i('h nohlemall in"> of
OUCII, havin
 fitHcli sick at a plat'(,c.'alled Ft.
;t'all1p. in 
urm:&nIJy. arul rl'eo\'crt.tI, 
built ther('atlerwards a ma
nilicl'lIt abhcy, :lDtl 
IlJo'\NI it \\itlt 
f(' IUl'anS. 
But thl.h. urigin W;I-; 1I0t .tlways tl1l1", Darl
 traJ!' di.
, a' ofirulUortal hel'oi
maf\'eilolls convE'!"..ion..; of rut'n, 
I...h Wt'I'l' Ohf'lI th.. ('i!'('lIm

 in the 
first p:l
e of Ih.,ir hi:--tor
', rt'tl'lil'in
 110 p.1I tit' :o-kill 10 \\('
t\"e illto If'
'lIt]=-', re..t 111- 
bling the gl andt'4 p:lgl' of old rOO1:lI1t'(', qllill' a
 fruitflll in int.'re.",t for th.. imagi- 
nation, with the ac.ldit ional dJarm ofhcin
 tII.que:o'tiOl,ably tlllt.. r n th(' tir st placc, 
many ahl)t'y:o;, like that of 
aint.. Vint' nl UIH] \.ua....ta.'-ia cJclip fre-folatanc, at the 
Salvian watprs, Ileal' It,)m.', whi('\S "a... fi.HIII,1t'fl in 6
t) hy lIollorins J" illcr. a. .<.J. 
by Pop' [.ll') III. and t'hal'lt'lUa
nt', awl ft.bllilt in 1
:!llty 1I0lioriliH III.,t 
were bbllÙillg IU'HlIIllll'nH from t'ady tim('
 of lIIarl )"1"(10111, n'arkin_ the prc('i:-.(' 

rt)ulI,1 Oil whi/.h thc SI c I of tilt' ('hurl.h had fa II í'1I. rhi
 the <<'.I
C neal' 
Palcl'll1O, wllt're the mona4
'ry of 
t. \.!!atil:l <<II' p,.tra \\ 3..; fêmlldl'd 011 thc spot 
where III the ..tonc." ii'om wiJi('h <..:t. \',:atha IUtnmte I tIt hOI'..e \\ h(:11 
sufft'r ft)r Christ at Catan:t. 
Tile f:U1l0US ahtwy nfSt. L..lUl'ent'C, \\ithotat Ih' \\all.. of Lit}
(', W:I:-I 1milt on 
the spot whl'r
 the murdprt'rs of 
(. I
mbert, afi('r p"I'pel ratillg l'rirue, divi- 
ded the spoil, an,] ;:;1c\\ l'at'h utile!', \\ laiJp :",,) ehJ!3g','d, S('nl]in
otlli mlltu- 
all.,> to 
 Ihm, ., For," B..'l)"s un l.i:-tOi iall, .C U", at'('ord;lIg to rhe la\\":-; of ,..aI', th a 
vicror lIJay takc what he likl'
 fJ't)1IJ tilt' ('oll(I"(,"('tl, S4) I.PI'(', ill ordel' that \\ hcre 
fOin h'1I1 ahollJult.(I, 
I'acc mi
ht thc morc ahollnd, a d,w ('h of n d is huilt, au,) 
thc ...igns uf vi('torV' .('t up."
The llllm.' tic )c(rcnds of t Iw mOh:1st{'r;
 gt'nt'raily in.1it'ate thl'e(' 
Ollr('CS from 
whi('fl th('y t )I)k thc.,ir h('!!innill g -rt'l1lorsp grit f. aud "m('t ih' of l >1Ir } )()-e' thp 
, ., , , 
latter 1)C
'fmd ('umpari'on hE.iug' the nro,.t prt)41a1('ti\'
, but tilt' fc)rm('r cmlllf 't.l'() 
with the IIJO:o't =-,tl'ikin!! nal'l'a(i\'c
11('h al'(' thc alle<Yl"t('
 l'l'lati\'c to thc.' origin 
of lUany of tho s ' 'Ip,'ovingi:1II aud C:,rlovillg'ian a
, whi('h, likc that of 

rrnai)B cll'ii Pri":--, at P:lri..:, aJ'P ofl/'n ('It"arly mOl1lJnwnt... nf r
p('ntanC(', ami of 
th(' power of consciell('p, Ihongh tllP SCt'rct motin'. a I fitr n..; f'xprp..;:-:ion J micrht f'J'- 

· Chronir. 
., Ca!Oinf'n!-i Q . Lih. ii. r. =30. t Notit, Abhat, Ord. Cister. vii. 

 Ririlh !'
rM, i. :

L )ron.I
. Laurent, Leodien
. Rp. JraltcJ)I. Vet. :'CfJpt. iv 1039 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


main buried wirh their f( In the yeal' 1000, \\hen the :Ihhey of St.Ger- 
 dc= Prè.. was relmilr, the 
Tl'at tower, which lloW exisis, awl 1 he portai, Wl're 
left :18 bl'forp. At thi..; portal were starues ,.f (<ght killg:-:., fuur (Ill the right jwnd 
:m,l kill' on the It'ft. Olle of Ihe
e helù ill his hand two scroll.., and there wa
wriUt'1l Clo(lolller-liamc so tragie! the othpr, thp laJol t on rhe right, had no cirdeL 
rotlJl(. hig Ill'ad :IS the othl'r..., elf noting th
 hclit'f t,fth
 pPI':'iOn enjoyillg eterllal 
beatitudc. :uul, insteatl of :--cl'ol1.., h" held a writing open, on which wa
the first alill last letters of tIle tlame of Clt,t:lire: the:,e were-the murderer and 
his lictim. Let "=", ho\\ ever, hear tÌle expre,;:; testi mPI'Y of some mona<.;tic chron- 
iCles, rdating to the (-'vent... whieh gave I"i
e to thcir rf'
p('ctive hou
Thc mOlla..;rf'ry of La..: 
a"tàs Crf:'\\'f-:('
, in Catal..nÏ:t, was fOtwdt'd hy Peter, 
!(illg of .\rragon, in 1152, in a spirit of penitence rc'r hi
 crime in h:lvillg pllttO 
death the afchhi
hop uf Tal'rag-OIw, fOl' desiring the cro
s to he born<> before him 
as primate. t( It was thought," nd,ls thp historian, " that crù
ses of fire were Sf'en 
at night over the plal'e, which ga\'e rise to the name."* 
COlJcerninO' the eon vent of Frauenalb in the Rlac,k fj\re4 , there is the fo11ow- 
o , 
ing- popular tl'adition :-Collnt Erching,.r inhabited the ca4]e of l\Ia
 wa..; at tahle wiV, b'rcd
l'ic, (luke of Sn.ab;a, an oppressor uf his \"a..;;;sals, 
when it wa
 annoullced that a "ta
 had lwen seen in the forp5t of Stremherg. 
Albert de Simmern, hi
 neph<.\\, ro..;(-', IllIlUllte,1 Oil Iwr
t'ba('k, an'; set off in pnr- 
!-;uit. Suddenly hI' met a man of a horrible aspf'ct, who Ladl' hillJ feal' not but 
follow him. Alhert obeyed; pa..sing a nll'adllw, he 
a\V all immense ca,tle 
beflre him, where he wa,..; received hy a cl'mnl of servant.:. Introdllcetl into the 
hall, he t
llllHl the ('aslpllan iu thl-' mitl:-:t of his eonrtiers, who welcome,l him, and 
offered him the ('up. Xot a \\ onl wa..:; :-:pukcll : at a :,ign hy his gl1i,le the YOUlh 
ll'ft the hall, all<llHOlmted again, On their wa
' the awful :-trallger t1lU..; addressed 
him: "The st,'ignpIH' at tahle is your Hude Frederic, who ha
 fuught so 
bravely in the IIlIly Land: hut he opprC:-i..ed bi
 vas..::aI:;. 'Ve, tlH' c(tunsellor
amI f:ervallt
 of hi:-; dp"'púlism, !-:dfer now the ju:-t penalty of ollr criminal com- 
pliance with his t
Ulny, until it r;}.ail plea:-:e God to paflloll u:;:, Alhert, you wI]) 
arrive at I)OWt'I'. D., not imitatf' ,'our uncle. Look now, fcw the fing(>r uf God 
is about to app
ar." Albert tUl"lle(II.i
 h<.ad haek, and saw the ('a..tle whi,.h he 
had just left in flames, In terrOl' he retm:ned to 
Iagenheim, but Frfderic could 
hardly recognize him, his beard antI hair haying beCOlJle white. I-Ie relate(l his 
wh'cntlll'p, al)(l asked the permi......ion of EI:dlingel' to lmil,l a ('hl1fl'l1 in the place 
where the phantom had app<'al'ed ; :m(l,:;uel1 \, a..; the ori:!;itl of the abbe
' of Fratl- 
TIlt' great 111"1 a
tery (If Fiil,....teu:fi.ld, ill Jhv:lria, ow..,t! its exi
tl:'nce to a horri- 
bIe ew'nt, whidl i... t11l1:-5 I'e:awd :-For ,h(' :-ak,> of mutual prtopctiol} against 
 :ulfl lawleF
 oppr<>8or:-:, m:my :--latco; of tlìe middìe Rbine had 

· Hisl. l\louast. ::;, Laurcnt. Lcuùieu:;, ap. 
larleue, Vet. Script, Lib, vi. 13, 



entert.'tl into a lea
ue \\ ith prince..; al)(ll.'Oullt..;, alllOnt,! whom was the an'h,lule arul 
count pabtinc.', Louis ,f Ba,'al"ia, ddt.:.:t :-;011 of Otho. To c1i:-.dlal'ge tIlt' p,.rsonal 
service of the It.agliC', he l('fi \Iunit'h" allll \\('l1t to his palatillute on tilt' lthilw, 
leaving lx-hind him tais yuung \\ iff:> 
[al'iu, ,Iaughtcr ur Henry the llla
duke of Brabant, whom he haù latel)' married. 1.'01' s,'curity he plact',1 Itcrill 
the f rt'"('..:..; of'Jaug'oll]:-;tt'in, lI('al' )),m:.1U\\i)rth. Eli?..ahNh, hj
 ;oòi,tcr, tIJe (JuecLl of 
Jeru8:.llem, allll "idow of tllc pmlwl"m' ('ollr.ld, n'mailll d \\ ith Iwr to partalp (}f 
her :-U.llUl1l', \rith thc:m..'I}(IIII
c Loui:- \\l'nt Henry '''Oil lli,:-;ehau, a wild alld :-a\"- 
:Ige noble, but llistillguish
1 :uuon
 all othl'I' klli,rht:, hy hi:-, ...trt'n
tll, holùlI("=", 
and addrcs,.;;. Loui, J..epclld(',1 on 111m !!1'c:uly,an,1 '\CII 
1aria 1lf'1"s..'lfpriJ:L'tl him. 
Once, a.. he wa
 :at t'h,'
=" with h'''r, Ill' pl'a\Ol.J her toallow Iti... to alldrt 
with " Tholl," a.'i othel' Ili
h 8111
l'CtS; :Hldilll!, that Ilt' \\cmld he hpr knit;ht; but 
tIll' count..,:,s tllrm'\l away tromhim ill,talltl)". Thi
 ('in'ulll'lanl'(, is rt.lalt'fl in all 
old mannsl'ript of th ' ahbey of the hilly crO:).i at I )"uau \\ i). th, c'ompo'L'(1 hy Bt'l'k, 
the prior of that hou.;;e. \.lrl.acly had a 
'ear Plap' ..I, anil thc \\ intcl' \\.J.::i returning. 
Thc uohle lady nlOul'ul',1 fOl'llt'r hll,haml, :md cntl'...'..t, d him ill the tClIllt'r,'st gt)'le 
t . return. 
IH' also wrote to tIlt' knig-ht II,'m"y to 1)("r Ihat lit' \\011111 Pl.r:-'lIadt' Iwl" 
lord to thaI dJ
'd, .11Il) aJ.II..cJ. tll:lt :"hp \\ 0111,1 thl'n'rrant him \\ Ilat lit' hall fi",IU- 
erl)" sought Ut'r Il.ttcl' to tltc :u'eh,llIkc \\'a, sealC(l with l"l'tl, that to th' knight 
with bla('k wax. On 
i\"illg thclII to rhe IIll....'cllgel', he ('lmr
HI him 110t tit for- 
get the 8i
nifil':ltion, as ht> could n"t I"t ad th
 :ulllrt-'::: ; hut throllgh ærde="'DLð.':Í 
a\'e thl' knight',.. It'ttpr to thp "OUllt, \\hn. on n'.l(lin
 iI, mi:-;,'on:-:tfllL'tl the 
word..;, 3nll fèll into a h,tlTihh' paroxy:o-Ill of la
p allcl jl'..lolI:-;Y. On till' f'pot he 
fdll'tl tile m
l'l' to tht> grollllll, :uul, mOl1l11 ing tIlt' tlC'..t,..,t hor'l's, ha.,teIH d to 
\s Ill' entPl'pd tilt' c3,th", he !o-tr'u('k ,10\\ II the pOl't('r whu '11111(> (Jilt 
to hilll, and on till' :-:t..p
 :-;Il'w 1I"lika \'on nreltnht'l'
, a nohlc laùy of the ('OI
es..;, \\ hu ha,1 WIllC to gn'l't him. Four othl'r lIIai.I,'no..; he flllll
 from tlae hattle- 
ment.., of the (',I..;th', ami tlIt'n :,"att'll him,pll in tile "'rl'at Ilall. "omlllftndill
to silmmon till' ,'ollntt.

. In \"ain di,1 sltc prott"t Ilt'r inlloc" ncl', and ('all h,'an'n 
and carth to witnc:o-8 ire Xot p\'pn tl1l' (lll("('11 EJiZ'IbClh, who ..tood h}", could ap- 
P('a.....c that furiolls hu
halld, and III' ''':l1Is('(1 hi,.. ",if.. to h(' I. 'h('a,l
l. Thi.." a" in 
1236. \Vhell rea..oll alld at1l't,tillll I"('tll 1'111'(1 , his SOI'1"UW awl l"I'mClI"
' "prc hl)tllld- 
Ie,s: Iw prnpo'CfI pil
rilll:lge..: :m,1 1)('11:111('(''':, allc] it is a pOPlilar tr:,dition :-till, 
that in on.. lIi
ht hi=" hair tUl'nc,1 gn')". To 1t"1Il1
 Ill' \\'I'nt, allil 8l1u!!ht pcnallce 
from the sovel"ci!!11 pontiff, .\ Ipx:mdpr I ,..., At fil,:-t it wa... appointed that he 
shuuld :'t't out fi.r th" 1101.\' Land wil h 11100 knid.t.., hilt th('rc "('1"(' 
o mallY ob- 
stacle.-, and his prC,t'l)(,(, wa.. "0 n('(.'('",:-:ary in B:l\'al'ia, :IJ1Il "n tllf' Hhirlt', that it 
,,3.:; finally determilll.',I, be:;ille,; other act.., prol'lairning pf'nitPnC'l'. he shot.ald huild 
a mona,tel"y, alld introùuce the Carthusians into Jhv.u,ia: hut tlti,.. plan was 
changed for that of Il Ci:4cl"('iall abbp)', for the site uf "hi"h much diffi('ulty wa
encountered; so that it was lIot till ailcr the third :tttelllpt ill 1 :!G2 I hat tllP monks 
succeeded in establishing thelU
ch'è":; and tite !)laec ubtaillt'd wa.., in the garden 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


of 0\ lIohic knight, Ebcrhard, who from his e:l,tIe on a hill above it used to hear 
at ni
ht strange :-,oumls of workmen bllilding, alld of a ht'avenl,)" mu-ic, which 
he rook r(Jr a sign that he ought to comply, which he di,1 accordingly, and the 
holy men wcre then pstablishe<l amI endowed, and the place W3.:5 callt.d Fürsten- 
fcld. IIcre was read the in-;criptioll, 

.. ConJugis innocuæ fusi monumenta cruoris 
Pro culpa pretium claustra sacrata vides." 


co Bojorum clarus jacit hæc fundamma princeps 
In pretium culpæ coujugis innocuæ," 

Archduke Lewis, the fìmnder, died ill 129-1 at lleidelbel"g, in the very room 
in which he was born. lIe l,ad ordered his body to he hllri
.d at Fürstenfeld, which 
convellt, was :-till furthel' enri(.'h(.d hy his 
un :md succe,.sor, A"(Ohduke RUtlolr. 
Here lay Luripd also Allnt', his s
cond wife, daughter of COllrad, duke of Poland, 
an,l Lewis, ..on of the 
,uudel', who was slain in 128-1 in a toul'lla.ment at 
berg. * 
In the time of the blessed Hydnlph, archbishop of Treves, many people were 
still ahandlHled to idolatl'Y. The holy mall, and his brother Erard, hall for 
tUlle lived in a Illonastery of tile 
()litnde of the Y. os
ps, when it happened that a 
blind daughter, who h:ld heen ju:-t oorn to a noLIe, was carried to the monastery; 
fm Iwr fathel', becau:5e she had been oorn blind, had given order;o; that 
ht' should 
be put to death; but the mother, havin
 heard of bis intt>ntion, :"ent her away by 
a cerlain 0111 \Vomen who \\'a'i familial' with her, prt.fering rather to have her ban- 
i:;hed than put to death. The two holy urethrell, finding out that she wa'i the 
 of snch parents, and not yet regenerated by bapti:-:m, baptiziJlg her, c3l1ed 
herO,lilia. Tile chronicle 1't>cords, "that 
hp was raist:'(l from the sacred font illu- 
Plined LOI h as to he I' miml amI body. Ho\\'en.'r, in pro('t>ss of time, when she came to 
ofdiscl'etion, hel' brother, who remained with his fat her, ht-'aringth:tt his 
wh" Ìlad bt:'cn born blind \\'a;o; rt'srored to si
ht, rejllÍ<'ed greatly. alld sent mes:wn- 
gel'S with (mlers that Odilia 
houl(1 be hrought to him; "'}Ileh, when hi:-: father, he ordere,l hl:-; son 1I1to his presence, and asked him how he hall dared 
to [wjng hack a girl who ha(I bpen born blinll? The son answering, that he had 
done it throu
h hope of hi.. hither'=-- beni
", the fathel', in a tralJ
p()I't of rage, 
smllte him with the staff which he carrit'd, and killed him. "
l)pn he tound him- 
St'lf hilS left without an heir, he conceived a sudden affection fi.)r his daughter 
Odilia. So that in course of time, in the very castle of ht>r futher, which is calìed 
Hoemborch, she built a cloi:..ter of St. Benedict, and enriched it with her own 
Fontevrauid owed ItS origin to a conscience suddenly iJiumine<Ì by oivine grace.. 
* Jaeck Gallerie ðer Klðster Deutschlands. Jongelinus, Notit. Abbat. Ord. Cister per Unl- 
vera, Orbem. Iiv. Hi, 17. 
t Chronic. t::)enoniens, c. 14, ape Dacher Spiclleg. ilL 


I 0 It Ese .A T II n LIe I; 0 I

En'aul,1 wa...:. a g" uti, man, who ,ill his }"outh, \\ a..: :lhandollNI to a pl'Ofli
:lk lifø, 
whi('h I H.' l('tluutillll' had expeudtd all hi...:. ril,h pO"'!"t'
sillnfoo, amI \\a.., r('dw...,1 to 
t'llCP. In this ..tate he L' 'Imp l'apIRin of:1 
allg 01 1'111.1,('1"";, and 1'3I1Drt'aI the 
fore...:.ts of this (,ollntl')', mm:dly ,hn'llill
 u<' 'I' a t
lIInt:lill, wlt('rt' 11(' ("on:iII'(I\'(('(1 a 
kind of to\H'r, froll1 wlli('h he 11..('(1 to ..all.\' f
I" h, all I :"1'0111' the hi
Il\\ ay:-. j ami 110 
oflì('('r",of ju.,tice ('ollld ('xtil'pah' this II(':-t of lIIi..:('1tief, ''"hat 111('11 cOIIII) 110; t'fft'('t 
"a..., howt'\'t.'r, ac('ompli
hcd by God ill a 11101'1' gentle manllt'r thall hy ttlt' 5\\01'11. 
As :11I the world talkt'd of tlli:5 d';
p(>I'att' 1,:11111..(' I'ohber
, C ;,111 ill
pil"L'() a famous 
dodoI' 1 ,f Pari:o:, a f'aint, :uHI a 
I't'at I'r":H'Ilt'r, Hoh('l't (Ie I' \ II hnH,
I, \\' it h a c;tron
dc.;il'e to IIndt'l'take their ('ollvI'r
illll. I Ie ('olllmt'wlt,dltim...df to III'an'lI, :11111 
out for the forc:o:t, where hc wa., 
O\JII takt'li by tilt" I'obht.n;, :11111 led Lefort' E,,- 
multi, who dc!-ired him to givc up hi
 !I1 l1 m'y. "'\,Ilillgly," s:lid he: "hut in 
return you Jnll!'\t give me yonr soul=-- ft'r G (I :., alltl then'\\ ith I.. ht'
all to 
I't ak 
to them of the etcrlla1 j IIdgl'lIlcnt of God, :lIId tIlt' ...hame alltl ill f: II 11)' of their 0\\ II 
lives: :mtl lie suc('et>dt.'d in aW31"enill
 tllt'ir ('011 'l'iell(
(':", Thcll Ilc drc&:Wtl 
, .. 
 into a rl'trpat like :1 nl'\\ paradist', anti built a IJIOlla:--teI'Y, c:.allillg it 
}1'ollte\Taultl, from the fiml1tain alltl thc name of the cOllvertite j alld Hohert re- 
lIIailH'd wil h tht:'lIl, and all the ('lIulltry fl()('k('(1 Ihilllt'l' t) hdlOltl dli.. wOllùt'rful 
('haug-c wrought h.\' tlte halld of (ìod. 
\ \"{'r.'" :llIeit'lIt lItallll
I'ril't of tit(' hou...t.' 
!'till e
i..;ting ('oBtained a predicholl,lu}\\t'\'er, that in tlu' cour'e of acre... thi;:) 
liar.'" would a
ain rill into the hands of tire \\ iekNI, ami Ll 'ODIC pt'opled with its 
oM inh:lhilalll:O:, * 
The ori
in of the ahht'
 \If St. rron, 01' Ya:--ol', in tIt(' di()('e:o:e of Li('
e, illvo]vl:i 
a lIarrati\'c \\hich I ItllI
 a Cr {) pl"OlIIisctÌ to 
i\'e lilY 1{':uler,1' 
" Count J.:ill)l'rt, it
 fO!llul('l', \\ a... 011(' of tht' most PO\\ ('rful nohl.,' :111<1 valiant 
warriors ill the timt.' of thl' tir:5t Uthl), I I happelled um'{' that tlli
 marli;11 eOlillt 
was \\ alking in the pl:U'e wh. I'e a g-re.,t fair is held h}. thc ('I" . that !'tood Jlt'ar 
IIi:) castle, wh('l'c l1lt'rt'hants alld p('opl(' frolll all :-õitles ha\'e H'St)f.t to :;..n amll'x- 
dl3nge their various gtlod
, A'i he \\"alkl'tl throllgh tIlt' t'r()\\"(111t' íH\\ a horse of 
gr(.at power and admirahle h
uty, \\ hieh :-t'cllu'tl to Irim lik(. a to\\ ('I' of 
if hy any mannel' of b:.lrgain he conld procure it for Iliru
clf. XO\\ tbe uWlwr 
Ilf tire hor:-:e was a ('(>..bin cJt'rl... born ofnohle pan-nb, :l1IÙ a canon of tilt.' (1lUrch 
of St, )bry the grt':Itl'r, at ltlleim:-;, 
(I whell the ('onnt 31111 the clerk, with 11111- 
tllal afJàbility, kid 1)('111 a long ("lInVt'I':-;'ltion re:;pL'(,tin! tire 1101':"(', tJ.<,)' (':1111(' to 
an 3gl'
ll1c'llt that tilt' ft)l"Illt'r was to) h:l\Pt' it fill' a cl'rtaill IH icc; hilt 3:-. h' ha(l 
lIot at tlw time slIfficient money, he wt'nt imm(' to IIcrf'silllla hi... mo....t nubl.. 
'\ ife, s('el"in
 l'ollll:-,f'1 from Iwt, as to what he oll
lrt to du j for on no a. 'OWlt 
\\ hate\'er wonl(1 1)(' ano\\' tile hor
t> to Le ..emo\"Cf'1 from him s.1yill g , that h\, hi, 
, . 
i..:t:'n('<' h
 Willi].} bt' ahl(> to :1,'el't all tl1(> in1"l'ie... nfhis ('11\,1111(:-. :mcl t-Sl-3I'l' 
from all wrede of fort II lie. ðO II('ill
 in a 
rt'at hllrr." to have done \\ ith tbc d.'rk, 

· Wbic11 has h('('\1 1irclnlly fulfilled, 8S it i
 now" pl'ibOD, 

t In I Ohh. ii. p. :!77. 



without the counsel of his nllhl.. wife. who fearee] the ('on:;;pquencp.;; which en:-.ned. 
he g<lve the clerk a wonderful tr
a::,u..e, which he kept always in a <;trung place. 
saying. that un a certain day he would be 
h]c to redl'l'm it, anel pay the whoie 
SUlll. This de...irable trea:-,ure wa
 compost'(1 in likt:'nc
s of a beautifhl collar .)r 
brooch, wÌlieh hael l>epn made by ðt, Eligiu--, the veuerabl(' bi:-,hop, 80 "ldmirahie 
fur hi! llOliue..;...;, and virtue, all<l 
kill in every curious art, anel it was fi,r the use 
of Lothaire, king of the ]."rench, The stone wa... a beryl, and it cUlltained au ex- 
quisite carving of Susanna, accll:-:ed hy the old judges, 

.. Egregiæ geuUs Rex Anglicus hunc dedit illi, 
Quem fore speravit gratum dans pillrima gratis 
Inter quæ dantis prosit sibi porlio I alis.'. 

Tu be brief. The appointed day arrh'ed in which the count "'as to redeem his 
pledge, but the other declarell hilll="clf ignorant of any such agrt-'t-'ment, and that 
he had never !'o UlldCl'
tood the count. Gl'ievollsly vexed, and full of anger '1J1(] 
:-orrow, the count n.tUl'npd home, awl collected a multitude of hi:-; neighbors, and 
exposed the execrable machillation of the t'eller, and :lsked their advice a:;; to how he 
should proceed to av
rt this mi,fOl,tune. which would be an irreparable loss to 
him. By geneml consent there was made an a'bembly of all his brothers, and 
friends, and knights, and a crowel of armeJ people, and they moved hastily to 
the city cf Rheims, ami brsiege(1 it, and took it; anll having set :-:pies, they dis- 
ered the said clerk flying to th.. 
rl'ater church, which tht-'f sUl'l'onnded, and 
not finding him within, they set fire to the whole place, upon which, the criminal 
issued forth, and then he was seized, and the trea..mre was founcl in his bl'east, 
so it was restored to the count. 
ew:-; of this event reaching the king':; ears, the 
court immediatt.'ly was highly indignant, ancl a large army, commanded by the 
king in persun, mal'ched to revenge this execrable outrage; but after a de
haUl!:', the king'
 force was defcatell, awl the king Charles himself tak('n pri
by Cuuut Eilbert, anrlloadcd with chains for many days, till at length, mutual 
pledges of peace being given, the king \Va... delivered, auel with great honors, as 
became the royal dignity, esC'orted to his home, and that desirable trea...;ure re- 
mainecl for eve I' after inviolably with Count Eilbert. However, divine lo,"e 
afterward:; di
hed this count; so that partly through compunction f()r this 
bacrilege, and because he had fiH' built se,'en ca..:tles, in ordt-'r that he might 
remedy these structure,.; of malt'diction hy the antidote of blessiug, he resolveJ to 
found seven churches, and this was the origin of the monastery of Va..;or, in the 
year 944. It wa
 built in the midst of a fore:,t, which was uninhabited, except- 
ing that the house of the count was concealed in it. To prepare :fi)r building this 
clml'ch, he had the wood c::t down which surrounded hi:; house, and the place 
rendered agreeahle and wholesome. The:: clo;;;e to his hou:;:e he constructed the 
ohurch, with u-:etul. hahitations for tbe monk
; and &.ftel' three years the monas- 
b'ry wa
 finishe(1, the church was dpdicated to St. Patrick, and the count gave to 


:\1 U ICE seA T II u L I U I j 0 H, 

it his feutlal inhl'rit3næ. Then that f:lI110U... ht'ilalJl r, \\ hidl \\ a.. thf' callSC of all 
p<.lition anù controvcr:-;y, \\lli; gi\'cn by him to the 11101l1
s, \\ hom h, t halgetl 
to liet'p it :o-afcly for en'r. ,Awl 3t tht' elld (If t\\ ('uty-threl' )'t an;, aJ(.hhi:-hop 
Foranll:m, from the parts (If ht'lancl, by :lIIgt.lic urder, l"aviu
 Iii.. natlv(' t)oil, 
(':otlIlC with Í\n.hc companiolls to this \'.111('.", nlld the CUllnt met l,il1l, :,nd ('On- 
ducted him to rhe lJ)'rJ willI g-1"t':lt hOllor j awJ the (,ollnt pro('lIr, Ò I)':lt the 
mall of GOII !'houltl bt, made> abhot; and dlc killg havill;! ill\'t'sti
atl cllli.. !-allC'- 
tily. ('ommt'lIcI('d l.iltlSt'lf to hi.. prayer" a\l(l g.IVC hi... ahbey all t'}.,'lIIl'tioli from 
royal tJe<<'I't.'c",: ami the mall of (;0,1 lIalllt,"I.J the plal'e Y:llIl'm-dlcuram. 
\\ It i{'h lwl'affit' Valciociorulll, antI the>lIct' V asor. * 
I han' 'ailJ Ihat othel' m In:l:-t,'r N O\H'tJ 01 ig-ill to 
l'i..f, Bud t)f Ihf'S(' we 
mig-ht al:o:o 
i\'e many ill..tall('( s, \t Ta
ern:-; 'P, ill Ba\'ilria, the Ht'II('(lit,t IH al,I>>t') 
\\ as fOlllld,.tl hy two hrotllPrs, prin(...,I)' warrior.- \(Jalbert awl Ottokar, in the 
rt.ign of Pepin, A tIIil'tC\1 "ith a dUIIlf'..tic ('
" Ilwy n'nolllIC(".J tllf' \\ odd, 
and ft,nmloo this 1.011&', "hich, in the ('It'
enth (' 'ntury, contained Ì\' 0 Il1111dr('(1 
1Il0nka, who Ii n
d ill gn'at unit.," amI Pt',IC't'. t Ta '..ilo, dUhe (JÍ Jtl\'Rl'i:l, funneJed 
the ahhf'Y of K r('nISlll1l11
t('r, in the YP:l1' 787, in n {.'I"e..t wllt'rc hi
 only son laad 
})t'en slain by a \\ acJ b'l:lr, whit'h Ire \\":1'; humin J': 811 the t:ullt'l', h:l\'ing- I"SI }'is 
heir, made Chri:-t hi
 heir, and pru\'i,Il'd ill it tor m..nk
 urder of SI. Bt ne- 
In 1131, \\":a
, in that p:lrt of \\" (....t phalia whi('h a(ljoil1
 tlIP Rrcbhi
of Culogllt-', a eastle ('allf'1.1 \r ulmundoh'ill, illllabiu'cI hy nub elUpn who pos.. s..ed 
all the :-,urroullding eoulltry, and WCI't
 called the lun.), of \\" OIIllUlldstt'lII. One 
of the:o:e, Gerwick by namt', a b<."ù aUtI gellerOU:i )'ol1th, 
('t out to d,it the halls 
of the must Ct'1l:bratc..-d pl'ine('
, ill ordf'r to ! frit.ndship of the most exccl- 
lcnt men, and to see hoth the citit.s:md m:l1l11ersofdif1èrt'nt pt'ol'le. Arriving III 
B:lvaria, hc mpt thpre with a youth buld alllI 
ellerOI1::i lik(,, tIlt' )'oung 
1'Ilt'ol.alcl, m:1l'qni'i of \T olaenhurg, Oil the Danuhe, \\ hich i
 a ('; half-\\ay he- 
{\\"('(,11 I lIJ!olst.adt and R:lI i...hon with whom IIp bOOn f()rmt-tJ a do t
,rlwn marquis 
w that I he uWl1neTS and knightly spirit "f I hp 
lr:1D J't r 3!!reetl 
with hiEi own, though mal'rit'tl and h:l\'ing children, 
 et, tllrllugh dt.:;irp of 
E' countries, he exclaang"ù right hamld with Gt'r\\ i('k. :IO,J the t \\'0 
f,WOl'e an indi:-:solnblt> frit'lId..hip, 
)t1O aftcr, thcy H.t ont tog('tlwr, with one ht art, 
to visit the conrts of all pl'in('('s, to a
t at the tournaments whieh 'u'rp held, 
8ml to make trial oftlwir fttrtitnde aD,I valor. It happt'ne,I at one.)f th('')e solt'm- 
nities, that the two friends comillg into eolhsioD, and ru..hillg- 3}!aiw..t {'adl other 
with al1 their 
tl'ength, Gpl'wick hapl)f>ned tn !-otrike T/leobald s11(.h:t terrlblc hl()\v, 
that. brpaking hj
 he>lnwt, he hl'h..ld the rC\I (hop.. fi,m in!! from thp almost deadly 
woulld which he had till his friplld. Gcrwi{'k, 
I.jf'vousl)' mo\"CtI at this 

* Chronic, Abhat. 
. TrurloniCj, liv. 1, "p. DRcher, Spicile-g. vii. 3ß6, 
t JR('ck Gallerie rler Kmstf'r Dentchlanrls, 1. 
t Senat, Dialog, Historic. Martini .Abbatlã Scotorurn Vh'nnæ ap. Pl'z. 
cdpt.Rer. A.u


A G 
 0 F F A I T ll, 


event, resoh"cù in future to renounce chi\'alr)", alHl to go iuto voluntary exile, 
aballdonlllg fue ever aii tile I'orops and plea:surl':<; ufdu,> w..rld. Tile wOIIIHlt'(l mar- 
quis, after a 
hort space, began to think of hi
 wife :md ('hilùrel1, alld to hear tlw 
voice uf GoJ as if pre8eut,-
u true i:s the worù uf J
iaL, tLat "n>xation givcs 
So the two friends beparated. Gel'wick, Ilaving (1i
p():,ea tlw aff:.tir,.; ofhi
renounced the world, and became a monk at 
igel)('rg, not far fmm CIIlllgllt,; alld 
the marqui:;, being moveù by hi:,> (.alalllity, :sincc he ('lIuld not renoUUt'e the \,"odd 
a5 his friend had done, )'t'I, in 01'<1('1' to pr"mo(.. the work of God, det'lllcd it his 
juty to fOIlll<I an abbey, which he aCt'ordin
ly did. 011 the rin'r Regen, some miles 
from Ratisbon, which is called by the peopl\' the abhey of Rpicht'nhach, ('oll,..pi(.u- 
ou::; at pre
ent for the beauty of it.s buildings anll the ferw)r of its religion. 
After :;ome years, Gerwick, on account of hi, sillgular urbanity and gent h'lIl':-;s, 
aaving the charge of recei\"ing strangel's in lli:-: abbey of Sigt'berg, it h:'ppeJled 
that the Lord Chuno, the elect bishop of Ratisoon, retul'lling- frOIll the nBi \'f.rsity 
of Pal'i
, was received there to lao
pitality, and wa:-i 1:;0 IllU('h 
truck with his 
sty and virtue, he the abbot to permit him to at'company him 
to Ratis,bon: thus \\"3,:) he l'olllpelled by ohedien
e to go with the bishop. After 
his an-ivaI, having obtained the bi
hop':o; permi:;
ion, he began to look about for 
a proper place to construct a monast'-'ry; and, penétratiJlg into a thick wood, alone 
per-\'Ìolls to hllnter
, at a :-:pot \\"hid. the people no\\' ('all l{olel'grun, having cut 
down some trees, he and hi:o; companion..; began tu build a 
mall hou:;e, when, Itl ! 
Iarquis Theubald eame Ollt ii'om his castl.. tlf Egra to hunt, and seeing his 
lrt'e:; cut, and a hou
e erected, in that retrt'at of wild beasts, he bel'ame furious, 
and a
ked who had dared to do thi
. The brethreu, in trembling, began to re- 
late their iutention; alld Gerwil'k }ll'c:'iellted himself, awl gave the story of his 
life. Sù when the p.'illce heard him, di:-:l'o\'erillg that this stranger was the nol)h. 
youth of 'V olmulHlstein once 80 close to him in friendship, he 
prang from his 
hurse in a transport of joy, au(I embraced him, :slaowillg him the seal' tlf the 
wtlund he had given him, and hidding him be tlf good courage. fin' that lIP wou1d 
a:,:o;ist him in his design. So he gave him as much of the wtlod as was llt'ce:-::-=ar)' i 
aUtI then !;ton",:; were brought; alld, finding 3 little fishy brt>ok,-the 'T allder- 
i>run,-they built the mona...;[t'ry on it:' hank
; and there tlw:,f' lovers of thet1psert 
I)litude sat duwn, and thcnet' Ih.. place \Va..; l'aIlt:'d \Yald:O::I
:,ell, or tbe place 
of sittlllg in the woods. Sf. Bel'll3rd :-:upplipd tllt'1Il \\ itl. m()l)k
 from Cistt'aux. 
At tltis time, Âdelhe.plin, daughter uf Tht:'ohald It.," his fir:-:t wife, tilt' lady Adel- 
heyde, ducllt'ss of Poland, Wa:; JUan'it'd to the Emperor Fredt>l'ick TIarbaro::;sa, in 
the town of Egra, ill pre
en(>e of lUany ec('le:-:ia:;tic',l :md 
e('uial' prince..; of Ger- 
many; and the malTia
p bt'in:! {'elt'brated, the emperor came with all hi:-: train to 
a:-:sÎ..t at the con:-:el'r;lti"n of tlw church of diP W'W abbpy, by Chm10, bishop 01 
R:lti:-:bon, * 

* XOlitiæ .\bbat. Or.!, C'iSll'rci
"s per. univ. Orbean, Lill. Ïil. :), 


'1 0 H. K 
 CAT II 0 L I U I. 0 

Some mo
tcl'iC) owed Iht>il' Jl'igin to a 
ud(lpn iIl8IÞirafÏ')!1 al'i
ill:! frultl ('\'('lIt... 
 >lIled fOl'lIIitoll.. alltl tri\'ial : a'i \\ Iwn a SI:,g lJcing pur,ru'tl b.,' tht! k1ug'z, 
hounds thl'OlI
h a lIt. 'I't ill PWH'ncl', and h.1\"il'
 Uu"cn !l'fllgt' ill the ea\'C of 
, a holy hermit, the b.Hlg \\aJ:) 1Il0\"l.J to C'()IISU'U('t a mona...t(:ry O\l'ã' 
the ea\'t!, It \\a... \\hilc,: a rPl'a
t 1,)111(>1' tilt. 1,01l
1':--, .Ifier h"lItin
 in lilt., 
forC''3ts on the 
JC\Ullt C''llio, that Count \\" uIt:.uullis \\ a:-- lUo\"t'tl to 
elt(.t a 81",t 
for thc :;it", of a. fcUlUlbtioll, \\ hic.h he h 1<1 \'o\\"P.l to ltIab.p wllt'n on a pi!1!rill.a;.,:e 
:-omt' tillle h,.fore to 
l"ullt (J,II';.:allu" ill .\ pulia. Tile ori
ill "f tlw nl.b(." 0' 
Bonp..rt, nml' the PUIlI Ùf' I' _\ rdlt', tlB 'to I('a
ut.... frow HOII"II, ill I he ÙiOl"'
' of 
, W&t!, a huntin
 aÙ\"f>lItlll'e. l:ic'I.:I1'tII.. kill1
 of EIIJ!lan.l, whil., hunt iD
a Slag, was ('arril'tl Ity hi:"! illlpt.tllolis horSt' 8.. t:u' inte) tht' St,illt,. dlat he \\ a
dangt'r of p(.rishing; ullcl ;" that ItIUUlt'lIt, \\ hilp in "Il' IlIi,lst of the \\:Itcr, I... 
made a vow tu God to build :111 ,thht'y 011 whatt'\'t'r 
put hi... hOI'...e would first mah> 
lallù. This vow he fu1fill('(1 ill ] 190, alHll.n emlo\\ ('(I thp abh..y with Doble fief.. 
and burl/Die:;." 
Bur, h'avill
 illstallct::. of this kiwI, Ipt II
 tak{' :t few ('x:tmplp... nftlw last "lid 
t ol'clillar)" sour('c from \\ hid. mOlla
ft'l'il'S alO
f', whi('h \\n'i 
iml'Jy tilt p"3(OP- 
ful ilispiration of a tI,'\'out lwart j al"l wc shall fi1,,1 that, P\'(OU wlwn tlll'Y ha(1 uo 
othel' orig-i II hut "an .tit
., or . IlIvel'
ioli to it, tlwre Wl're ofu.'11 circnm:-tan. . 
wilieh imparted a no Its.." livdy int..J"t...t to thE' fil'-t p,IJ!C
 of th('il' hi...rOl'Y. 
St. Bt'rnard, \\ hen in Ik,b:lIIt, ft.1' tIlt' 
:tI,(I of prt .lC'llinJ!, h:1(1 p..Clmi:-o(>c1 to 
f-OillC mOllk,. to t-'
11 a "OIl\"(,lIt in Ih It ('Olllltl'.'". Ac't'ordill:'.d
', 011 hi
 rt turn 
to Clair\.:tI1x, he :ooelt,(.tl'tl Í\\t.h-,. mOllk:o., \\ ith a.lludlt'1' ftÞr thpi.. abhot, :11111 fh,(' IIO\'- 
il't's, an. I, 
 alwlU Iii... hl(':-;'. <<Ij'lIIi':o-etl tlll'm. \ fwl' the odavc.... Hf E:I - 
tel', tht.
 Dll'II, J!oing out of Chri 1'\.311
. ,lp,,"pwltll tll(. \'alley. Upon 1'f ar'hin!.! 
tile country of Brah:lllt, the fir,t lIi!!ht th..)' w..r.. I(KIg-('l1 ill a privata' 111111'(', \\ ith 
all htllle
t mall who hac I 110 Iwir, A nt>1' ""PP"I', having 
Ull r ('om pi in..:. th . ahhut 
ami his mllnk,.. I'dirt'l] to h('(1 ill p!'Ofimlltl 
iI"llc'" ; nml, ..fLA.'r oomc rc...t, 1 isiIl
they ch:mtt'tI vigil,.. in tl!pil' au,t 'I'P tun'>: ,\hieh th'
 IIIt.n \\ith wholll tlwy "CI"P 
1 hearing. tlu>y werE> fillt.tI \\ ith l't,mpnn('tittll fi}l' tlwir "in;;, ami g-avp th('m- 
selves up into thpir halHls, :Hltl thar I'b('(' is rall('(1 
t.illc(Jlltralllllt tu thi
Thf'u tlwy ('()ntill1lPcI tlwir jonrllf y. 8nd, at Ipllth, rt'slt'tl at tllp fountaill of (;oc1- 
diar('h,-and ill tlWSt' ti.... s nil tllat re!!iun w:.... UllC'nlti\'at4't1, :a lit I t'H\'cI'Pcl with 
f(Þl'l'st....-tlwl'c the
' buill a
tery, in thp "'t,,<'oud )'(ar of the JKHuitic:lte nt 
pope Eng-('ne In" and in th(' fimrth of the reign of GoJfrey 111., dukt> of Bra- 
bant, t 
Tlw ahhflY of
Iacf'ira,1a, in tl1PdiC)
('ofCoimhr:1, o\VfIl1 itsorigil" tn Alhamc, 
tIlt' Saras.o.;in. This ,rahonwran ancl warrior, frum h('in
 a m()
t biltpr {'I1eIUV ot 
tll(' ('hnr('lI; hpc:\nJe 8 piou,.; Christian, anti an humhlp anadlOrite. In the year 

· lIi"t. of EVI'PI1
. 161 
[mlr\8t. \ïllatit.lIsi.... Lib. i. ap. )llu lenc, 'l'ltl'
RUr .\ 111'((1 lIt 

 0 F F A I T H. 


1139, he withdrew iIHO that \'ust ..;oliIUth', whpre he ('onstrueted an oratory, and, 
lllllcd tlH' B 'lH'dictilie habit, wilh a ftow hrethn.n, \\ ho:-,p ('elh
tile JIIona.":Ìtery 01) "/liell Alphonso 1., king of PortUgal, couft'rfPd so m:IU
' pri\'- 
iIt'gf's. * 
III 1118, GUlldramlll1s, a huffoon, rt'nollncing earthly vanit ies, dwst, to lead an 
ererllitical life in till' wOlld of Pnblic-)Ioullt; awl, bpc:tU..;p the pla,'p W:l
OilS, ill orùt'r to exen,jsc bo..pitalit)" he laid the fonndation..; of a church and ('01)- 
\'ent, alld (he u
ar which he used to lead about dfCw the :--tonp..: fc.)r it. The 
people of Lipge flocked to admire the bear drawill1! the stont's; ani) 
ollle of them 
di\'iw.h' stl'clI'k left the worM , alii I beO':m to l\-':ul a regula I' life herE', The 
.' 0 
phl{'t' \\':1:-- C' Þlls"crate(I nllder the iu\'ocatioll of St. Giles; and Peter of Liege was 
tilt' fir
t prior,t 
III the forest of Al'Unaiæ, there W<iS a spot callel) the Trunk of Berenger, de- 
riving it:; name fl'om the trunk of a tree, in which W
nppos('(l to he the de3d 
' {)f B,ort'ngt'r, a fa.mous roblwr, who harl l()l1
{R(I thp fore...:t, whieh trpf>, 
the rohl)t'l'
 who :-:l1c('\.('tlp,1 hilll, n
,1 to pretend to l'OIlSUlt, in OI,del' to know what 
raU:'II}}} they should require from tllt'ÍI' prisOIH-'l':'. The mon3
lel'Y which wa..; 
hllitr on thi
 :-,pot, in (he eleventh celltnry. owed it::; origin to tne ble:;spd Hplde- 
mar'(', \\" hll, ill 1099, after leading an eremetÎcs'1 litè with two otÌ1ers in tl13t Dlre
fuunded it thf're,t 
Let u... hear' now a \'t'fy atwiput document ('onne('ted witÌl the history of the 
Black Fort:'st. "TÌlt:'re was a certain no
le widow, n:lm
.d Helist'na, of the Calha, 
who, finding that Go,l h:lIJ refuse,I to give her an heir, be:,ought him fervt:'ntly to 
make kllown to her in what lllallner she eould employ her pU8..;e8_
illlb 80 as to 
glorit'y hi., name mO:o't, One night ....he heard a voice in a dream, :'3yillg, , Helisella, 
God hath ht'm,(1 your pr3.yer: In! examine thi:, plain, ou which are three pine 
tree..; lyillg Heros:; one trunk; on Ih3t spot build a church, in which the uame ot 
Gild may he hqllored, amI his worship ob:,ervpd.' The dream wa
o di
that it was as ifshe had seen the spot. In the morning, putting 011 a silk l'obe, a-; 
in tt.stal attirE', in hOIlOl' of God, and t.aking with hel' a maidt'n and t\\"o St'r\'anB, 
she wall
l.d forth a:; if to enjoy the swept air; aw) after a:;cending a certain moun- 
tain. blw found a plain on the top of it, to which thl'pe pint':-', lying acrrn:>::i olle 
'l\'e a certain sylvan beauty, She burst into t.ear:; at the 
ight, and, tak- 
ing off part of her silkell attire, placed it on the groulHI Ileal' the pines, tù denote 
that ðJH' tl'ok pIþR.;t's
ion of the =-p"t fol' tllP prai:-:e 311d honor of God; aud then, 
returlllug home to her fam i I y, !"he P:tI ll'd'thpr all her' fl'i"lIrl
. with E\'rard 
(1 Leupold, nohle servant.., who tht'n gllYt'l'lIed the town (If Call):!, :Iud also the 
t 1Il3gistmte, an,I madp knllwn to them her intention, anò a'ìkE'd if tI.E'
' woul(} 
gi\'e hel pu....session of the gl'O\IIHI DII'e\'er awl they öai{l that they would gi\'e 

* Nntit. Abh. Ord, Cister. Lih. VI. 34. 
f Hist. )hnast. 
L, Laurent. Leortien!'. ap. )fal'tene, Vet. Script. Lib. iv. p, 1081. 
:t LOn!!Ue\"al. Ilist. de )" Eglise Gal. viii 118. 


M 0 HE:; CAT II U LIe I j 0 R, 

her not only the gl'ollllrl, hut al..o the tn'('s, alld :111 till" fi('leI... mljoil1ing. Th('n 
IIeli-ena Jaill :Isidl' hCI" :",ilkeu lolu., 11t.r rillJ!, :wù bl.t" jC"\l,l" alJd pla('(.,'() tlU:1H 
ill th" ('h:lpt.1 of ::;t. Si('hobs, pl"oIHi..ill
 thaI th,.u('(.ft'rrll !-he would '\\'al" 
th('11) 110 Illol"e; :tIHI ill Ibn'f' ,"":11':"\ tllt'dlul"dl \\a.. fi II i!-hed, Hili! :-;IH' built :U'OIl\" ut 
:1lljoining- it f
'r fuul" perSOIlS, who :",holild :"'l'n"C it, ahstl":I('ll'tl fl'om tilt' \\ ol"hl. :1I.d 
h:lvillg- sutD,'ient lII:liIlIPllalJC'C', that tilt'.\" ruig-lat IlIai..t> nod tlwn> cOlitililially. '1'.. 
this dllll"('h ..0011 flo,n't.l a "3."1 lIIultitud(. daily; :l11I1Ihl'l), aftcr the I'lIml'll'tioll of 
th{'sl' tllill
:-:', tlte no}.lt. \\ i,lo\\' llil'd, :tllll \\ a" l>>urit'(l .It Tllhig-ell, and 1. Brullu, 
the lIotal")' of Evrard amI Lf'lIpuld, \\"a.. pn':o-eut, at thi... :lct, ill tilt' 
"(nl" (;-1:),* 
This dl:lppi ufSt, X:lzal'ill..,lIu the top ofthc mOlilltain, 
a\"(' ri:--f' to tll(' 11)011- 
astf'I'Y of I1ir
'h:lU, ,\ hl'Il ('011111 E"lafriù, ill Ihl' niuth ('f'lItury, hrought to it tlae 
body of"'t. .Aun.lills fr"1I1 I
al'y, Tritlu'miu" di(llJot I
IIII\\ tili.. 
tor,'" "hl('h W:)": 
t di..eo\'f'rt'{l ill thc an'III\"t's ot :::;pil"l", :u 15a t. '1'1a(, hi
tor." of th.. "('{'\lu,1 
fè.mud:ltioll of thi'i ('f'"tl abb,'y in\'ol n's . .me intl'r,...tin\r ùt'tail.., \\ hid) arc 
tlm.. rdat(>(f :-111 10;0, P"pc SI. Lco I X. at thc pr:IYl'r of th' Emp(.ror I It'ßI y, 
('lIlIIing- into (
prlll:IIIY, tll h..lcl I'olln('il.., :lml p'tabli...11 pc..lC'P, tllrllPd usic1p 1'1',,1}) hiE 
1'0:111:1 liitll'to \'i,it his Iwph,.\\' .\.1(')I)('rt,('lIunt ofCulha,liaual cll',,('('n,la.llt 01 the 
('ollnt Erlafl'id, who had (uIIIHlc,ltllc 1110 las:CI"Y of bt. A IIr..Jill" at II i I fo'{'lu\I1. a))(1 
 (1. \'Ollt \\ ife \\
Iltl'llde; for tll(> ('OIllIt'S moth(\r, c1all
htt'r of tIlt' ("111111 pf Elris- 
tieilll, was the POP(".. ",i,t(\r. ( )11 anidllC' at hi"l'1Srl.. of C:aILa. h':4 ht' !'hlluld S('(>m 
to ('nt
r hi., IIcph p " ':.. hf)lI
 \\ it h Plilpty hau.!..., lae (Ie'livered, ne'('"f(Iillg to hi!- ('115- 
tOIll, "lml
 of holy pr('a,'hin
" :llltl1ahor, 11 to I ai"('1 h" minlls of all to the Im'e of 
God, X{'xr dny the Pi UI iff" uel "OIWt \\"1 nt fc)rt It to t:al,e a w:llle of r('('I"('at;on, 
and on alTi\'in
 at rill' '-ul11l1lit of a ('{'rlain hill, d....." :-;3.t .1m\JJ, \\ llt'ulIlc pope' 'u"(1. 
" This 
pl)t, dear IwpIH.'\\, 
lIrr"\lIltlt'tl with 1U00lUt:lill", J't.fJ'('slal"Cl "ith strt':am:--, 
allli yipl.1ing tllc 
lIlitlld.. of woo,I" :"I .('m
 ,,"pll :ulaptf'(l for a Itahit:atioll of Sel'\'allt' 
of Gild who Illight him day alld lIi
ht. Trill," it is a pit." if there eLllul,1 
not be a hou..e of rcli
ion ill tlais wlallit. "olitl1ll"." 10 "hllrn Alld}wrt J't'pliH1. 
., Holy Father, in sooth, thcrc \\"a... hartl-hy, in tI:lY
1J('h :111(.11"(', fi)\)III1c-c1 
hy one of my :I1ICC..lcm::, as I h:lvt> "ften heml m
' f:lthrr say, of "hil'h th,. roon)., 
long pP,se\'rl"cd in 
I'{'at "anctit
., hilt, at I"n
th. mi-.erahly ,1((,linin!! from t1.(' 
fCl'\'or of holy rdigilln, :m,1 lo,in{! all spiritll:aI gnods, aud }-wing- ()ftpu ntlnum- 
j..llt'd hy 1l1
' !!ralldHlIllI'r, thf'Y cJp..pi....tI hi.. :, Ill1ta"
' (,Ollll"("
, anti h:mlellPcJ thrir 
, till, :It Il'll!!th. God !-oft ol'tlaini,,
. in 0\"1 I l.'I' to takp awa
' tlU' "('anI1:l1. tl.eir 
tt>llIporal g-ot)(l.. \\"t'rp \\"3'Otl'll, 
I) that all (itl1l'r ,lip. I, ()1' 11)0\"('(1 (.I"f'whrrl', ill (")P
of bctt"I' livin!!, alHI nou(\ "(\1'(' I(.n," At hrarin
 thi.. tlal.' pope !!' <I, amI 

aid, ""110 uow p(l"',c;;;
 the f!ond..; of that mona..t(lI'\'?" Thf' ('OIiUt all:-- w e1"pd, 
that hC' ('Oll]d not 1('11, a.. h" np\"f'1' knl.'w what thf'
" had hf'pn, Th('u 111(' pllpt> 1111- 
dcrstond tIlt' 1l1
';;;t('r.", hilt ':liI1 nothillg. \ ffl'r\\'a,"(I
 11(' ""t'ut :a 1011{" 
(,I'," to tlH' 
spot designated, au(1 fOllnd rJu1rf' an old ('It'rk. Bp1'IoM, who toM him tlrat he had 

· Gt'rhflrli Hlc:t/llb "'i!!':1' S'h'f(' toO' i 41\ 

AGE;:j U].I' F Al T H. 


knowlI the holy monks, who all perspvered to the end in a devout life, und tllen, 
ullder oath of secrecy, he revealetl the fact, which was, that Count Adt'lbert's 
grandfatht..r had destl'OYt:'d the ruolJastery thl'Ongh avarice. The pope tht..n :;:et 
labOl' to work, who llisco\'('red tht.' body uf Ilw 
;aint, and tht n, 011 pain of re- 
fusillg ah::olutidll, he obli
ed the COUllt 10 re..tore the property, and the monastery 
wa..; relmilt, alII) elltcrl.d upun in 1066,* 
The orig-ill of tilt' Illolla:-:t,'r)' of 'rilldl1crg i8 thus related by it..; f"undf>r', in a 
cbarrt'r written in 1167. ., Be it knowIl tll :1]) the faithful, prcSCI11 anù future, 
that I, ","Ult, built a churl"h in tire pla('e ",hidl has it
 nallH' frl'lll me; for I 
came frlllll t;axony to the :-;aid place, being the fir:,t who illhab;ted it, ant) hence it 
is calle!I frol11 me "
; ,[.11' I 
Iept in the f'aid p!a('{-', alld I saw in a dream 
an ea
l(> fl-"in
, and with a flap of it:-' wing..; the eartlt \Va:' shaken; and it came to 
me and ÌtH1ched me with ils plume...:, 
ayillg, Ri:;e up, and go to the grtat river, 
and you will mept tra\'l.llt'rs, alld 3o,..k of them which uf their' nnmber i:-: called 
\\Tilltth: II(> will he y"ur co-operator. I did a
 it ordered, for I a
ked him first 
from what land and farllil.,' he was "'prllllg; ami ilt' answered, that he e
lIl1e frolll 
Saxony with the army of Killg Lewi:" :uIding-, that the Huns had led him away: 
and fw,tht-'l" I asked, 'Vilo i:-; your mothl-'r? and he rt'plied, my mot hd' was ('aIled 
Sophia, Then ru...:lling on hi:, neck, I emhra('ed him, weeping (or joy, f.'r I knew 
fmlll the rel:1I ion of m
' mOl her that he was my orut her; for I wa... horn a fter he 
 hel n (':Irried off from n...:, and I had the :,
lI)}e nanw, becuu:ò-e of the love which 
my IJwthel' b(lre to \tim. Theil I opened my heart to him, and disdo:-:ed my in- 
tention of huilding a mOlla
tpry in honor of our Lord Jesu:-: Christ, and (If the 
ble;o;:-,etl Yïrgill )Iary, amI of all the saillts: and by our sinful hands the relics of 
Mint...: w,'re carried to it amI ene!"sed witllin an altar in pl'e:,ence of Azeline the 
prie:-,t ,"t 
It would be long to tell of the religiou:, whieh owed their origin merely 
to thl-' pit-'ty of tle,'uut Christians, moved at the peaceful seclusion of pal'ricular 

pot:s, a...: \\'!It'n Eh, Cllllnte...:
 of Sali
bnI'Y, widow of \rilliam LOllg;o;word, built a 
ruollasÌ!'I'Y fùl' Carthu...:ians in hel' park, at Henton, in Somerset:;hire,t and Gautll- 
iet', cOllnt IIf Bl'iellllp, fOllnded ill 1143, die abbey ofBa'5se-Fontaine, on the skirts 
of tile wood 'If Brit'llIle, ne:ll' a beautiful fimntain, which be had remarkl.d while 
huntillg', He, in COII
('qIH.>nf'e, illvitet{ the monks of Bt-'anliell thither, 3S heing a 
part oftlw f.west rware!' to billl than Beaulieu; anti he;o;idesconstrllcting the l1Ion- 
a:ò-tPry, he made Ihem add a chapel toward,.; the north of these woods, wlwre he 
IDight Iwar ffi:ISS Iwfore going to hUllt. III cOllclusion, we may remark that the:òe 
piou:s men, in fixing- upon the !"ite fc)r their rf>ligiol1:' f..undatioll:', were \"er)' often 
uncònsciously determinillg that of towns and cities, which were th
 final result, 

* Trithem. in Chronic. Hirsßut!iensis. 
t Relalio de Ori!!ÏnE: :MoDa!':t. Windbergensis, ap, Canisii Lectiones Antiq. tom. Iii. 
t Tanner, XOlitia Monastics, 


)1 () It Ese 
\ T II u Lit' 1; u l

:'0 that the.'. might hv\'t' nsed the words of \-riq
il with as much truth in fe'garel t() 
the firSI a... to tilt. "C COlIC I part of thc lin

,. lIic locus urhis 
rit, rt>quics ea certa Isborum." 

Ibh:1II 'l'Ill1', wlwlt ille'I'(,:I
illg Ih(' nllllll)t'r of ('plI..; rOllnel F'nJd:1, whid, he 
lmih 011 dim'n.1It fiu'lII"; :IIICI at \"al'ieHl
, ..,npplyillg thcm with monk... 
frllm the' :.I,h(',', wa:-: rhlls tiHlIldin
 temll.:) \\hie'h deri"l"tl their namp.. from h:
iou.. foundat iOIt. A hr:wdl W:
 ('allCt.1 frllm \'hmlaalll,:1 monk of Flileb, \ I ze,lI 
tr'lIlII the monk Ae.l 0, Ee)l'"'f'1l fmlll Eclelillg, who lin,eJ IInelC'r tilt' A hhot E1!I...rt 
in IO-tH, K,'rz(':} fl'01l1 Ke'I'o in th(' tpnth ('f'nt\lI'
', .\ ic'hc'7c.1l from lIaic-l\CI of Flllch\. 
If('nz<,:} f,om lIakill!! of tllP ..ame abhe)' ill 
:!f), \laC'J..cII./.,.1I fl'om )1:ltto in tll 
nillth ('f'ntllr
., Sark,'wz\.11 frlun 
o, in 770, alltl 
o f't:oot,\\hcl't:'.* 
III tl... ei!! e 'ntlll'." :\ralinf"
 \\'a... /llIly a eolll'Ctinn of 
Omf1 poor hut... IOlIlIe) a'ry whif'h had hrrJ} huilt \\,herp 
t. flnmhaucl !-ouffi'r('d martyrdom in 77fJ. 
Tilp ol'i
ilt /If Uhf'lIt i.3 t, a,'pll to two lI\C1na..tPI,ifls whi('h h:1I1 1.(,('11 ft'I'IIJL'(1 hy 

\.mand, in tllp :)"\'cnth (., IIWI'Y, out of ('\"11 
141....;; that of ])lInk('l'qllf' to n pi iUi'Y 
in tilt' DlInf''';, lu,ilr h.,' 
t. El, I.'", rllulld "hie.h "llmt' fishcl'nlen rai...t(1 a fi.\\ l"',I.ill", 
Thl' town \If 
t. Clalldio, in G',l1icia, gl'e'\ Ollt of 
lIme hotbc,.., built fc'l" tilt' I"{'I'- 
vallt... of the Ci:-:Ì{'l'ciall al.hf'Y the'r(', to whiC'h they pai(1 e'\"('I')' year 3 fowl ill tok.-n 
(If it... right. At St. nt'rmaill Ihl'I'C was fil'
' a lIlolla...tpry in a ft.rt'!'-t j tll('11 :Iro"-C 
a ca...tle. whi('h Oe<' a royal resid
lIc"', alld b41.\', a 10Wil '\as tht.' 1'f'5ult. TllPl't" 
1:-:' 110 melltion of Pa('ra in Sicil.\", 
llrllanH'd thp ma
n:anill1ou,,;, cit
., bcfclrp the 
1 ()94, W ht'll COli nt HII}!er I. built t lwre a n.lhl.. m,'y, :m(1 11...;" ociated it to &11- 
otllf'r which i
 at Lip,ra,t Similarly rhl' \\"\lod..n <,dt alld chapel f'rt'CÌ<.d hy St. 
Columban, at Bohbio, on thE' I'i'.er Trf1\'ia. which .\rllllphn... r('ltllih with ...tOtIt', 
gave rise to a town which bt. n..n('r'
', th,. f'1I11)(,l'or, r3i
J to an episcopal city.
13nt heft" we br
k off j fOl' 10, \\ e are tlrri \"l,>(1 

II A vele 80liturlinis. 
Clau'Itrique mites incolæ:'

* Schannat, Ilistoria Fuldeo8Í.'\, P, i. t Sicilia 8acra. ii. 770, t Itslia Sacra. iv. 9'>5. 

 First lines of tue uymn for vespers on the f of all the b8iuts of the Benedictine order. 
13th NOYemb, 

...\ G .Ii 
 0 F .F A 1 T H. 


cn ..1PTER '1'1. 

" Quisque domum Dostram VCUICIl
 iotmiJis amicus 
Ante tuos oculos aspicc signa CI'UCIS." 

 VCR character.; over the pllrtal:s arch 
vere read inscribt:.d ,of .tlae mOIl
t . 
 tery of St. Peter, at Salzburg, 111 the lllilth eelltury" * . ,. Clln
tus_ 11 11 1>1:-'-, 
 ('um." ar
he word::; which fi
8t meet the e)
e on e
terl1lg the clol:-tl'r 

 St. DOillIlHC, at Bolo
lIa. Pwrced haud:, wllh arlll::) cl'o:;.,ed and ...UppUlt- 
 jllg a cross are the bripf atl
cting symbol over the door of mall)' cloister:" 
,!. to expre
:s what i... upperm.lst ill the tllought..; IIf t hu"'
 who dwell within 
them. In the por('h of the Capuchin COli vent, IIn the moulltain \\ hil'h ris\:"
Turin I :-,a\V illscribe(] "A SlIllllet 011 the love of Je.,us Christ." Over a con- 
vent gate ill .Ale

andria I read thp
e words, "Å(Iducam ells ill illlllltelll 
meulll, d lætificabll eos ill dlllllo orati'111is m
æ." But the gates of the hou,e of 
peace, to which you oflell mount by a sTeep 01' woody track wit ich 
ho\\'s 011 eaeh 
::side thp :-ta!!,e,.; of Chri
I's p:ls...ioll, have a voice eyell without inscriptiolls. How 
m III y tllOughts spring up at the :-,ight IIf line of these pacific f.lrtresse,.;, which have 
('alllwd 8 ' ) Illany pa:s
illns, and proteetell so many li,'es! "
hll is not 11I00"pd at 
the sight of that pOI"aluf 
1. Denis, ., IllIlIlUffit'llt of liberty," a-; a Frellch hi,.;- 
tyles it, having been ere('tetl with the 200 lh'rt's gi\"en to the Lord Abbot 
Sliger, by the people ftH' their eXPlIlptilln,-or on arl'i\"illg at dl:lt 
1I):lll hum hIe 
wicket of the Capuchins. at which, a wooden cro
s reeeives tile hand that is ro 
",nun.! the bell,:-o WOI'll aUlI p./lislled h
' the P'IO)' mall's hanll, (fc'r the rich 
dqUl pa
 thi:o' threshuld,) Ill' at I'eh"ldin
 tÌrat curiorrs old :lrehwa.\' tnrretell in 
the i\'
"-malltled IqnJ.I
' wall. :o'ha:led by tall :o'olt'IIHl trep:o-, like that whi,'h lead...; to 
the t'uin{'(1 priory of Dover, 01' 111 the ahbey of St. 'l\Iartin d' Auchy, 011 tht> con- 
fine.; of XOJ'lllal1dy and .-\mhoise? The..;e 
eat.. for tile poor, that wil1l10w for the 
dolt', import no harll meaning. But let us ellter, alld Sllppose, :IS the poet 

.. The arched I'loister:s, far and wide, 
Ring tn the warrior'5\ ('hmking stride," 

It enters into the hemic charactel' tl) adm ire tllf' hearrt\' of the monastic build i nO's. 
. .. , 
and to examille with awe anil inouisitive attt'ntion the grandt'III' of their stat.ely 

,. Germani:\ Sacra, ii. 118. 


'I 0 H E 
 CAr II U 1., 1 \J I; U J 

Wilill-bra\ying tower.., If om('r I"('prt'
ellts Telewa{'hu., find his comp3llion
 a::i fillCtl 
with a
\t the magnifict'nce of the hllusP of )(,'uelau:o'. Their fir
t c3.-e i
to pxplorp it, lJor is it till they have delighted their eyes with <;l'cillg all its treas- 
 that thev ac"("'ppt food and drink. Xo pilg-rim of the same moultl, at Clllny 
or at Clain'aux, would shrink from i'Hlulg-ing in 
u('h curiosity, or, after vicwillg 
on, would be 3shamro to exprt-
s the like ama P, 8nl1 cr)' out ðlfJa
 }J" (XEl Ei- 
"Arc'hitf'Cts are 1llt'landlOly," 
 CareJaI1,* IJp had in \'iew, (10) dnuht, the 
imn1l'n-e anti -o)enm :"trudurp... of the monks, whic'h, ill f:lC't, iuelic"atf' tllf> 1""\'3- 
It'nee of gl'a\ e, albeit of tho-e ve
uilp and in
l'lIioll'" mind.., of whic.h tllc p
..ion lUi
ht he Dt. Augu..tin'
 word.., alluding h, .1 fll1111'P lift', " ilJ ta Spt. 
anè g:Hleh.o;" fò.. all part.. al'(' 1l1:"It> to :\I1l1oUnN' Of )'f'('omeIHI that 
path o{ noble love, hy f
 \\hidl, flS :\liC'h:wl .\nw In :-a
. t we :"h:\lIl'a
without dangPl' throu,rh the narrow ami fi'adill \'alley ofth. o 
ra\'e. h,')'oncl \\ hic'h i
tlH\ only hopp of ft'licity." Tilt. mC)nl
.., indu'(l. ifwp :ullllit ('arclan':" prillC'iplt., wert> 
inclined to melancholy, not alolJ
 in thl-'ir c.;,.lpa('it
 of :Udllf('d..., hut ul..o in COIl- 
g(''<(uenC'e of thC'ir gt'nin
 a..;, paiutt'r
; fOf U painting," h.. ac1II
, " \\ ('avillJ! ta}w-tr,Y, 
nncl gC"lt'rallyall t'mpluymf'nt.; in tlIP UI.t
 makp IHt'n ItwlandlOly." Bdl0lcl the 
n>ligiou... \\ hid. date from ag-e.. of faith, \\alk 1'011 lid th(.ir('cmrt
 amI C'loi!o'ler.., 
and gardens, and you will find that the \"el"}' wall.. \'icwul from \\ ilhollt or from 
within, cli..p ..e the minel to a kind of sc.>lemn pe
lce, and the gr:l\'it,\' of de\"ollt 
<'Outf'mplatinn, rp\'ivin
 dream:" trt'a
llr{'(l up from parI)" day:-, the hol
' alJd the 
fauy of them, ('onl1l'c.t
't1 a
" art', with the li\,f':; of thp hol
' men, 
had "f,) cI h,in(' :l (.h:lra('tpr, that Olll' lIIay !o-:IY in tilt' wonl,; of Lp:mdt'r "l1l('1"tn
 of LOl"etto, It Bc..iclt.s tilt' most \\f'i
ht)" tpstimon
' to pr()\'p tlU' truth of 
thp re('ord or tradition re..peC'ting thpm, their i
 no. one '"'0 hard of IIt':Irt, or 
wickt'd" hilt on entering i!õ' 
oftpnpcl :1I1d mm,('C1 to honor tht> p1nr(', hy :t l'Prt3in 
celp..;.tial power amI instinct. amI to pra)" rc)r pardon of his !Oil!'" to .Jp"n
" I 
hall only mpntion OI1P thin
 to my tm\'(.I
," :o-ay!' St. (,lmI'14'
writing to his cousin the Cardinal-Prince of Ifohen-Emh!'t, in lfi76, h I h:t\'e 
\,i.,itp.) Ein.;iedelin, whirh i
 two day..;.' jourm')' from mount 
t. Gothard, alii I :Ift...r 
thp hOIl
e of tho holy f:.unil)' T do not knO\\ a "pot \\ here m\' 
onl Iws 1)('('11 more 
inflamp<l with pioll" ardor than thf're." Tn the grf'atpf monas fer)' at 'lilan were 
two ancipnt towpt's, hpumth one of which was the pri!"on in which thp hul
' m3r- 
tyr.-; Gf'I'Va
p, Protasius. '''ri('tor, 
ah()r. Felix. and others \\,('re <'OlIfiup<l, rdati\'(" 
to whom 
omp olel painting" are 
til1 cliS('t'rnih1e. E\'pn whpn "11('11 iuflm'nco,O i8 
wanting. " 
.. flop" al1!!ht mf'pt "onr \,ipw mOfP fit to :mim:ltC' tlIP pc)('t'
 pen, au
that more sm'ely hy it
 :l"ppct fin.;; P11l'P mirHl.; with 
q pn\'
', th:m flu' ahud,. 
of thp {!ood monk
, who. f.'lithflll throlll!h aIt hour" to tlwir hig-h ('h:Jr
p. and 
erving God. ha\'e yet he.1rt
 and hanel.;; for trpes a.nd flowprs t'lljov t be 

* Ilier. Card Oe rtilitl\tC' ('x Aelvers. Clip. Lih. iii. c. 4, 

t Descript. Ihliæ. 428. 

.A Ü .E 
 0 F F A I r H. 


walk..; pr((le('es
(lr:; trod, 1101' covet lineal J'ight
 111 land8 aud towers?" 
lIenee the puet wishc
 that he 

· '---may never fail 
To walk tLc btUItious cloister's pale, 
Aud love the high-emuowcù tOof, 
'Vito l1utique pillar
, masSY roof." 

"The buildings of the monks in (he middle age::; appear at present," says a 
French writel', "to have beeu :,utficiem fur the relief uf a pupulatioll tell time8 
lYTcater than it was." \, e have all'l ad)" :-Ct'll 11u\\ du:',\" \\ ere 
pl"{'ad uver every 

('IIunt1'\'. Suw It:'t u
 remark their illlmt'nsit)". The bllildillgs of Cluny \\erC80 
pxten...ive (hat t1\'e 01' six prillces Illight have beell lodged there \\itL all their 
retiullt'. During the cuuncil of Con
tallce, the pope, the emperor, aUtI the kiug u1 
France, with their respective courts, to (he llumLer of mllre tLan 200 perSOIl!'oò, 
lodg-ed there without causing any ufthe monk:-: to be displaced. The c1mrclI COI11- 
IDt'ncpd by S(, Hligues V. at the expense uf ...-\.lpI101I-;0 V"1, king uf Castile, his 
illtimate friend, wa
 the gmnde4 in the world ath'r 
t. Peter':-:, at Rome. Th
(.hurch uf the abbey of V ezelay 8urpa:;
ed in length that uf Nôtre-Ðame, at 
In the :-,umptuous abbey of Corby, in Saxllny, 
ays, that thl'E'e princeE 
with rheir 8uile:,; can be locl
ed withont incOllvenience, Tht-' porlal built ill the 
time of St, Ållalat,tl 
till existed. ....\òjoining the Chartn'lI
e of Bourg-Fontaine, 
ill thp f
m 8t uf VilIer,,-Couerêt, wa... a pabee built by the founder Chal'le... de Va- 
lois, king of France, whieh had a trihune opening into th{' ('hu1'<.h, where hp ('ol1ld 
t at the divine offices: but Iw wou1tl 
lIffpr 110 onE' of the C'OlIrt to enter the 
ter, At the vast eonvent IIf the E:,cul'ial, when the king' anivps, the mllnk
retire to the WE'st and south f,'ont..., yieldin!! up the principal cell
 to the Toyal 
tiunily, allli no inconvenience el1
ue..; to thpm. The abbpy ofSt. ::\Iedal'd, at Soi

, was a town in it..;elf. B{'side
reat ha,ilif'a of the Trinity and that of 
St. Sophi:l, there were the wa]ls fi)ur other chnrche
 ; and thi
 W:I": not 
unu:-:ual ; fill' as pady a
 the sixth cpntul'Y there were s()metime
 many ('hnrdws 
in one mOllastery, 3..; )fahillon remarks. Tllf're Wet',... heside
. at Sf. )[i,d'lrcl'S, 
the royal p:I13('e t<JI' the emperOl'. anI] the ahhati:II I\ala('('. thp doistprs of its 400 
monks, :llld IHlildin
..:, to loc]!!e the g'UE'sts and !ò=erv:ll1t..; of the :1h')p
'. which 
alone were immell,.:e as wel'f> alJ".'o the ('onstrucTion
 for thp 
('ho()J, and f01' the dlf- 
fÈ>l'ent offices an wl.ich \Vpre ('I'owned with \'3st towers. At thp ahhf>
' ofStavp}ot, 
in the fore
t of A..dpnnp. t}w tower I'P
{' to fin p]pyation of 300 ff'f.t, \rJwn the 
ab!>ey of tit. Gall \\"a
 burnt down in 131-1. with its c'hllr('h('
 :In(l ('h:1ppl<.:. thirty 
hpllsweremplted.* The greatest :11111 m()r-:t h:lrmolli"n
 hpll in all En!!bnd was that 
('alled Gnthlac., in the ahbey of Cl'Owland,t "Yhat mn
t it hrl\'p hpen to hear 
its swelling tones 3CrO
:5 the va...t watery desert which surrounds that ahhey? The 

* Ildefons Von Au:, ii. 9, 

t Hi
t. Tn


)1 () l
 (' A r II 0 L I V I; ù H, 

nh-tlUl't ion..; ot the
t' H] dìl'f'
 frolll tilt' tenth unci e!t'Vt'nl h t't'nttlrit 
Ilo\\' all a
h:Hl'lH. \\'f' 1l':l1"II flomlìiraJdus ('aml,I't,""i
, dial Ih. -tllllt'
ill till' f"ulltlatioll uf 1\ t. 1'1.111 uugh aLot,)' dum'lI \H'n' t;u IUI 
c, I hat eilrlat (lxen 
" movc HIIC of thclII. I I CHl'C \\'t' nm)" it/! ill .sllllle iJca of the :--01 idit)' 
of Ont' of huikliu)!s, fhe walls of ti,t' Cork ('on\,.'lIt at Cil1lrn. compo.. d 
of va.t s[on, s, uf 
t Vt'l) or l'i
.dll 11IInd n J ton
 \\l.,jght (':I('h, 
t.t'lil :a... if du' \\ IIl'k 
of lIaturl', E\'cn III the poon':-t nlOll:l"t 'rit.
 tilt 'w-t ilia !f'ri:ll:; \\, It' ('Ill plll,n.d. 
Lnpu:;, abhut of Ferrt'rs, writt-'"i to _Edilcnlf, king of th... ElIgli:-.h, to hl'
tallcl' trom llim ill a tilit'of dllilrc:-:" a"Ì hl is a\'out tll eon'r lais dlllr('h with I('ad.* 
Tllc abLt')' of Lllxellil, tllOngla mueh ,lilllmi
lll.d ill l'xknt \\ hI'li nom 
\' i-itcd it ill 170
, \\ as ...1 ill im ml'IISl', .uul hat! t \\ 0 ('lull dl('.. clit'lo-t...L t Tlaat 
uf ðoligllac, ill tht. LinlOusin, ionll(h.'ll h.'" 
t. Ell'Y, \\a.. in till' 1;" III of a (.irdc. 
" There are so man)' I"t'markaole thin
:,," &1Y
 tlli" fathl'r, " ill all(' abot') of Clair- 
, tbat one 3h\ aJs finds in il 6"1l)(,tllin
 11t'\\ (':adl ti'Jlt, UIIC vi-it- it. \\" t: b:1W 
tile allciellt mallufal'torie:o. uf tilt' lay orotlll'r:-; alUltlll' I:Ulnt'ril'
, \\ hic,la an' :admir- 
ablp." Thi:- p;lrtly l'X plaill:o. t Ll' pw(1 i,riolr:, (" It 1)( 111' mall)' lIlolia-tl'I'it.s whi..h 
were cuu:5trudro :--u a:-ò to conraill "Vl'IJ' tJlilig III ('t :-,--ary \\ idlill their \\alls. Tlm:-: 
" lIIany hllndred pClsuliS wt're uttadll,d in \':ariolls ('(1\al'Îtit.!- to tilt' 
' uf 
Ofl)e of \\hol11 lived within it, hllllilia imu-, 3" aJ'ti
alls, millt'r:-:, hakf'rs, 
!-mitlls, ('arpelltt'r:-:
--blo\\ er
, Ln'" ('r
, :-;hqlhenl
, swindlel ch.., hllar-bui)cll'rs, 
Will mcn who taan
l'urtlll tl1l' gllod
 of tile abLe)' a('ros
 tilt' Jake of Con..tallcf> : 
OIhus lin.d "ilht/llt the abbl')", f:ulIilia foris, 
'Olillg: IIIt'lI alld m:ulit.n8, "ho Lk!- 
Ûsted by lla
' at diffcnllt work..., ht'ing oound ill compell
atilln tor r('nt hy their 
part'lits' obJigation to repair to the ahhf'
. collrt, Ill' to itb n .Jl'lst f:.1I'lIIyard, tlare 
(lays t'vt'ry "eek, :l1ld give tlapir labor."t "From ti'l' y('ar b
o 10 !}20, t;t. Gall," 
l"a)'6 i
 hisrorian, "wa..; a \\ ell-illhaoited hOllse. B(.'
idt s 1 05 mOllk
 alld 200 
converse hrclhrell, there were many :--tudenk; 3ml hCIIl'fic(.d P"lsolI:" \\'110 l'C!-idt'tl 
within it. The pro\"ision:, for feeding :--uch a ('ommunity Wl're comIllCII:mrate. 
There W:IS nn o\"pn in wlai(,1a a tholl5:1l1cl loavc
 \\er' haked ar a tilllr. For 
makillg' bper tlaf're \\":1":1 mah-kilu ft,r 100 IIIf'n
 of bar Icy. The'" Wt're 
o many 
, that ('VPI'Y Yf'aI' tt'll llt.\\. miJI-!'tClIIt:", Wt rp rt'(ttJirl'll to pur ill pl:a('(' oftho..e ahal 
werc past lI
e, There W:1S a hllt:mil':I1 J!:lnl(,11 a)
", to f"rni
" ml'tli('ilU''' for 
thp si('k, and a hostel fOt, tr:ln,Jkr
. \\ hi(.h \\:I:o-I,"il1 within tire \\:.118. The abLe)" 
wn, !-ourl'OllIH1L'<1 with workshoJ1!=, hll!'ff,Jr.y LllildillJ!:', allel :--tahling, Tht' ('ircuit 
filk'tl thp whol
 \'al1ey from Ol1f' lli1l to tll(' other, !-ol>> that 1I0t 0111.\. th(' hlltl
whic,h tlI{' 
 113<<1 hlliJr fìu' thf'"ISt'h-f''';, hilt al-o Sr. 'lallJ!ell'
 dlurch :-tood 
wirhin die f'lId..
"n's ofthp ahl)f'
t. Hi(l'lipr. the ganl(,11 a(lj..ins the 
!':Clulh "ide of the ahhf'Y. It i
 \'er." (''{Ien-i\'e:uu] "lIrrollndc.d \\ilia a "all :-ixt.v 
{pet high, :Iud so thick that th{'r(' is a walk UII tllf' ","mmit. The frui
U'(es aU 

· Lupi Fpist. 13, 

 Ih. i. 128, 

t Voya
e Lit. 

t 1111,'(IIn8. Von .\1"\, Ut'schld,lt, tIcr S Gallen, t. (;",. 

AGE;::) 0 F F A I T II. 


datt' frolll the time of the monks, One pear-tree, the wonùer of the whole COUlI- 
try, i:::; :-:aiJ to be 200 or 300 )'ears old. The vat)t stem i:-. quite ftatt('ned to the 
wall, awl its uranche.; ::;prl'a.d out like a fan to a proJigious extem on eve I')' Ride. 
'l'he gaf(lt'IH
l' told me it is al wa,ys loaded with the fint'st fruit, with \\ hieh, in- 
deeù, the whole ground was then 
trewed, Xothing can be more picture:-que 
than the view, from this garden, of the long corridors alld ruined c1oister
, still 
profllsely adorned with image.. of 
aint.... In mo
t monastprit's all the OffiCt::8 were 
within dIe walls; for the monks performed e\'el''y thing for 

L B"nt.>dict the 
Jn(ld of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 81 ï, l't'quire expre..:-Iy that 
tli f > I,ttke-hou:je :SHuuld be within them. The uread in the ancient lIIona:"'oteries wa..
baked 1\\ ice, and o
n kept so long that it wa
al'Y to break and pulverize 
it wittl a mallet.* The Carthusian... in Par;:", alld Ihe nlOnk
 of the abhe)' of St. 
)Ia.rtill-dt>:::;-Chsmps, had contri\'anl'e=" tll' grindillg ('orn alld making better hread, 
which. e}.cite,l grt'
t attention. In 817, it was al"o ('t'quired that there :should be 
endo:-'lIres :o'et apil.rt {;Ir culinal'Y herb
, in the sowing of which, We ma)' remark, 
the nWllk..'\,('d no hlllal' ::mperstitiolls, though Le Gr.lIlJ J' Au-sy ..a).,.., that 

uch prel i m i naril's wt>re pre...:ct'ibed by common clllti \'atol's a.;; inJi:5peusable. t 
A III OIl!,! tl l e offi('pl's of the luon:.1"teI'Y of Bohbio, in the 'yt'aI' 835, we find ('ited, 
.. thl' 1lI:.1="te'" l'arpelHer, the keeper of the viueyard,.;, the keeper of thp orcl,ard.t 
TIlt' s\\":tkLerd of the abhey was another EU'llæus; and Homer does 1Iot di
to tell liS how mall)' swine he hall to look after: though he does not add what ...u 
man)' CI/nvertitt.::, ill the middle age.. learlleJ from experienc(>, that his occupation 
was a toilsome one; for as Jolin de Brie {;HlII<I when he hall to drive them to 
the fields and forest
, awl back 
)gain in the e\'enillg, 'ce 
Ollt dp rUlle..: il(':ö:te
de maulvaise lli
ciplille)' and often he did 1I0t know whether he had not lo
t some 
of them, so that the task wa..: grie\'ou
 and almost intolprablt' to hlln,"
of the IOvfaxoípwv, then, as Homer call& them, were gellerally f
llmd at 
the monastery, where their presence wa..; very necessary; for pork was used in 
drpssing vegetables by the most aU!:ltt-'rt> ('nmmnnitie
.11 Ducange cites an alll'ient; 
inventory of the abbey of St. Remy, at Rheim.-, :,tatillg that it possessed 415 swine. 
There is a It>ltel' of 
Iappinin:-;. arch I)i,.;hop of Rhei IUS, to Villlcu
, bishop of 
in the ::;ixth century, solely written to ask the price of swine, The:oòe were ofteu 
a royal donation to ltlona4erÏe.... 'There art> man," (.hartel's in which the French 
king:-; permit certain ahb...ys to fef>d their swine in thf' roy:tl forest
. The cOllllciJ 
of P:tri
, in 1092, authorized the monk:-ò of Compip
ne to :-òelld tht->ir swine in
that fore
t, and forbad, an
' suignellr to a
k :to tax in compf'n
ation. Roget., earl 
of_ Shrewsblll'Y, give.; ro the nJOnks of Ouches tlr e\'er tht: right of pasture for 
winp, in all hi:-; f.,rest". The annals of Corby" in Saxon
', do not disdain 
to notice, that in 9Gb, there was a dvsemel'v amon g the swine which destro y ed 


* Le Grand d'A.uc;sy, Hist. d
 la Vie privé p des FmnC'nis Y 102, 
\Dliq. It, lxv. f. L
 Vray Résime de,.; R('rge..
. i. 

t Yd. i 19t1. 
L... Grand d'.\ n..;!'y, i. 310. 


M 0 R K 8 CAT 11 0 LIt; l' 0 It, 

lleady all of them j and the annal:-ö of'r record us tilt' fir;;t a(,hie\"eIJ}Cllt of the 
DaIH." in [I'l'land, tÌle ,Irùwning of all I he swint' hc>l,)Jtging to tilt' ahhot of H. .('l1mll. 
illg ftl1' 111(.' lll' alld hi
 flo\.'k:- addld, thcn.flm', to tl& '111:18., (If hllildilws 
round the doislt'r. At thl' ahlwy of Fl'OiJmollt, thrt.t' h.aglil" frum nt'all\'
li.., die 
hUl1(lred by-brothers aUt'ntl. d :-0 lllul'h to this uraneh (lfillllu
try, that in t1Il' 011 
year of 12:1u tht,)' 
old 70UO tl\'
In abt....y:-õ mll
t lw ..ougl,t Ihe origin of the Altt,:,iall wclls,t 
t. Bt rll
wdl, in the ahL ')' of Clainnamis, dug in 117:2. i;:, unc (If Ih" tlll'pt:-t ill Fnllll'l'. 
Tile mo:-t anci
nt known. \\ hieh dah':) from 11 :W, i:- in Ih ' C,ll"tllllsian lIIulI:.l
t ry 
at Lillet':-ö. Bill I..a\'in
 tile 111\\','1' l'ollrls, It.'t u:, n'pnil" to tilt' ruain hllildinC":-, 
Tht,..e Wt're not ('an,ll-':-
I y con..t t'lIl'tt(1 in a (by, like lIludcrn worl\..... \\' t' ]{'a.... 
frum Onlcric \Titalis l'ight.\, year.. \\",'rt' :o-pt'ut ill building the lIohle ah}II'
' (It 

t. UUt'n, at H,Out.'I\,+ 111 1306, )hr
, :-c('olHl wife of Ed" anI I., and'I' 
of Philip, king of Fraul'l', bè
all to build tl1 ' ehoir uf tllC FraUt.i
l'an dml"t,h 111 
LOlldon, hut dit.'tl h('fùt'e eomp]ctin
 it :,,111 \Va., hUI'it>,1 th,'rc, file nave of h... 
clllll'('h \\a.. bt.'!!un u
. .Jolm tic Britl'll, .'ad of Hi('hmoIUJ, antI ('Owpldt'tJ h)' :\Ial"- 

alet, ('ullUte., of Pcmbroke, <..;ilhcl't Cia..,., l'arl ufl;}"u,.t'Sh'I', amI hi!'- two :-i:--tt,I':-, 
lIdt'na Ù 
 ::;Pt'IlCCI', and Elizabcth tl(' Bllr
h, T\\t'llty )'l':lr.. et.psl'(l Lcfort' thp 
ehurch was filli
 I II 
cneral, tb.. tnt'lIk.. wcre dwir 0\\ n nrl'hitt'd . 
.All the ma
niricl'nt Itlliltlill
i of till' ahbey of 
t. Gall, ill tilt' 1111111. (,(,I1tllrr, 
were cun
tntl'ted by the monks th"luselvt,:-. TiltH", tilt' It'aruetl I'hilos.)I'}Il'I", 
the paimcl' anti musician, w:t:- ab,,\"e all t-millt'nt fill' hi:>J :-kill in the tlrt uf IHlill)- 
illg. hl'IH'i"h, wh" \Va., al...\) a prit
..t, \V:
 :111 excellent ('arpellter, ami Hatg-t'I' 
H.lually st'f\"ict'ahle tb a 
t\)1tel'uttl'r. ( )ne of th('i.. cUlltclIIl'oral'i' Oh
('I'\'t:-, tllat 
" IHt'll cau judge of th,.ir abilit
, h
 ...t the <'1mI'd. alld mon:lstcIY." 
" CÞarly it appears," hi' :-ay.., h froll! tlIP 1Il,..t what kiwi of bird.. illhalli[ it. 
View tbe ba.-;ilica an,l the cloist"r of rhe 11141l1a
te..y, a1l\1 )'ou "ill 1101 \\()WI"I' at 
what I re}a[e,"1! Thc church \\a.i bt-gllI1 in 
:JO. :1IId fini:,]u d ill fhoe H.'ar", rite 
pre:-õent edifice of the Grande Chartreuse \\3-'; built hy })I)II) )Ia
on, prior of the 
or<.ll'r, and anothpt, monk, who \V:1.tI tlu' ardlitect. It i, l'f'Jatet.) a... a cirt'um.talU"C 
atknding tht hni1tling of the vast l'hnr('h of the ahbe
' of 
(. Jollll-d
- Vig-m..., ut 
Sois..on;o;, that when the two to\Vf>J'
 wprt> completP(), hot h of tllt'1I1"-pit ('t.s of 
lr('hire('tllrp for 1ightnp..... awl (lnr:lhi]it
" Ilip nhhot, Xicola!-' PrudhoJl)II\t', 
tnnnnt('(1 to HIP summit in ()f(lp,' to ,,1a('f' the ('rfl
ol on the ..pire witt. hi!'- 0\\ II 
, wlli('h W:1.:, at all ('1pv:ttion of 2:14 fi'f't.
 '''lu'n n",,']uin, tile fc,unòu' ùf 
Pl-'('. of n:mi
h 1':1Cf', who 11:,,) a renowllt'd knidlt amI fa\'oritc of Dukp Hoh- 
ed, aUtI mn\"pd. nt the :lgP of thirt.\,-..t
\'pn, to rPIl Olll}('f , the world, W:1S huildill
the abhey of Bun nevi lie, \Vïllialll of Jumiè
ay,.., tc that he worked tit it IIiru..plf 

· Voyal!e Lit. tip deux Rén. 

 Wnòdinl!. An. '[in. tnm. vI. 

 1Ii...t. de 
oi"...on,.. ii. ;;:i.'j 

t Annuaire c1e!itnr1eCl, tf'3!i. t IIist. Lib. xiiI. 
I Epist. E, mt'nrici in Analcctis 

AGE:; () F 11' A I T II. 


likc a ('ommon lahort'r, calTyilig the :-otont-'s, :-oand, :lnd lime, Oil hi
. The 
more delicate hI' had once hpen ill his proud vallity, the 1II0re humble was he now, 
and patient to SlIpplH-t all kind:-, of fatIgue fclr the ]O\"P of God,"* ,\' !at'll R:u)f!- 
LotOIl, sou of the count of Altt'nbollJ'g, propost:'d to build the :.Ibbe)' of )1 uri, he 
appl ie<) to Elldll'iec, abbot of Bin:-,ipdlclI, fo]' an arch itect, who sent hi m R,>gi II hold 
and some other IIWllks,t The monks WI're, hI/wever, often assistt'd in Iht'st:' works 
hy the (,ollfralt'rnity uf Luilder:o;, which :-:om'> ...upp()se was fir
t establi
hed at Char- 
tre...;. 'Vhen a deputation from it a1'l'ived, it \\'3S a \Vondr()u
)C)e, we are 
told, to =-'ee knight..; and barons tied to cart:o;, and in a spirit of penance dl'awing 
lime, \\,00<), and 8tllne
, Hailllon, abbl)t of 81. PielTe-de-Dive
, ill 
in a letter to the monks of a ('on\.ellt in England, in 1145, de-;eribes the zeal with 
which rich alJ() powm.fnllloble-; undertook to transport the materials likt' ('ommon 
laborer:" He add
, "that dlll'iug the night taper:" used to Le faslf'rlt.d on the carts, 
and that 11It'1l u
e(l tll watch, chanting hymn:; and cantic1f's," )lany of the
SI)l'il'tics wt're forllled into on" at. Stra:o;hlllrg-, in 1450, by Dotzin
er, archil{-'ct of 
thecatht-dral. Thpre was a geneml ass
'lI1hly of these lodge.; at Hati
bon, ill 1459, 
wllPre l'I11e-; wel't
 Iliade for the admi...;sioll of apprellLÏces, companions, aw) ma,.;tel:.., 
and ...;('('ret s;
n"Ì were adoptpd for mutual recognition. Thi:; a
sociation \Va:; con- 
firll1,.d by ,he German empernrs, 
X othi IIg e\'Ïnce
 more remarkably the :"pil'it of the:;:e ages than the custom of 
tÍle lIobility r"sidillg in fortified ('a411'
, alld the monk,; in cloisters, of which the 
g-ate:-i ,..tood open, dt'fentle<l only by faith. However, this orde]" was IIOt wholly 
uuiform, alld one may be occasiollally surpri..:ed on finding :-:ome mOlla,teries, even 
in de:,{-'rt place-, fortified like castles, The old mOllasterie...;, indet'd, beillg built 
exaNly 011 th(' pian of a Roman hOll
e, which, in the last a
e..;, was alway:" fcll'Ìi- 
fled, t'a,..ily admitte<l of defence; but a little reflectioll will t,;oon clear np the díf- 
fi('ulty. The f:lCt i,.; so. The abbey of l\[ollnt-Cassino was fortified with walls 
and lo\\ers hy the ahbot. Berthariu--, through fear' of the Sara..;
ins,+ B
' a dra\\'- 
bl'idg-t' you still eliteI' tlw 1ll0n:lster.\' of Grotb Ferr.l!:I. whif'h re
 a ('a
('rq;' in',: the wooded h ill. Otl](
I'S .;:eem hy nature fOl,tified T11l1"; thf' aLb"." of 
Rquilbci i..: strong by its position, 011 a lofty crest. :,urrounded hy rm'k..: 011 all 
.,ides, belwpen two l'i\'el'...; which surroH'lId it. tl) whi"h f'ircnm",tance it o\\'ed it:o; 
prt'sl-'rvation from the calamit
" which hefel Cabhria. in 650, whell it W:1."; 1';Jyag',.rl 
by the )Ioors,9 Tlw grt'at "'qu:lre to\\'f'r of the ahh,-,

 of St. Gf'I'rnaindp
whi('h \\'a
 huilt in thp tinw of Chal'l('ma!!np, contrihuted to 5:1\"e th:n hou..;p wilen 
tllP monk, .\ !.bon, dt'fended it ag
lins[ t he X TllP ahhp,' of St. l\Ie(lal'd, 
 ,'ss Ill
 fol'tifl,.d with dlt(,}w:;: and many to\\'f'I':-: by EIlc1p,;;, count of P:lris 
alltl killg' of XPlbtria, through fe'u' of tile Danf'
,11 Tn IMp)' time..; Charll's V, 
having ()eclared war against the English in 1368, ob]jge<l Richar(l, abLut uf that 

* Lih, vi. 9. t Chi onique (]' Einsidlen, 17. 

 I:alia :'acra, is:. 42

 Rist. CassÎnens. c. 
I Hìst, ðe Soi


)1 0 I{ E 
 C.A T II () L I (1 I: () U, 

1II00Ia"IE>1"Y, to fortifY it wilh walls, ulld (Jild1e.., and to,,'('rs, IC!,t thcf\lI('my :--hollld 
tak.. pll&;t':o'sioll IIf it and tllt'lIl'" :Iu:u.k P:u'is.* 1I0w"\.,'r, \,11I'n for tilt' secl1l'il
of till' ('ollntry it \\:1" nece.....a..
' Ihal U lUfllla:o-tpr)' .shoulù Ix> fortifiCtJ, thc COli:; 'lit 
of thp h,::,lIop of thc diol't'þp wa.. imIi'''I'l'u:sable.1" 
Tht'''{' hous.;:; of p' ac.>, tlH'I'ef,JI'e, hore mark.. uf havill
 :--n..taiIlP.I mallY pcrib, 
mallY lIIJII I'i.>s, Perhap.., :It thi,.: mOlllPllt, a" thl'
' :o-t
lIld hl'fi)..e 11:0', all i.. 8t ilhws.. 
..oumI them, anù we snpl'o' 
 tll:lt tlu,ir :ll'I'ial tt)\\C"S :lmI ma...,....ivt! wall
 can have 
only laad to cmIure for l't'ntUl'i...; the wa..tin,r br(,l'ze whil'h ha.., \\ 01'11 thc pillar's (':lrv- 
ing alld Illllillderpd ill hi.. ni"he tilt' saint, and rounded with ('unstllllillg' PO\\ el' th 
poillted :mgl'l..: of e:u,h turl'l't; hut thLse ahhpys, lihC \'('t'ran.., worn untl un<:uL- 
dUL'(I thl'OlI
h:--o m:wy :lgP.., tl'llIlw..t-h(,:ltt>II, nn.l 
IJ()\\ II "P"II h," tilt' pal and 
humid lu-;tre IIf Ihe moun throllg'lwU' tilt' :-òill'nt ni
ht h:I\'(, "lIfl
.rt,tl f"lIm ('vcr)' 
kind of fierce dt'strlll'ti ve :Igl'ncy; they 11:1 \'e ('(,l'n ah .....lIat('l)' ('x 1'0.... II t" dlC hostil.> 
rage of 
al':ls...:in..; alld D;l11lS, of II un.. aml Surlllall", of Pro!t'''L!IIt.., aUlI till' BlaC'k- 
balld:-i, ofdl" .J:u'obills:llltl COllstiuniollali..ti of th" I )ro,'1I1 <<1n,'. 111 F'l"".J.n('(',dur- 
. ' 
ing agl's of tail h, they \H'r'
 of tell pilb
("(l ami hllrn' hy thc ,ol'm:lll"'; in Ellg- 
land and Ireland by the Dalll''i; ill Spaill hy thE' '1001''':; in (;,'rma,II." hy tl1(' 
Huns; in Italy hy the Lallgoh:lI.ti.., 
a a ',iIlS, amI 111111,; 
Il S:('iJ
' 1.1,'- tll(' 
!-ills, whose ('l'IlI'lti. 8 to th.. monk:o- tll('re :11 (' I eblt dill I Ill' ..til...(.ting ] ('1t('1' of the 
HellPdictlllt.... of tilt' lII\ln:",('I')' of::,1. Plal.illu.. at )[ '::'''i.ID'', tn POP(> \Yilt.lianlls, 
in tlw 
'ear lili!J, a:' 
ivell by I '0 of ():--t
 'TIlt' alllw.\ of )Iotlllt-C:l
:o-inll \\a" 
('d hy tllP Lomb:ll'.ls n .j89, and bllrllt b.,' du> :"'al':I
-ill" ill öh-t. Tile ahbt>
tlf!::,t. Syh','..;r.>r, :It XOII:m'tlla, \\a.. 1)(11nt h.," thc I ItllI
 ii' 900, :llld IIlIt r('storl'll 
till lIillt' Yt'ars hatll'iaps..d,
 ,. :o-t'\'CIl timt :,," 
ay:o- a llIonk 1l'!atill
 the \"uriolls 
it)!1un 's of hi.. 0\\ 11 IIIfllI:l..h'r.,', cc \\'a..; this hilly pia '(> \"ioln'(.J It." pcdidiolls C'hl'i..t- 
ian.., or hy pa
all:-;, Fir..t, h.\. Chri
ti:IIl" amicl
t !nt('.tin \\"31'S; another tinw by 
the Yalldal...; a thi'cl tillll' b
' tll(' 
.II':I..:..ins in 
:11 ; n fOllrth tilll{, h.\' tilt' pri\'at{' 
m.p:l('ity of a ('PI tai II \\, 'III all ill th.. r(>I
n of P{'pin, farllt'r of Ckl1lf'I11:l
ne; the 
fifth time hy the Xo 1'111:t II:', which was dl'
ol:111o dfl..;olatiollum ; the sixth and 

e\'ellth time- by tile II IIn
."1I "\\
"(ln thc !Janish pirate..;, under 1T:1foòtillg" and 
Hollo, ra\'ag('(l Xt''ia. cl,'..;fI'O\'ÎlIg a great IlUmbpr of "(>01:1rl;:a1.l.. ('OIl\'Pl1t..., the 
monk... flE'd to ('averns allll WilD')"', or PS{':IP d to' coulltril8; a'T
.in!! \\ ith thpm 
the banee:: of tlwi,' filthel''': an.l the writing'
 wh!{'h rP<'()('(k"() their livl':), 
.. al..CI tile 
('h:II"(.eI.... and titl..-c1..('(ls of tlll'il' r<",pt.{.ti,"., (.hur('Il('
, It W& thf'11 lbspl'l:l, lH'ar 
Camhl'ai, hf'{,:tlItP f'nriC'lwd with thfl hodi..s of St. HU!!U{'R, of 8t. Aielmc1re aud 
nlwnt, in Flalltl(,I'
, \\ ith thu-
p of 
t. ,y nll(hi11p, 
t. A nshprt. ßm] 
t, ''Y lI]fl'3l1."-; 
" T !-'hollM fill a \'oll1Jl1P," 
'1".'''; E{'k,.J)
lrd TY., :,lllJ()ing to tll(' nlln
, "if I WE're 
to I'e)atp :III that OUI' monk" 
lIffi'I' f!'Om the 
 If:l-foòin... The injlll'
' whi{.h 
they did to St. Gall, Pf...tferA, and Coire, was imnwl1:-(" ".,. e ('un hI nf'it h"f lIIukp 

· BOllilllut. TIi!:t de l'Abbaye de S. Oer-tlf's.Prèz. 
iC'i1iq SuC'rl\, ii, 379. 
I Chronicfln n"sl...n
(' :tpu(1 n:trlwr. 
pki1f'{!' tom i. 

t Hurter Oe
C'hiC'ht(', tom. iiI. b ii. 

,)tir. A hh, OrtL f'j..ler. vii. 75, 
· 0111 \"it. Lih. vi. 

 () F F A 1 T 11, 


use of the moulltains 1101' cultivate the plain
. They were so bold thHt they came 
dowil f, UIl1 B
irneck on 
t. Gall, and slim arrows at the prol"l'Miol) which \\"a:"\ lIIak- 
 ruuud the place: Affajr:5 became ðU despprate, that the 
\.bbot Burkard, :,ftel' 
his P iIlJ'rimalJ'e to Rome with the EIIl } }el'Ul' OtllO 1., in 9ö3, \\ as no lou,'cr able 
o 0 
to uOllri:-ih the monk
, so that he wa- ohliged 10 give them I'ermb:-oltlll to I'roville 
1:11' tlwm:;elvc::; as well 
 they could:' lu the abbey of 
[orba<" Dom )I:lrtf'ne 
f ,UIlll the tomb
 of seven monk.., martyr::;, who hall Ite('J1 lIIa:--::)<lI'I'ed }'y tllt' Huns.* 
I lI
ul phus is 
o particular' in hi
 account \If the ma,..::-acre at CrowJand, whell the 
D;lUt'S bUl'5t imo the chllrch, that he mentions the name,.; of all the per:-:OIIS occu- 
pied at that moment in the celebratioll of ma-:--, Theodllre, the lord abhot, him- 
-clf was celehrating; hl'other Eltgptu:5 a8 dcal'lIlI, and brothel' Sa,"inll."; as sub-dea- 
eOJ1, minis:erell ; allli br.)thers E
ehe In..; and Ulr'ieu.. the boys who bore 
the li
ht..;, Ei
ht.\'-fullr monk,.; were burdIPrl.d, 
urne of them paf.òt their hun, 
dl'cdth year. \Vhen tile subpriol' Lerll\vyull.; was 
lain in the refectory, brother 
Tllgariu", a child IIf ten ye 11'
 of age, of t}w mo
t beautiful ('OIlIlÌknallce alld form, 
 hi., senior' thl1"; murdt>retl, elltl'eaÌt'\1 the I'ag:tn
 thar they would also kill 
hilll ; IHit COUllt :"\idrllk, m,)\,ed with comp,,:-:
il)lI. tore off hi!' lJIoliastic cowl, and 

i,'illg hi'll a Danish dr
..; ordere(l hill) tu follow hin}, and ill thi..; wa
' hi:; life was 
pn'sPI'\'ed ; 3.1111 he wa.; the only persoll wi,o escaped. The>-criptioll whieh is 
givell ofdlt:' return of th.. ()th'
l' monk... to the smoulderillg- rllin
 is mu:-:t affe(.tillg. 
Then it was tlaat Brit'8tarlU
, a challter of the mOlla4ery, awl a most eloquent 
puet, wrute among the a-;hes of Crowland the:,e line:" which begin: 

U Quomodo sol,L scdes dud urn regina domorum, 
Nobilis Ecclesia, nuper amica Dei !" 

The Danes visited twice the :"aillted islal1l1 of Iona, aud burnt the monastery. 
'Vlratevel' ....pot was most cli.4in
l1i:.;hec.l by popu1al' I'ever'enee, thither the..;e spoilers 
hent theil' CI)UJ'
e, An Iri:,h gt'ogl'apher of that period, desCl'ibing the desolation, 
says, ,( that in many of the 
lIla1]er island..; of the lrh:h 8eas not even a hermit 
 to Le fcnmd," III facr. tltey tltir
tpù for the blood of monks and the plunder 
of abbey:;:. Twice was the 1l10na4el'.\' of B:tIlg'Ol,dt'spoiled by the Dane:-;. On the 
latter occasion the venemhle abbot and 900 monks were ma:;
acl"ed ill one day. 
The tllolla""tery of the En
h at )fayu. tlw h..h, i
h. of lni,.;(.athy in the mouth 
of the 
IHlllllOII, having the tumb of it..; patron.:5t. Sellanll>:. the cells of 8t, Kevin 
in the valley of Glendaloug-h. tl,f' mllJla
tery of the Seelig Isles on the coast of 
', all tlH'se and many 01 hel' "'
'at.. of holine
:i were constantly IIl,H)P the s<,el)f'S 
of ruthle:--s de,"a-tation" The ('('11:-: of the monk
 on rhe i,..:leb of L"n
h Ree, the 

ehool of Clonarll, renowned tll1'on
holH Etll'ope, :t1Hl the 31ll'ient ahbe.,' of Down, 
the hallowecl I'p..ting-pJa"p of the I'pmains of q,t. Patrick, were at different times 
in the ninth century laiel cJe..;nIate. In :-ihort, there was not a ::;ingle monastery of 

* \lIya!!(' Lit. la8, 


1\1 O}{ K 
 CAT Ii U LIe I. 0 Q" 

au)' n'lIown'h \\,1.1., not plunùered and lail) waste by the Dam..... ill the eighth 
anll nilltlJ et';." 
. The tlt'volt'() courage," add... all hi"'lO..iall, " of thl':OOt' 
l'rowtls of cOllf
's..or:, \\'110 :;till n'turnt.c.l to the :--ame ...put, dlOos IW ..atl1,.)' til'atla 
thall to ll'ave the hilly place Ullt 'lulllell, P"CiClit-. Olle of tho... ' an
...,tillg pil"turl' 
of qllict Ill'r()i:-\m with which till' history of thc ('hlll'('h 3hot:lld
," lIelice thc pOt.t, 
d".:)(.rihiug the abbey of,rne, make:;, l.sptX'ial mentioll of iu lleed of se- 
curity : 

.. In 
axon strength thnt nbbey frown'd 
With mn!:4:Ï\e arches broad nncl rOlwd, 
That rOCie al1ernate, ro\\ Rnd row. 
On pondt:rous columns, sllorL and low; 
On the tleep \\ allb Lhf' heatheD Ð 
Had pour'd, his impiml!l ra
e in \ aiD; 
And Ilt't',iful W'LS ..;u('h 8tH'neth to Ihese. 
Expnsl'd 10 Ihe 1t'lJllw!'IUflUol S('h.., 
ðcuIIIgeci by liw \\ inò's elt'fllal sway, 
Open to rover!! til"rCe aH lIn
Which could t\\elve h
llclrul }'('Rrs "ithstnna 
""inds, waves, and northern pirntt.'s hrm'!." 

Xo longpr tlwn 
holllrl flu'S(> to\\('I'.. anc) h:lltlf'II1PIIIS n
runi..;h liS on arri,'in rat 
ailttt'd hOIl";('
[, Bt', sillce wc kno\\ that' inhahitmlls rni,.dlt!'o 
often han> ('omplail1(,(), likf' the pl'Opl(' of Rimini of old when (':.c..;ar p:,':-oc..f thf' 
Rnhicnl1, that the
' \H
le alway=-- 
lIr(' 10 \)('hol<1 111(\ first ('amp.. :11)1) to rt'('rin' tl.(' 
fir,t shol'k.. of war; and il1tIt.,..) wt'I'rod t''i:pl"f.:.:,h', tlt:1t wlwu tilt' 
I)I'ltInll"; ht"- 

' d Pari
, tilt' monhS wc.!'t' lilt. prilH'ip'll ol
i..t't... of tlwir fHr
ot :111)111' f.
nal defl'nl'('''' hilt, 10 ol)\'iat,. tilt' ('OIl...t'qllt'IICC of .......pri...... !'l.'('I't.t I'hamh"":i :11:)u \\ere 
oft'li n(>ct'
ry within tht> \\ all.... tu pro\'itfe :I
aill..;t .....ddplI vi..;it
 from the 

"AYPIOJI aIX""T1;.', Kpartpò" u;,6rr.:Jpa lpOßOIOJ. 

for he too fi
ur{'d ('\'PII amollg' Chri"'l ian ho,t..; in IIII' lit'\\' {'apa,.it,\' of cI(.,tro
 fOr of 
1I10Ila...l('ri"..., so analog-OIh to :111 old 110111' ri(. :t\'lwatiou, Undf'rfOlaudin tr no\\' the 
{':iUSI' whi('h l'allp(l (.11' C:lht,.lIalt'tI \\ .l"
, If ,Ut'h thert' be, let u
 cu;:)t our eye..; on 
otlwr parts, alld prf)('Pf'c1 "xplorin
\\'riters of the mitldle a'!e- "'p<,ak \\ith at)miration nf the :uC'ltitl'('lUl"(, of many 
ahhey... \\F,l1iam of :\l:.lrll(',hIlI"Y :ooay:i of Tt'wkt',hlJry. .. 11"'1"(' j... tlu' .atc'ly ah- 
' hllilt h.\' }{ohprt. fo:on of Ilamon, \\ JIt'n' th(' hf'3111
. of th(. buiJdillg-:o; allcJ the 
('ha I'i I
' of dlc mOil k... PII<'Il'IIIL..; th(' P\'P'I of th O'l' t har ('Olllt> t hp!"t', :111(1 :,oothrfO t h(.ir 
milld,. "
hat shall I s.'l
' ," hp pXf'laim,. ., ClfThnrne.\' 311(1 flf tile h"amy of it"' 
tmildillg,;.. in whip\t this of il,plf i
 wonderful, how, among Iho";t' lakf'''' au,lll1:,r:-.}w..., 
it ..;holllcl re...t 011 S ,li() f
lIll1d:ltifln.. ?"t "TIIP sun;' :--ay..; Lf'lalld, ...peaking of I-' I. 
A Ibal1',;., " hath not :o'('''n pit h..r a ('ity gll fincl
' "f':ttt'd or a goodlit'r ahbey, wJu.tl1l'r 
a man cOIh.idcr the entlo\\'II1C'l1h, or the Iar!!('n('
', or thp ineomparahl p magnificence 

· vi, 

t \\ I. 
Ialm. de Gcslis P,)ntif. ,\Ui;hn urn, Lib Iv, 

AGE:S 0 F F A I T II. 


thereof. A man that saw the ahbey wonhl 
ay, verily it were a city, 
many gate:- there are in it, and :--orne of hra.,;
, '0 many t IWeI'6, and a most stalely 
church, upon which attcud tlll'ee ollH'r" al," :-'1 allding glorilllhly in one 3ml the 

an}t> clmrchyar1l, all uf pas..,ing fine aud l'Ur.OIl' wOl'kruall:,hip," 
In Anglll-SàxOIl times the monastery ot' lIexham exhibited the highp4 perfec- 
tion ofart, It, stones were finely polished, ih \\':111, :II},I ('olllmn... lofl
': amI it had 
tair", to the top of each towel'. Ed.ìill":, who had been at Rome, where he 
t. 'Yilfrid's lift', declare, that 110 hllilding on thi, side of the Alp..: W
equal to it. The sllpel'b arch, d (Ioor:; of 
[. Jo,eph's cHapel, and the pxquisitely- 
beautiful tracery still di
eel'l1ible among the walls, att.':--t what wa.-; tht 
::;plelldol' of the building..; ofGla
tonbllry" III the monaster)' of St. Bt.'rnard, UpOIl 
the heights without the gates of .8alaIl1allloha, is a spir'al st:.lireaise, which olll
touches at the hottom anti tile top. It was cOllstmch.d b.\" :J monk of the honse- 
of eminpnt :;anetity, and It is 
o soìid that the French :wd ElIglisl, earrit'd up all 
their artillery upon it. Charles III. 
ent archileets to examine it, who prmwllnced 
its cOlIstrllt'tion to be a work of art eX(,t'edin
 theil' illgenuity. 
The l'eligiolls order:" however, in the earlit',t agt's, \,'pre not amhitions in re- 
spect to :splendor of huildillg... "The alwipnt monks of our order"" :,a
's Trith- 
emius, "inhabited humble antI d,Irk cells; bllt theil' heart" were lw'id alld 
splendi(I with the light of Divine Ion'. alld illumine(l by the knowledge of the 
 :"*-a sentence which is cOlltinu:.lllr repeated in mona4ic writings of a 
lalt'r date. t 
The monastery which St. :\I
lI.tin erectt'd in a secret place two miles from the 
church of Tours, aud in which t:'iJ;hty di.,;ciplt's Iivetl with him, \\a.,; only a wooden 
building; an(l, thl'Oughout the ages of Í;,ith, innumerable religions hl)Ü":es were 
of the same character. SlIch was the AI1
ustinian convent in which LutÌler wa
profe.s..ed: the foundations wel'e hardly below the surface of thl::' groUlHI ; it hmi 
only a wooden altar ; the south wall \\'a
 three feet in height, the rest being 
formed of old planks. It was a true :,tahle of Bethlehem,::: 
En>n where the greate
t magnificence pre\'ailed, there wel'e many tl"3ces of the 
ancient :o.implicity. Dom 
Iartelle. on oCC3.-jion of his visit to Clair,'aux, describes 
the cell of St. Be1'llard in that abbt.y, huilt for him in his illfirmities hy Guil- 
laume de Champeaux, bishop ofChâlons, " There is no chimney to it," he says, 
" but under hi'" bed \Vas a gr'eal 
tone with hole:, through it. under which a bra- 
zier' us. d to be kinllll d without his percei,'ing it: for he would not have al- 
lowed his room to be warlU
d if he had been aware of t1wir intention, Ilis bed 
is still here; the room open'" on a liltle chapel, where he lI..:ed to ....y m3SS," 
5' There ha-; been lately erected in L,)mhardy a hOll
e of OUl' ordel'," :-a
's a 
Carthusian, " :50 rnagnificient, that many wonder 0111' order would arlmit it; but 

* In Chronic. Hirsnug, 
t Auùin, Vie ùe Luther. I. 151. 

t Acnales :x ovcsienl, ap. )!artenc, Vel. :5cript. i\". '}5 . 


 U H. E 
 V A T II 0 LIe I; U H, 

to fly the indignation of princl'..,-wl,ieh lIIight l':l,ily he ('\.('iled if any thillg werc 
()ppo:-Ctl to tllt'lII,-\\hen they build such hutl
.., "Ollie indulgence 
ma)' 1)(' matll'."* 
La 'Ian
",'halt' d' .Anert>, uneler tile Il1-."('n(')' of :\1 a 1".\' dt. i\1..eliC'i.., ot1t"l'l'(l to bllihl, 
tit hcr s"le ('}.p..'II:'"e, thel'imrc.1t fill'lhe ('al'lllelitl'S, ill tilt' Hilt' \"augir:ll"Il, at I'al'i.., 
prm'iclt" tht'
' would aclupt thl' plan of all :tr,.hitt..'l't whic.h ..lac admired j hilt thl':'L 
bumble mt'n l'ollsicler
1 tile pian tou mag-liitie'Clit fi"'llit-ir ordt.r, allll 
' rt'- 
1Ì1seci to a('t'í'pt her offer. Guel rcwtlrdl'cl tlw t'xae.t ob
t'/'\'alt('(' of hi... 
"rvalll";, :\1Id 
pl'Ocurcd tlll'm slich plc:ltiflll alms frulll th(' filithflll, that in a J('W }'l'ars thl'Ìr 
chureh was Luilr.t 
The mOl1astcri
 of the Capuchin:" whie.h w('r(' on tlat' same plan in .Ill ('I)UtI- 
tries, were always to be constrllc{('ù likl' tilt' huu,p:-. of tlw poor, of bth aud 
plaster, and uncarveù timber; to ('f)lIt:1íll nllt lIIort' thall tl'n m' hH
lvt' hl'l'tlal'lll 
at m04, it' unlt'r that tht, naif' ami IICII
' pe)\'t'rty Illid/t 1)(' ob..t'rw'tl with '11"U' 
p('dl.>ction 'allll Je...;s impt'dinwllt, :u.'('OnliJllr t,t rh., d . .ire of'St. Frallci:--.t To tll

 the worù.. of St. .Jl'rumc might he 
lppli(>cl : " In ('hri..ti villa tota ruslici- 
 est." fhe furniture was to ht'such as tile poor u..c ; and tllt'ir dlllr('lrt:- to be 
60 small :l:ti not to contain m"l"e th:1I1 fifty }wr..ct'\
. Till' ('on"'('l\t it
lf \\a'i to 
contain only 
mall pOOl' cell.., built wituout art or ht':lIlt)'.
 [n truth, g(,II('rall)', 
all that tI}l' good. monk a...kl'tl wa.... "a ..impl.. eh\,pllilJtr, where he might Sit and 
talk of tin)f
 allil chang<', as th(' world phhs awl Am\ s, hlmSt>lf Undl:LIIf.!l.J." ""hell 
the e)o
e and :-k
IIate of Y ('ui<.-'t> ,It':"il'pel that the (':apud/illi slaoulel ...t'I'\'C rJlt'ir 11('\\'- 
IY-l'rpdl>cl :--pl('miitl ehureh of tlrt.' hol
' :-\a\,iollr, built 011 the ('t'.;:'"ariol1 of tIll' 
pJagtH', it was n"('e:-
ry to !H'OCIIl"e a elet'rt'C r"rom Pope (; r('gory X I [I., 
ltlt hori:-- 
ing thcm to aL'Cept It.1I III the fifth anel :o.ixth l'C"tl1ril'
, Ùle monash'rie.. in gl'n- 
t'ral were Luilt without mtwh (.().-)t. S ,mt:' ullf'uhi\'att-d lawl, and 3 sm..lI, plain 
huiltling, \\ ith a dlapcl, :--ati.;fit'el till' fir....t wallL:, of IDf>ll who...- gl't-'at O'
(>c't \\':1:01 to 
makt> known the word of G d, anti to 
l1ldi(\' th"ir own "0111.. hy cOIUt'mplati,.n 
21m} laLor. "rIl CIl Charles tllP t'ighth, abb..t of Vilh r:-" C:IIJW in the 
.car 697 to 
that llaon:lstt>ry, he f.mnd thl're nC)thill
 Lut liltle th:at('Il('(l !anu' 's, and, a.. it \'ere, 
th{> huts of shepherù
 j and he first built there t\\e) tlormitori of ..tIlO<', ami 
mall." omt't'
Tht, (.ady mOJl
t('ries of I rt-hulIl an. I GallI oftI'll 1'f'Sf'1II hlt'f I thosl' of E
)'pt in 
I)rirniti\'e tinh'S, or which tilt.. ('l,ll..; WPt',. hut \\'neHll'lI hllt:-;, SOllwtimp' 
o low that 
011(> ('ollleillot .,tallel upright in tlrem,** TIll' alJ('it-nt ('hll1"('h nr the :Ibh(,.\' of (,i- 
tt'allx, eons >('I'art'd in 1] 06. in which :'1. 
t('ph{>n antI 
t. Alhcri(' wert' huri(où, W:'S 
not 1I10re tllall fifÌ<>en fpt.t wicl(', It h 1(1 ollly thl"pl' wind..\..,,.. in tlr(' 
n('t lI:lI'
and two in the nave, 
imilarh, the ori(rin:d (.hurdl of Clllnv was \"t'r\' small. 
. , h ... 

* Sutorus de Vita Carthusiana. Lib ii. 
 iii. c. 9. 
t Do!'iLhée, Vie de 
. Jf'an de la Croix, l.v, x. f ^'lOnl('c; Cap'lcinnrum. Rrl. an. 1529 

 Ihicl :ul. an. l:i

. Ilhicl. ad. an 1:;-;1i. 
· lIi,t. 
"'lcdi Vil1,lrien:l. i. 3. ap. 
Iarlcnc, Tl)l.::>, .\nu'. iii. .. 
ulpic. ::'CVI". Dinlo!!. i. 2, 

A (-;. E S () F F A I T II. 


ft'n did lIot po...tpone, therefore, holy pllrpo81's fin' \\"allt of monf'Y. St. Colli III ban 
wa..; 110t obligcd to rai
e \"351 slIuscripti"II:j bt.fol'e going 10 tix Itilll:-ielf to the \.08- 
ges, Riehe") were lIot w:lntillg to make sll(.h f. .lIndati"lIs. Hear how the nr-t 
Fr,llll.i...cans that calllc to Ellglaml were lodged. h Tilt' f..iar lIIillor:"i," 
aitll Stow, 
., first urI'iVt.J ill England, at Ð,)ver, lIillt4 in 1I1Imht'r; five of them remainell :It 
C'allterblln' amI did tlll'n bniM tilt' fir4 ('UIIVl'lIt of f..i;lr minors that ever wa,.; in 

lalld; the othel' ftlUr came to London, awl 10.lged at till' preaching friars Ihf' 

 of fifteen days, allcl thell hired a hnllse in Corllhill of JuÌln Trowel's, one of 
the 8heriff." They buil<.h.d little ('ell..;, whereill they illhahib.d, The de\'o- 
tion IJf the citizens towarJ
 them, awl alsl) the mnltitllt1e of friars :0.1) increa!'t'J, 
that they wer
 removed by the citizells t,. a place ill St. Xichola.; 
which ,John I wyn, citizen a1ld mercer of L'Hldoll, appropriate(l to the use of the 

ai(l friilrs, who becarlle himself a lay-brother." 
The cOll\"el1ts of S1. Then"',.;a wel'e placet1 whel'ever she could ohtain a spot, 
within four walls. \Yhile pl'opll,ing to commcllce tlIP I't'fiu'm of the Carmelite 
he set out, in the month of JUlie, to eX:lllliu p a hOllse whi('h haò been of- 
fel'ed to her for the pU'1m:::i1' by DOll Rlphael :\f..gia Vdasqm.z, She W:.IS ac- 
companied by one Ilun, and Fathel' Jill i:1l1 d' A \"ila. They lo:,t thpir way, ullI1 no 
one could direct them to the pla('e, ",hidl wa... calletl DlIr\"elle; the lIarne bping 
h:mlly known. The illtellse lwat relldel'e,l this the mo..;t paillflll of ht'I' jllllrney
At last, ahout night-fall, they arrived there, ami fimnd it a poor i:òolated pea:o'- 
tiut's hou
e, near a :-;tream, wholly unprotected from sun or wind. Thi:-, place, 
lle\'prthele..;s, wa.; sufficient fi)l' her purpose, and to sllpply all that was w:lllting for 
her fir...t monastery: :-ihe destined the p')l'('h for tlae chapel, the garret ft,r tilt-' 
choir, the chamher for the dormitory, afill half of the kitchen, when di\'ide,l into 
two parts, for the refectory. Such was the building that ser\'{
d fi)l. the cdt>hrated 
refcH'lI1 of this onlel" To this house retiretl Father John de 81. 
ratthias. with 
UIW laborer, allc1 they made the alterations :-,he poi Ilted out, living mean \\" hile on 
tlJt> aIm..; which people of the neighboring vil1age gave them. 
It was ill this hou
e that St. John of tht' CI'O,.S m:ule the :-,olemn dedication ofhirn- 

elf (0 tht' imitation of the slIfferings of Je:-;u,.;, putt ing 011 the habit pres('ribed by St. 
Tlwre:òa, and exhibiting a spectacle to the neighborhood whieh a...tollish,.d an,l ed ified 
all the people. To his poor cI.apel flocked crowòs ofdevollt }Wa-allls, who beheld 
e'"ery thing about him with :òul'prise and reverence. S1. Theresa 
 of this 
fimndation with rapture, " TIH' pov{'rty of thi..; hou,.;e." ...he sa.\',,;, "did not dis- 
plea...e the holy fathel': but, 011 the cOlltran" dl'lilrhted him. 0 Lord God, how 
" , ;0 
lit.tlt> capaule 31'e proud bllilc1ill!,!'s and external pleastll'cs to give illtel'nal conso- 
lation! I conjUl'e you, my 
, and you. my fathel'!o" to remain always in great 
dt.tachment with respe<'t to lIla
ltificeltt and ,.umptuolls hou
es, and to have alway
h{'f(u'e your eye:; the found{'I' of 0111' emler, who, by poverty and humility, arrÏ\,ed 
a' the:> eternal erý(
ymput ()fth
 pre,.;enee of God, In prt)portion as the hody has 
t<'wt'1' comforts, the 
oul reeeÎ\'es mor{' joy. "
uh'al1tagp call we (lerive from 


)1 0 }{ K 8 (' A T II 0 L I (' 1; 0 H., 

grt'at IHlileling-
, wllPlI OIU' ('('11 II1I1...t slifE,... II
 ?"* .N('\'crthdt d';, tilt' pil'ty of tht' 
f:.tithflll \\"a... s lel'llI1 :-ali:",nl'd IIl1til th.....e pflllr IIIOlla
terie:-, "cre Ct)'lwftoel at Ic.!:"t 
Oil a greatt.r ..('all', 111 16a7, this hllu,;
 at Dllrn'He was ('OIl\'t'I"te:Ù ililo 
1 IlIa
lIifieclll COllvellt, Oll
 of the most cUlllm'tÙillus in 01el Ca...tilp. It i.. a ma..tA'r- 
pÏt'('e of art, \\ ithout all)' profane orllanwllts. Thc ori
imll (.h.'p{'l, :-'0 p"or ill Il- 
:"t'lf, Lilt :",0 pn'<.'illu
 f!'Olll the teal'S whi('h ha\'e lw..!) :,,11"tl in it, i:", p"t'..crn,,1 iu an 
le of the dui..tpr. 
Such werc' the humhlc' he,
inllint"''';' of mall\" of tlU' mo..,t (.dt'hrnt. d ahl)(.\,s. 

, , 
" 'YolI(lt.'r not," 
a.\.; a lIIolla..tic hi...tllriall, "you \\ 1111 read tlli.., at till' COII
of our f..1tlwr:" who l'oll:stru(.tecl all the t'(lint.c S whit'h you helwltl wilh tht aim.. 
of till' poor. I t W:I
 IIlIt a killg, it wa.. IIlIt a ('IIIIIlt. or allY g-reat lI1all, who built 
thi:,; hilt it aro
C' :&llli(Jst PO\'t'rt,Y'21Ull tribuI:.tioll."t 
Killgs, howc\'('r, ditl oft(,11 fill' ..ue.1a pili'!>>"........ .J"hn Y"" Idllg' of POI tu- 
gal, during a dangl'rlln
 illllt :"''', "onc.(l to t'l'e<.'t, UPOII hi... n'L'O\'ery, a .'on\'('nt fol' 
th" II
C of tilt. poort':,t priory ill tll(, kin'!c1"I
: and finding, IIpOIi iml"iry, tIaat 
this wa
 at :\1 a fra, \\ ht'r t\\l'In. Frallci
c'all" li\'('(l tu
t'thl'r in a hut, Iw flilfilll'li 
his \'OW, hy Nt,t.tin!! tht->r(', ill 1717, tilt' prc...ent m:'gnifi(.('nt ubbc.'.", the F 'uris} 
of Portu!.:'al, a palat"C, a ('OU\'t
I1I, ami a ('hul'ch of impos;ng 1U.!!!lIitll(}(', in a blt3k, 
' cOlllltry, within view ('f the :"'I'a, ten mil(... frum Cintra. 
Bllt JCl liS 1"(':-'11111(' 0111' (':\.:lIlIinat i"l1 of tht' Illolla..tic IHliltlin!!:",. r II th
..efi....tuJ'\. of Clail'\':111.< \\"1'1'(' t\\11 ro\\'.. of pilla'", :Ultl t
Hlr row"" of table. Tlu' 
great had of lil.. monk.. of Caut('I'htll,y mea"'IIIHI pIle huudrc.l :111<1 filt,\' fi,.,t ill 
!t'ng-th and fc1rt)' in hrendLh. Thc rt'fi'('Í"ry ofClulI.\' \\'a
l.t pa(',,, 101l
alld twenty-fonr bl'03tl. Tlu'l'(-, \WI't' :-Ii:\. tahle... (iowli tilt' 1('Il!!th ami thrt'e at tht. 
eXlrt'mity, 1l:tIlH'ì
', that oftlw pn....i t Jc.I1,. whi('" wa.. I.i
ht'r tha" all the otl1t'r..., 
that of the 
Tc:ltcr prior Oil the ri
ht, an. I th:lt ùf the (,Iallstral prior Oil thf' I..ft. 
Thc wall... wert' be:LI1tiflllIy pailltC(1 with ...toric-.; IIlIt of tlw ()ld :l11ll X('w Tc..tauwut, 
anel with figures of the priuc'd,\' tèHllI<ll'r:-: and 1)(,"('f:lC'tut
 IIf ('llIn.". Ti'f'rp W;l'; 
:.1":0 an iIl1lll('11
 imagc. (If Chri!-t, ami a r"prl'-put:ltj..u of t\l(' la...t jl1ll
TIlt' n.fpd 1".\' (If the !!Teat :Ihbe,\' of:--.t. ..\Ih;lll'" \\:,... nc1ol'lIt'll with t", alld 
th:lt :at GIOl1l't.
tCl' with portrait, (If the kill!!" of Endalltl ill fr":-II'II. Ut'I Il'ra 11,\' 
....OIl1C dp\'ollt p:tilltil1g or it "r'ription o("('lIpi(...1 the rt'h
,.toJ'\. \\all-. In that of tl... 
COIIVt'nt of:"\t. BC'l'IIarcl r W:I
 ,.;trupk with a p"I'trait of:1II old mltnk, o pil1!! O\'CI' 
tl... pag-t.
 of BIlt->thillS, In that of th,. C:lrtllll
iall mOI1:1...t"l"," of C.tll'i I :-,aw 
pailltPcl in fresco a (JlI(,(,1I of 1"'1 am'(', :"'('I'\'ill!! clillll('I' t" tilt' 1II0nk.. with lWI" o\\'n 
IlalHls, alltl IIn<1PI' tilt' pic,tun" th....e wonJ.;, (( r p-a pi:ls rt>!!Ína t'plll:lb p:lr:lt, ipsa 
mil1i..trat." 0\"('1" tlH' dool" of tll(' rptN'tory of thl' J:r(':lt Domini(':tll ('OI1\'('l1t :tt 
Bologna. i.. this ill
c'riptiol1, which ùc..cribes the order to be ob...I"'\'cù tlll'rc- 

· P Do
ilhée, Vie d.. 
, Jean rle In Croi
. 1. 
t Chronic. 1Inri!!lIil\ct'l1si,. 
r"n. Lill. i ftr Duc1rr _ nl', tom. iv, 
t Chrollic ('luniIlCl'n,.. 



.. Ut mcmor vitre pie fructor orSU::5 iDgredere 
C't sobrius sUlliclJ:> illtus rcftcere, 
Ut Deo 6ratus psalleDs egreùerc," 

The !"ecund line refers to the l't.a1iillg..; \\ Licit took place (1uring dilluer; to 
which I\'t:s de Chartres allude:" writlllg lo certaiu munks ill thc"
 worù:-, " 1 
ay lUore, Lut thi:; i:; enuugh t
,r lhvse who daily heal' dIe sacreù ðcript- 
lire:; I'ead."* TLe historiaus uf the aoLJey of St. GaB exple:-,sly ffielltiull that 
,elections from the huly :::;cripture
, \\ iUI the l'OIllwelllS of the hu
'y father:"!, aud 
the history of J osephu:" were read e\'l'l')" da,\' at tat,le. 
Buihlings for ho:"pitality formed a large ponioll of monastic pilcs, The apart- 
ments for guests wel'e otten m:lgninet'ut, and in French ai, Ley:; were sl)llJetil1l
wail1:-coted with Iri:-,h oak, a:o; the ruom ill lIle palace uf King Charle" which 
wa:, called from it. The Ci
terciau... al ways had a Xeuodochium adjuini IIg the 
aI/bey, where eV
I''y one wa... rec...ived and relievt.'ù,t 
Thus we read. tlut Kill
 Alfou";,,, wisllin<,! tu ph..ase the )Io=,t High, at thE 
prayer of his sel'ene wife, Eleanor, built a monastery ofCisterciaus, near the city 
of Burgos, in a style of 
rt.'at ma<,!lIificpnc p , and Ilt'ar it a ho
pit:li, admirablp fúr 
 Imilding-s am) d...coration, which he so richly endowed, that ali traveller:" at 
allY hOllr (If the day, 011 :Ippl.\'iu
 there. were provided with what they want(>{1 ; 
allli every nigltt all who cho...e lIlight lodge t hel'e : and the !<'i('k were kept there 
till tht-'ir dt'ath 01' recovery; alld Ly Ihf' h:mds of women aUII nwn of merey all 
 nece::dal'Y were given to them,t 
The historian (If Cl'OwlalHl say
, that the \"ellerable .\.hhot John, in his last 
year..;, builr that 
olenJl1 and 
nmptu()lI:; hospice whi('h stands between the chtll'l,h 
alld the gares of the ahbey, in OJ'der that strangel'
 and gnest,; of greater dignity 
might be lod
ed tltel'e.s 
I" the account of the rebuilding of the abhey of St. Tl'on, it is 
tat('d that there 
wel'e within the ellclo.mre two house, of the pOOl', the one f(lr summer to lodge 
them, and rhe other fOl' wint...r, with fil'f>pla('('s tl) warm them.1I 
I n the mOlwstery of Durham there was the common hf)l1
e, to have a fire kept 
in it all the Willtul', for the monks to come anll w:lrm them:;:.elv...s at it, as they 
were not allowed a fil'e in their' own chambers. ., Be..;idt-s which thHe was a 
 house of hospitality, callpd tlJe gup
t-hall, within the ahhey-
arth of 
Dlldl3.m, on the we
t side towanls the watel', in which entf'rtainmellt was !!Ív- 
en to :Il! ...orts, nohle aw1 gentle, and of what de
l'ee !"oe\"PI' carne thither as 

tranger:" thpil' entertainment nor bein
 illferior to :111" pla<,e in Ellgland, both. 
f:'r_ tlie g-oodlH-'s", of theil' diPt, tilE' ,;;weet alld dainty f"rnitlll'p of theil' lu(1gillg, 
and generally all things necessary for traveller...; and with a11 this entt.'rtaillment 

Epist, cxcii. t Notit, Abbat. Ord. Cist. Lib. vii. 57, 
t Roderici Reb. Hispllniæ, Liv. vh. ('. 3-1. 
 [ngulphi Hist 
I Chronic, Abb, S. T/udonls, Liv. x. ap. Dacher, Spicileg, vii, 


'1 () I

u q" 

tht, nWllks cOl1lm:lIl1le,luot any UIIC 10 "t:'part wltile he continned uf honc...t alill 
good bcha\'io1', Thi", hall i... a bOlXlly, ura\'e pla('c, like Ullto the bod)' of a church, 
:-upp.)rtt'd 011 
idler side U)' \'er}' nllc pillars, and in the ll1ill
t of Ih
 haIl wa
largt' rallge fiJi' the fire. Thl' challlher
 alld loJgillg
 bdollgillg to it Wl'n' richly 
fUI1\1shed, e:--peciall)' one called Ihe killgs clm,1l11)t'r,
t'I'\'ing that lIal1le."* 
.\t (;}a
tolllJl1ry, th" gothic 110:;lel lx.lollgillg to thc altbcy, ('aIle') th., ahhot'ò 
illll, fur pilbrilUs, still c
i8ts. It \\
,1' the accomruuJation of pe..
 \\ ho coultl 
110t be Iltd
ell wuhin the abhc)'. 
Though we l)t-fi,,'(> had (J('(-a..ioll to speak of f.'cdcsia
pitalit)' ill 
\\e ('all11ut \' thc 11I0Ilastt'I'i
s \\ ithuut bril'fly rel'url iug 10 it ill rdèlt.ncc tu tlu" 
dlarity ot thc religious unh'rs. At dlc mOlla:-.tcry of Xitria, 011 u muuntain turt)' 
milt,., fÌ'lJlIl ...\le
alltlria, there waö a h.. h,l e\'t'r Ol't'll for btranger.., where tlll'
l1Iight remain two 01' three Y
lb, or a.. long a.. tlwy wi..I.....1 : 0111)' tilt' fir
t \\cd\: 
('oulJ the)' be without employment. \..ft,,1' eig-ht da.\:- tlw)' wt're I"t.'tJl,in'Cl to \\ Hrk 
el tllt'r in thc gal dell
 or ill aiit' ba kdlOlI
I', HI' tu a
..i:--I in ..i l11!i U r the Onil'.'. HUllk::) 
\\"t're kept for the leal11t'(1. Sw,ll \\"a.. tlU' ir.t1ueltt't' uf lIIona
tic I'o....pit;dit) ill tlae 
hrst ages, Iha: it was tl.e C.'u
tom C\'('II f
'r the c..iti,æn.. of Oryr)"udlll--, whue 
('\"cry sU"3.n
er Wa
 received a. a brothcr, to kl'f'p \\atc!1 at the J!:lte-: f
,r pour pil- 
gl'im:i, to invite thelll to tl.eir hou.. ..... llCJ
pitalit)' W:L-i thus pr:,disc(1 by the 
lIIonks th.)fl) tIlt' p:lrlic..t tiIlH..'S, 
III thc twelfth l't.'lItnry, 'Iath('\\' wa:-ö ahl.ot of .....t. ,Mal'till-l'-Champ:--, at 
Pari.;, the ho:-opitality and cI.aI'ity of tllat mOlla:-ötcry were mo."t rClilarkaltl\.. .. [t 
arded," we 1'(,:,,1, "as a killel of ('Omm'lli a...)" I 11111 ahove all tLu..c of FI'aIICC 
I1' hi-hop:.:, althot:" lay lIoh}Clllell, Dl'lIlk.., ('Ierk
, and pOllr pt'ople, The hOll:)t- 
\\:1.-; always filii, aUII every olll" \\ as r('('pin...1 with :l 
miling CulilltcliaIlC", which 
no importunity oftl.e crowd..: c"uld t-'\'t'1' ultcl'."t "[ftl... IIIlIlIks," :-a
tI Pl"tt'r 
tlae \T('nerahle, h were to \\a..h the ft.,'Ct of all the :-tlallg(Or.. that ('om" t., CIIIII)', 
:mcl to pro4l'ate tlaemse}vt,-; ht'{;.re them, they could clo n ,thill
 else frollt 
to SIIII:--et, ',"p do what w(' can, E\'('ry clay we W:l
h the rl"Ct alul halltlso( dllee 
str:.m!!'t>rs, alld otft'1' hrm.J with willt',"::: 
.\t Chllt
. thert- Wa... no POl"tt'., pl:I('('(1 at the brat,o; for thp 
ate" ",pre alway" 
Opt'li to (,\"t'r
' olle f,'om ntornin
 till ni
ðlt, al,,1 8tran
('rb ha,1 oilly to ('ntl'r, ancl 
thcy t
lIlI1d C\"CI')' thing pn'p:lrt.,1 fi)l' th"m,
 In ahb 'y.., however, wlH'rl' there 
wa.'i a portf>I', his dnt
, wa... to 
h()w 1)(>nigllit)" to all <'0 111 e 1':-1. " To all strangf'l's 
at thE' g'atc..; of our ell \'('lIt...," :--ay the eOIlHtH'lItator,-; 011 the ru1e of ::;t. FraIlPi:" 
"0111' fl'i:lr.. IIIU..t 
peak ",wt't-'tly, p\'ell dl'ludl tlu" ppr
0I1o; who come tlu-re he 
1'11<1(' :lIId importunate; fi)l' thoug-h Ollt> l
llII()t al ways 
i\"e thell1 aIm.., 011(' e I n re- 
fuse ill...11I witla gcutl(,lIe..s; anti, it ih {'Cl'tain, that a swept wonl e(lith':-, :--l'culars, 
",'bercas, the rude reply of one portel', or other friar con\'e..
ing with bl'cular

· Ancient 'Ionuments of the monastic church of Durham, 1
t ßihlillllll'c ('lunillcI'u", ;,:)-t. f=-'. P.'t \9"11. E .,j<:t. Li h. j. :!

 (b. Lib i.

\ l.t E:::; U F F A I T 11, 


candalizc them greutJy."* 
t. I3clledicl in his rule reC]uil'pd the porter to' 
be all old ami wisc man, mature ill mallner-,t III tact. nu une dis.Jaint'd the uf- 
tice. St. Villiuald, ii'om ucing dean, wa.. made porter of the monastery of)fount- 
Cas..ino, without it:; beillg regarded as a derogatioll. This was h" wbo afterwards 
preached the gospel through Bavaria, and died a holy death in 787,t The Bene- 
d ictilles were al wa)'s tl'l1e to the hu:::,pitable charges of thei I' grt'at fon tHler. 
" I cannot speak in ðl1fficient derail," says Orderic 'Vitalis, " of the llO:'pitality 
of the monks of Bec. Let one ask the Burgulldians, Spaniards, alld other per- 
sons who come from far an(l flt'ar, and dIP}' will all:,wer alld :-.ay truly, with what 
benignity they us\,d t) be receive,l by tht' religious, The gate of Bee i..: open to 
all travellers, aud 110 one there is ever refuse(l bread, 'Vhat shall I add? )Iay 
fIt> who has begun, an. I who entertains the goud which :-,hincs ill tht'llI, maintain 
it UlitO th"ir arrival at the pOl-t of sah'a1 il)n."
The abbey of 
IOl'ba(', in a it-arful desert, used to be called " 'Tivarium pere- 
grinol"lun," as Dum :\Iat'tene rPllIarks. It i-: sait! that 
]al'tin, abbot of Alue, in 
Hainaut, having placed over the gate of his mOlla:-'tery the foHowiug line, with 
thi.; punctuation, 

CC Porta patens esto nulli ; claudatur honesto." 

was oeprived in consequf'nce of his dignity. In certain monasteries of Italy, be- 
sides the usual hospitality, tilt' ahllor had alway:; thrt'e poOl' per
olls at Ilis pri\'ate 
table. The rector of a college at Rome arriving at Sllhiac(t, anll finding no room 
in the inns, sent to the ahhot of St, SeilOlastica, to ask whf-'ther he f'onld lodge 
fi\",. of hi... 
tudellts. Tlw ho
piblljty of this hOllse must have )'f':-,embled that of 
Phæaeians, who, a.; Homer :-:ay
, u:-:ed not only to receive eYf'ry one cuming to' 
them from east or we--t, bllt fUl'ni
h tht'ID with an escort, and youtlls to cOllduct 
them, and mpans to enahle them to continue their jOl1rne
' ; ftlr the all:,wer of 
that holy man wa::. sent back along with five horse,.:, to carry them up to the monas- 
'Villiam of l\Ialme..;hury recor(ls, that, in the monastery of Redding, founded 
hy King Henry I" fOt, m'lnk
 of Cluny, it being a great thoroughfare, mom 
m()ne\' was expended in ho..pitably entertaining pOOl' guests. than in supporting 
the whole community of monks, [n another monastery, there uSt.d to he more 
thal1 one hUlldrt.d tahle5 laid t>ut ill one day.1I In 1310, an abbot 1!3ve a f..:t8t to 
six thousand glw
tS, for' whorH were prepared thr'ee th"u
:m(l dishes. In the 
monastery of ,-riJlel's, the kf'Y of the cellar usel1 to be plaC'\ d ill a (.Jeft ill the 
neighboring ro(.k, and whoever wanted wine illig-ht there take it fc)f' hi!' lIe('e...- 
 In the year 10f>8. the \"'I':,b]... F:ltllPr Ahhot "Yl11ketulus g-ave to the 
mona..:tf'r\' of Crowland. tllf' {'hapt.} of 
t. )IaI'Y. at Sp:,l.lying, with all the 
buildings helonging to it, to defray the t>xpen,..e of Iwspit:llity to the pOOl' aud to 

'" Loui.. de Pnris, E1:pos. tit. In Rè!!le (1es FF 
lil1ellrs, 3, 

 Lih. iv. . I ll'llhnd. njl' 11 .T.m. ('. vii. 

t C. ß6. 
 Hist. CI\!'sinens. 
.,. His!. IlIglIl!1hi, 6ft 


 U RES CAT II U LIe I; ù H, 

the rieh, of whom there wa
 gcncmJl.r therc a gn'at conconl':-e.* Similarly, the 
4.'hllfl,1a of IIcscl W3:i to he a:-,
iglll'd by Pope I nnOl't'nt I I 1. to tilt' prior .md ('an- 
on:-, ofliishorlle, bl'eall..t' tlae\' gin
 to c\'ery olle askin!!, ami apply tlU'ir J,:ooel
pitalit)" with bueh z('.ll that 110 one depart.. from tlaem ('mpty-h:uult'c1.t TIU' 
ugcr prO\' iÙt'cl fi,l' the cxcrci-ic of a Illo;:,t illgellillru; awl 1I1'f'(lflil hosl'italit\, ; 
1;11' he e..tahli:--hl'tl 1\n.1 \"e mOllks in the prior)' of bt. Dt'ni:-, who Wf're houncl to 
Clltc'rtaill three convertecl Jews,! 
Olle call readily tlIu]"r:"tanc1, from the..e ùetail.. that larg" provision wa.... Dc'C('!o.- 

ary to meet such delllancl.. Upoll mUlla..tic ht'üt'\'olcIlCt', 
incc the rcccptioll of 
...trallgers within religious hOl1S
S \Va..., II. t to rto' .m1> what the poet 
peakb of,- 

"--prompt, hut cold; 
A loveless service, buugbt Rod øold." 

1 It'nct', in the ce])ar..: of thl" ahhc.y of ('îtt'all
 tllt'rt \\el'(:>, in 1202 twenty thou- 
:-and nu.'asurt-'S of wine, c'Ia..
t'(l a('eonlin
 to till' 
Wl':i of te'n, fift('t"n, and twenty 
; and there Wt-'l'C ampi'ora
 of hakl' lea,.1I1, c'omaining \\ int" (If Clovolljca 11 X , 
\\ hic'h cbtl'(1 fl'Offi tlae prmchillg ..Æ "'t. B"rll
The :-;are:t:4i(' inf..'rcnc'e \\ hid. dll' II\IHh.rn.... h"l'ncrally (.Ira\\ from heariug 
(Ietail"i midlt 
lIg're,.;t a painfllln.ße'dioll lu're, \ lC'inoll:-i, whilt. cutel,taining 

, add.; this eneOllnll r "lIlt'nt t.. his invitation to feast on- 

-- õcppa Kat ã ÅÀCù 
Û'1rYS ;,pwCùv, OUI\.EV 60ìS I v J.lEyapol61Y 
6alvvY1raplt 6'Ù r' å'\e
at 60161 r/I(.E66,Y, 
-YJJ.lErip"S åpHi;s J,lEUV"UÉvoS. 

Ala..... ! nature seemi to have d"
lIl'(l :'\ince thO"l' time'...: for the monk who 
now rec
ives a strangt-'r to hospitality might adopt the conver:-ie of this invit..'ltiou, 
alld sa)", " Eat anel drink, that )'ou may proclaim to your COlllltr
'm"n, when )'Oll 
art' at tal-It' in your own hoU5c with yoU!' wife amI C'hil,lrell, that diP monk i al- 
's what the PII3ri"l't.'S saill our :\la";ll'r \\':\-4,-'a drunkarcl ami a glutton !' " 
Pi:'\i:-;tratll,"; 'i:tY
 to Tt'lt'mac.'hu:-, tlaat a gUt-':-it ,'pmemhers all hi8 days the ho
bl, gifts of 110::;t-l.1I The gll

ts of 1ll'"lk.., in lll'l(h'rn tilllt':-o, have furui:-ttCel all 
{'xccpticm. Capefigue 
pf'ak.. ironically of the SWt'et life re:-ervcù fi,l' penill'nt 
l,arOils in Citpallx and Clairvaux, anll 5 em.. to think that, like Home.'
 ht'ro' , 
the mOllkH were alwa)'s at tahl(', and that dwy did or :-aid nothin!! until tln',\' 
hacl sati:-fil'(l their mintls with c.ating amI clrinkin
: as if ('very minutp ODt' might 
:-ay of theDl- 

01 6' 11r' òVElafJ' lrolua 1rpol(.EiuEva xdpas i"A.A.oy. 

ù Grand d' Ans.
)" att
lcks them with gr('at hiut'l'Iw:-,,;, in :t long chapter upon 

· llist 
IoD, Yillariensis, Lib. ii. Pro}. ap. 
Ialteoe, Thea, Anec. 
t Epist. Inn. Hi. Lih. xiii :! t L '11I'1If, 1Ii..1. dll mAcèse de Paris, iiI. 21(J. 

_ ell' 1'.\" ('ltclLm;, Bih. 1111 Hi" ap. C,lpef1:.:-uc. I xv. :)4. 

AGE:::; U F F A I r II. 


iI1UCt::::! alld ragouts. It is in vain to expo
tulat\. with such a(h"crsaries, who ('311- 
Hot be made to comprehend what were tht' {'OIl8u!atilln:-; of faith. But the truth 
is, that the prllvision made fur the mllnks wa:s (If a differcut kind: their (laily 
bread was nut what men of thi:; kinù ;,0 greatly e,tecmed ,-\\' hat flulller ealls th.. 
medicine for grief; that which induces forgt.tflliliess of all evil,; sllch wine a... 
Hdell poureù out to Telemachll"', whieh co 11Il(llIi'pd all desire of weepin
, even 
though oue had lost a ílther, or a mother, 01' had 
een peri..;h before one's eyes a 
brother or a deal' s'ln,-but a ehaptt'r of the Imitation, more efficacious to COIISII!l. 
their :õpirit
 than all the mixture:, of Egypt, 
Perhap:;, however, it lUay UP well to ob..erve in conclu
ion, that, where mOllk... 
were not bOlllld to exel'(,ise ho..pitality on this scale, there \\as nothing in theil' 
8tore-rooms that could excite ellvy. In the first general cougl'egatioll of the Capu- 
chin;;:., in 1,')29, it \Vas decreed, that never more than provi:õion for one week was 
to be laid up, and lIothing Leyond it wa
evel' to be receh"ed in alms, No i'uper- 
iur wa
 to suffel' any ca..;k of wine to be in the convent, but only an open ves
ur jug, containing what wa:s llece:,-
ary. * 
The philo::iophers of old It:sed to have the images of their ma
tel's not unly 
painted on their walls, but also graven on cups and ring::" and other objects. 
Thll:;, Pomponiu
, that he had ever bef(lre him the image of Epicurus. t The 
Christian sages of the cloister, ill like manner, loved to be 
urr'llmded by memori- 
als uf the :o:LÍnts, to remilHl them of the deed.. and :õaying5 of the f('iellds of God. 
To monasterie3, the('efore, came the ar15, which illllslI'are all the l'choes of the 
human world, which tell of sanctity and jU4i('e, and mild compa:õsion, " progell)" 
illlmortal,-of painting, Scnlptnre, 
ic, :.lwl rapt Pw:'sy,-swif[ shape
:-;onnds, whi(.h gruw illo('e filiI' :.lwl soft as man grows wise amI kind." Our ab- 
beys, even in their l'uilH'd state, are often 
till " populous with can Y e<l imager.r,- 
beauteous, holy 
hape..:,-w"o:,e marble smiles fill the hllshe\l air with everb:-:ting 
love." They are deserted now; but once they bore thy name, 0, Prill('f' of 
Peace! In the fifteenth century, when the heretics broke into St, Gall, they loaded 

ix wag-(HI:õ with the wood fragments of the images, which they burnt in a 
tire that \Va..; ft)}'ty-tlll"ee feet broad: tho..:e of stone were carried off, to Le em- 
ployed in making wall..:; and those of copper, which were tht' work of T'utilo, 
they bl'oke to piece:". The ('hoir was s11l'roun(led with exqui:õite ('al'vin
, which 
they demolished, The wall...; of the <,hurch represented, in paillting, the life of St. Gall 
t. OtIHn
u', which they wltitewa:-:hed over. ...\Ian)" 
ltl)t'rb paintings :stood 
O\"PI' the different altar
, amI malH' curious work
 of ancient art surrounded theru, 

.ll_ which they destroyed. The ruined ahbey of St. Ri"-plier i.s .still full of emblem- 
culptm'e and im
lges of !"ai11 ts, with repl'esentation
 under each of some 

cene connected with his life. The wall:; are curiou:-:ly painted in fl'e:o;co, repre- 
senting historical event
, with Ìn:o;criptiol1s benp
lth, hilt in a character so ancient 

>5 Ann. Cl\puc1I1(}fum. 

t Cicero dt:: Finibus, Lib, x, 


)1 U l
 E::; C \ r 11 U LIe 1; U H, 

that illY tlupra('lis,'d eyc ('lIlIld lIot .lcl'ipllt'r dlt'lll. Xothillg- C:1I1 <<,'{(','ed the h
of 0111' Lady':"> l"hapd Ldlind tIll'l'hllir. 111 tlat' (.hllrt'h art' /llany alral"s, 1I\'t'l" I11I1..t 
of \\ hit'h art' rCIH',':,,>.'nt<.d :.;aim.. ill th, B('n,.di..tiul' habit. 
Bllt let us eOllt l 'lIIpblC the hou
 : hat escaped the <li
lI'o)'crs hands, IIII\'\' 
111:111.\' stllric.., pictlll"('d on tIll' ('Iuistcr-\\alls il1 01.1 Toledo! ho\\ lIIallY I1I1.JI'I' tht' 

 of III. ,ua:,:(('l'it,s in dlt' dt'.... 'n, fl'om f./rgot tt'll book:o-, 01' from lip.. IIIII
!:'ilcnt in thp 
ra\"e! \Vhat an h :--tOl'l(' :IlItll'eligioll" intcre..t bt>111I1g.. to t].t':-'('o}.1 
portrait- uf t: Itlullprs au.l hcu,'fH'tol'- whi,.h are fOlIO' I ill ahheys! \\ Ia('re tl.(')' l't..... 
l'all, a... at Halite I'i\'c, the h"I'"ic \'il'tllC:i IIf a COUllt \\'ïiJi:1I1I tit. lìlalla; or, a:-, in 
tile nOllllllieian I'onvent at ßulugna, tlll' l'III11111'n .n('t' of tht' ;1I1
t'li(' .1lwtor! III 
dIP abhey of Ei/lsie,Jelill one StC.. pailltl'(l th,. Elllpt'loI'
L IIt'Il1'
'. with 
t. Yolf- 

allg, his IU'P('l'ptllr, a f(u'lIIpr lIIonk of tilal hOIl"", 
t:lIJ(llllg hy his :-.idt., On hi., 
left i" l'l'prc..cllte(1 St. Gt.rold, who f1'lllll hei n\r a !u'iu" bt'I'dlllt. a hermit t hCI e ; 
alllilleal' him are COIiIlOII alld Ulric, lai.... tWII :--1)1"', "hi) cOlibull'Cl hi:-- last days hy 
pllttillg on the cowl. Th
 illtt'rp..t \\ hich mall
' great artist.. f..1t ill"rie
('ol1tributNlrn fill th('rn with paintill
", t"\'
n \\'I\(,II the mont,.. tht'm
,ln's did not 
ta!..t' lip tht' Iwncil. Thus we filltl tht' frt'=-- '01 s of Pinttll.i('("hio, alld a pi(.tllre of 
thl' Blt':.;..:{'(1 Yirgill by I.ßt'ollanlo .It> \'ïlll'i, ill a l'orridor of the doi,ter of 
On II ph I'io. Simibrly, Do III ill i(' Ghirlaluhtj'l ha\'iug an t'
I)C("ial "em'ration CII' 
the ordt-'r of Dominican.., it was in their dmr('h of 
:1ut:t 'Iaria-nm'pJla, :It Flor- 
t'II('C, tllat he h:ul pai ntRel h;s rn:lst erpi(\('e. His f:lIni I y h:u 1 tllt'ir hll rial t hl'l'e. 
His SOli, l{od'llph Ghirlaml:tj'l, h:ul fdt the r'ull 1'0\\'1.'1' of tIll' pread.ïlw of Sa \'0- 
narllla, alltl hi' tlc\'lItt'd his pcn("il to t ra r.... III it Ilis pat .rual trallition of art. GhiL"rti, 
the most allci
nt historian uf alt in I ta).\', "pl'ak:o- with c11Ihllsi
1I1 of n 
composition with whi('h \.mhro
' dt' LOI't'nZ<I had ('o\'cn.J the \\'all
 uf a doi:o-tt'r, 
in which hc rt'IH't'Sl'l1It'd du' life of a Chl'i=--ti:tn lIli....i..nary. Úne saw, at first, a 

'olllsg man taking the hahit of a IllOllk ; thell the' :o-:lnlt' entrl':lling pcrJlli
to he sent, alollg with otllt'r... of rll.. Lrl'tllI"t.u, to 6\:"i:J, 10 ('lInH'rt tIlt' 
ara'sin" ; 
th,'n their depal'tur'e, their al'n\'al II c: 11' the ::)1I11:IU 1 who ortlt'r
 tllt-'111 tn be 
scolll'alred; tht'll tll(' li!-'wning people; furtlwr ou, tilt-' 
lIlt:1II ('t)ndell1l1ing them 
tu die; tht'ir dt'('apilatioll; :tllll, after it, :t horrihle tPlllp.''''. h,.fure whi,,1a \'a:;t 
trt'e... art' bl"Oken aud to.... up h
, the r'oots, ",hil(' tilt' peopl... fly in tl'rl'Ol',* 
I n the f"ef('ctory úf the ('OB\"'/lt \If 
an Sah'i, (1)(' lIIil... from Flol"t.u('p, there 
\\ erc paintt'd, hy \ nd rl' (I... thrto, ti!!"I'e.. of s'lint,. :md till' L'l:iL ::;uppel'; an.1 
it is rt'('orll('(.1. that, (III..ill
 tht> ""I'Î!!P in ].')2!t, whl'n the Flort'11II1lt... Wl're ohlig-cd 
to clt"moli..h all buildirJlrs in that p:ll't, \\"11,,11 tlwy ("1111" h"fm'(' tisis 
reat frc
tlJ('Y "'('I'", stl'uck (11I1llh and Illl/tiolllt',.. wit.. :ulrniratillll. .\t th" ('IJlranee of the 
tl'I' of tIt(> abhe,\' of ::;t. y. nnp, at \T ('l"(lulI, Hum \Iart('fl" r(} a paint- 
 of tIlt' EmlH-'rOr 
t. H"III'.\', whosp alltI pikp \\'I,rt> :-ötill pl,,
t'J'\' ill th
tl e.1;,1I1')' tht'Tt', offering to submit hi!>. ('I'II\\,II an(1 ";('I'ptn', :11)(1 dt'lU:ll1ding the 

· Rio de )' ,\ rl. ('hr("f. 49. 

A H E b 0 F F 
\ I T H. 


religious habit from the holy abbot Hieharù, who cummawls him to l'esurue the 
,"uVerumcllt of hi..; :-tate::;, with !h
:-c ver
es :- 

.. PertæstJs regert
 I1enricu,", venit ecce regendus, 
Vult utrumque ahha,., nempe regendo regi.". 

The paintings in the monastic churdlt-',., wt:'re often 
ingularly imprbsiv
, from 
the les.;ou the)' were dcsig-lIt:'d to (,OUVt-'y. III the abbey of Eiusie(lelin UIIl' Lord 
is l'epI'esente(1 sayiug to Zacdlælls, "Thi
 day I will lodge ill thy house,"-to 
prepare men fi.n' cornruuuion. Tue pl'Orui:--c of God to .\hraham,-" Facialll te 
ill magllam gemem,"-is made to ilUlit'atc the propagation of the Benedictines; 
and the alliance with 
uah,-" Fat' tibi ..ream et íèedu..; punam Lecum,"-the de- 
li \'erance of thuse who embraced the monastic :o'tatt-'. U\gel' the 
a('ri:-,ty, llleeknt & 
is represented by a symbolic fi
ure, alii I on the ceiling the \'erse of the Apll- 
calyp..;e, .. Around the throne were seated twenry-four 0111 men, ('lothed wilh 
whi[t.l, and wearing crown
." Here the sWllrd is only burne as a :-öigll of martyr- 
dom, as the unly blond :,hed hy those who oeat' it was tllt:'ir own. 
III the ablwy of St. Deni" wa.. a mystic painting of St. Paul turning a mill, 
aud the prophet.; carrying each a :;ack to it, to i'ignify his office of inteqn'eting' 
the Old Test:ullent. This ahbey itself, wiLh its imager')', was, likp mallY others, 
hi.;t()ry anll theology, Tlw historical portraits fi.'lmd in nwna..;terit-'s, wpre I.ften 
tlepply illter'. Thus in the cloisters of the Carmelitt-'s, at FI()r
nce, tlwrp 
was a great painting hy )Ia,a('cio, repn:'senting a proct'&;ion, at the end uf whieh 
were introduced the. ffio:-t illllstriou..; personagp:o' (Jf Floreut't::'. 
In the convent of the Celestin
, at Pari
J \\"a... a ('I,apt-l f{mnded by Louis d'Or- 
leans, brother of Charles VI., in 1:
93, in which all m
mbt:'rs of that fiuniJ)' \\"Pre 
represented in robes of ceremony; and in tbe cloisters of the Carmt::,lite friary, ill 
the place 
lallbel't, the famil.v of 
t, Louis were painted wearing their ('Olll"t- 
dresses, Dom Pt'z doe.; not disllain to in
ert among his historical documents tlw 
ins 'rip,iol1s uud
I' the 1c)1I
 of p,Þrtl'aits which are in the monastery ()fClall
enblJl'g, repre.;entin
 the ancipnt mal'ques
es and dukes of Austria, of the 
liue uf B;lbellber
, with tht-'ir wives awl daughters t Bm ir wa=" sacred pictures 
which the fUqna..;t....ries po-:s '

Jtl in greatest number. The monk:o' felt dt-'eply that 
art is gOlllike, a hranch of the (livinest studie
. One holy brothel', lately in the 
Escllrial mOml.:;tel'y, a
 a modern poet tell
, " G!lidin
 from ('ell to ('ell awl 
room to room, a Briti..h paintpr II.ft not un\-i,.:ited a glorious wOI'k, our Lord's 
!1ppel', f"om the hand of Titian he:mtiful a..; wllPn fir,.;t it graced the refec- 
, . 
y. Then', while both :,too<1 with eye
 fixed upon th:lt ma!"terpiece, the holy 
fit.thel' in the 
trangf>r'..; par snoke these wnr41
, 'Herp dail.\" 410 we :o'it, thank:, giw:,u 
to G041 for dailv hrear1. and herp, ponch.ring the misphipf..; of tlw.;:e l'e41f'
s times, 
and thillkin
 of my hr'ethl'ell (Jead, di
pers(-'d, orrh:mgp.] allll changing, I not sel- 

* V oYllge Lit. 9.). 

t Pez. Rer'. .\ liS!. 
cri pI. tom. i. 

1 .).) 


(lorn gaze UpOIi this :"olenlll company tI!lIUO\'l'C.I by .,hock uf circumstance or lapsc 
tlf Yl'ar'
, u!ltil I cannpt but bdit.\.c dlat tlu'y-tlal')" ar{' ill (ruth tilt' !"ubstancl', 
\Vt" till' 
hadtl\\':"','" ::511 'l'akl' th,. mild .Jt'l"Ollymite, his grit,,'., lIH'ltillg- aW:JY \\ illt. 
in him lil..t' a (l1't'all), en' ht' had c
r...t.d to 
az(', I'l'rllap..: to :'1" ak : " \Iul I," add:; 
the poet, 
l'Own old, hut in a happit"I' lalld, .. h:t\'c to \',.1"1' <'oll...i
n('d tl1o...(' hcart- 
moving \\ortIs, word..; that can 
ootl1t" 1ll00C Ih:lll the)' a
::5tiH monasterics were nllt to he :H"ul,'mit's IIf ar'l, u:, till' philo",ol'llt,'r.., nf tit 
clulstcr failed not to ri.'milltl each oth.'r from lime to timp. a.:; if to guard a
tht' t'>..a

"r:rliun which th('y fort's'I\\ mi!!lat tll:-l1lQ, ,. It m'ry hI' \\"..JI," ...a.'"
II ugo (If ;,t. \'rietor," that mOllk... ,dlO chn.1I ill citic..., to wi 10m th.. c"I1.Þw,l-I uf 
people n'"'\urt, shollhllaa\"c the lh,li
ht of pailltin!!.., ftu' th(' sirupl,c ty of thll" \\ ho 
an' IIOt dt"lightt'd with thc 
lIb(ilt)' of tkril'tun.; but t
lr who art' plt'a....,(l with 
r'olitmIc, a hOI'se or an ox is 1I10rc u:o'cflll in t'lt. 
elcI titan on tilt' w:l11. TIlt' Oil" 
 tile t'ye t he other's In i II istl-'I' to 11'.('('....... t.'" .".... 
I. Bf'l1IanJ 011 olle ()('e.I
('\'l'1I l'omplaill
 of tht> grott'
'llic I-'t'lIlptlll" t
ÞU1ul in 1111-' doi...kl'
. c. \\'hat," Ii. 
exclaillls, ,. is this ridiculous 1I10n:,tr ...ity, thi:; t'l'rtain .;;trang'(' tlt.formt'\l It 'aut
and Iwautiflll deformity? '\11Y arp thc...c Ull('lcan apt.... th<'l'
? "
hat :Irt. tht.
, thN'c mon
? \\"hat th....." half-lUt'n, th
 spott..c) pall- 
t}WI'S, (hest' fi
hting "arrio
, tht'sl' horn-solillclill
 Yon ('an 
I'e un- 
der 011(-' head mall
 hodie" anti again on Ollt> bo(ly mall)' 1lt':uJs, 11(,1',' a tlu:ul- 
l'uped with tht> end ofa :-erpcnt; there a fi..h with the heacl of a <l'ladrup"(1. J Il'r' 
a bea..t with thp fOl'l'part like a hor'
I', and thl' hin,l like a goat; therIa a honlt'd 
anilllal, half-hol'
e, bo man.\' amI :--.1 'trullg'f> art> the forll15', that one is more 
tt-'mptl-'(l to l't'at! ill marltle than in hOI\I
s. an,1 to p:I..
 th() whole (Jay in :ull1lirin
tllt'"e thin
...,"t III t:rct, t'\'('n [0 Ihe ol
('(.t:-, whi<'h wert' cxprt':-;..]
. (,11' utility, th"n' 
was gcnerally a ('t'rtain lwauty or curio:;it \" i 111 parted, The ,,('ry elo('k:o; of ahl)('ys 
wer'e ofi('n pro(Iig'i
 of art. That of f;la...touhury. ru:ule h)' Pftt'r Li
Þot, a 
monk in the fi"rrtl't:'nth cPlltur
', t'xhibitl'd 011 the dial, divi,led into t\\Cut.'"-f.,ur 
hours, the diurnal and lIo('turnal tillie. "itlr tll(' solar, )un:lI', 31)(1 otltl'r a
nomic motions, whilc figurc::s of armt'Ù knigh on horscb3cl.. wcrt' :",f'('11 ridilw 
about in aU directions. 
Oflhl-deep rlpnholi<' and l'I'li
ious imager'}", lpúJJ'å'YTlf allv/rotS, \\ hi<.h (,OVt'N'I) 
tlH' wall... of mona...t(>rib, it woultl he (liffipult to filrm all iùea without )ong oh"'PI'- 
\'ati"n of the RnciPrH l)IIildill
s. On Ollp portal. in Fr'au<',', i
 1'f'pl't>:o-ellh,d rJU' 
whole hi...tol''y of man from the crc:lt iOll , (0 tit.. la...t jll.J rnlf'nt, a<'<'onlillg to the 
Clrtl,'r :tdoptl'<! by YillCt'llt (Ie Bt.:t1I\.ai.... ill Iii... 
Iirror of tllP \\'01'),1: fill' Ilwr'e i
t-t't!II, a.. Didron "f.marks, the crl'ation anù tlw nhli
atioll of l113.n to lahor tlu'oIHz-1t 
the t\\,plvp mllnth... of rile )'c.rr, all') thi" rpl......s'llts Ihf> spP<'llll1m natllralf>. TliPlI, 
wen h:1\'in
n, nm
1 rig" a!!3ill hy :",ci('IJ('(>; ,hpl"f>fol''P, in atl<litioll III m:wllal 
bhol', tIlt' 8t'Vf>1I )ihpral :lrt
 are :-cen, alld thi., l'orrt':öpOIHI... to tilt> 

* D., Chm...lru .\nimæ, Lib. ii. c, 4, 

t S, Bernard, Apo,"g t,( Guillcl. c. xiI. 

A ü .E::) U.F .F.\. I T II" 


doctl'illulc. TIm.; man knows j but he must make a good use of his knowledge; 
then'fure, ill the lIext plact', are 
hown virtue.;, :,ocial, dOIllt'stic, and imt'I'ior. 
Among the first are rt'ad libt'I'ty, promptitude, frielld...hip j 31ll0Ug the 
set'onll all Iwu'l'h"lJ. virlUl'
, repn::5 .nted b,\" women a'l matron
 working j 
amUJlg the thir,l, faitla, hopf:', amI dmrity, a
 al"lo the cardiual virtue...; am} 
thi:; c"rrc
p()lIll... to the Spt'CUhllll morale. La
lly, man thus infi)rmed, pro- 
ceed-5 to act, allli hence are 
hown all tilt' per
 of the Old and Xl'W Te
ruent eudin lr with a re l )re...elltatioll of thE.' emi uf the world in the tiual judgm
nt ; 
anll this an,...\\.el".... t,) the 
pel'lllull1 hisrorale, A
 in tht.sp 
clJlpture"', cOlltaillillg 
3000 image
, all this is showlI only in brief symbols, tllt-' whole i
 ùe\'elopt.d at 
lenuth on the :5ta.illt',I-da:3.; willdow,... of the church in 6000 fi
l1re:;; :-0 that u"tll- 
ing can exct,t'd dlt' 
ralldel1r of Ihi
 !'uhlillle poem. )Iorl'over, the jn
conveyell hy the 
epal' part is a')JI)irable. '11m..; in ail reprc
elltarions ofCher- 
ubim alHI Seraphim, the one {'anllot be disl ingnished fi,olU lite otht'l", for the rea...ou 
that. luve alld science wel'e deemed inseparaLle, .\.gain, tht' blood flowing from th(' 
Lamb j", pourell upon the mm'tyrs, to 
how that the shedding of tileir own would 
be of no u\"ail without that uf Je:5u=-- Christ; and at the Jast jud
ml'm, th" Christ 
appears without pity; he :;hows his hauds piprced, and repf:'ls all with ri,e 
tadt', E\"l\11 his bles,ell mother alld 
t. John appear afraid. St, 
Iichael weighs 
the soul..; the season uf mercy has past; it is now that of justi('e. 
From all inspection of the lUonasterit's, it is clear ah:o that tht' poem of Dante 
eXt'rcised a great influpuce on art. The nine cirde:i of hell were represented in an 
abbeJ' (If Friuli, and in the's of the Oli,'etans, at Volterra, 
\\''ith re
pel't to the hallds which execlltell these paintings in {'Ioisters, we may 
observe, tlut the 
l'eatest number were either the work of the monks them:-;t>lves, 
or e):.;e the pious ofle/'iu:; of :.IItisl
, and sOllwti me.; memorial:; of their g/'atitu(le ; 
as when Rubens paillted his great picture of the adoration of the 
hepherds for 
the Franci..c.:ans of Sois..;ons, to show hi:-; sen
e of the charity they had exercised 
towards him (luring hi.; sickues-5, when on his journey frum Antwerp to Pari
, in 
1622,* "Ttli
 year, 895," say the Corby annals, "Theodegarins, our 'brother, 

a\'e to the convent, to be in memory of him. our Lord's Pa
sion, curion
ly de- 
pided with a pen, an artificial work a(lmirecl by all." From hrother Conrad of 
\'Îelllla, :,a.\'
 altllther Illonasri(' diar
', we l'pcpived some soh->mn picmre....t Paint.. 
illg and sl'nlptUre were lIot, howP\'pr, the only medium of in...tructioll in the adorn- 
ment of cloi
tel''';. In
{'ription.; ft'r the 
:lmp purpo
p WE're a1
0 generally u
,. U pOll the waIl
 and pilhr...," 
 \Vepvpr, relnting' the df'strnction of thp ab- 
 in Englanll, "{'Pat'tain lnSl'ript-inn..: n":f'd to hp painteò or engraven, whi{'h 
being hnlò"n to he 
. WPI'P thpn df'fa{,p(1, "':l..:lwd over, .or obliterated. 
TIm... ullder the b1e..:sed Trinity it h'1(J bpen u
l1a1 to read, 

· Hist. ð.. Sois!:()n
.. ii. 


f'{'rol()!!. R. H V P. '[innrnm Conv. Vienn. 
TI. PC'7. Script. RH. A l1!:t ii. 


I 0 I: E 
 C.A T II () L I (' I 

() l

.\ve Pater, Hex ('r
ILlor. I\\"
 fill, lux, 
A \". pux ct ChKflt.ab 
A vc simplex, 8\"''' Trint'. 8Vt. rcgnllns ...iue fine 
L Iut. summl\ Tflllill1S, 

And nn(IE'I' tilt' (,l'tII,itix, 

, QuulIlum pro noLi::. Chrislus tulit C
El t.ullcn à lachrymis IlI"u lumiuu :-Ieea It'UCD1us.' .,. 

atl' as 'ribps a pious i IIspil'atitlll, whi('h :"n
g't.-t"d to h 1111 th... ('om ptlsi t ion u' a 
hymn on the pas..;ion, to his h:l\'iIlK J"t'ad 
ilUilal' lillt... ill :111 ahhcy wllt'n a 1>>0)' :- 

," "ïthin fifteen, holding my pa"'
Middle of 1\ clnisler, deplcl up'''' " \\ "II 
I SIL\\ I' crut'Ìth:. whn&:' "ound... \\t.It' nol t-mall, 
'\"itu this word vid
 written lbere "('sÍti
I Bdwld m) meekness, cbild, anù h'svt, tll)' pride.' .. 

John of "'lwtltalllstf.>cle, the learuL.J ahh"t of 
\lIlall\" ill th.. rpiJ!n of IIpnry 
YI. alU"n
 otll"1' illla
e.. :lIul OmanIt'IiIS plu('('d in tilt. dmr('h 01 that al>>l)(')' 
tilt' fi
UI'('s of cpr[ ain Iwatl..'tJ phi 10SOp)U'I':", \\ ho had h'::otitÌt'C.1 uf tht, i lIt'arnat iUIi of 
t, alld limier them thpse lilH's- 

.. Istae qui gratlieris hos I('st
 si m
Credere vim polel is prolc& Deus c!\l mu1ieris." 

fhe wans of that ahbey were co\'('rPt) with ('urillus paillted im
ger}', and al:,o 
wi.h piou.; in..;eriptions in 
oldpII chal'a<'li't
, "'l'(,\,..'r g-i\'P
 tIlt' \'('rSt'S insC'l'iht'd 
in tire ahhot's lodgin
, tlro
.. ill [he walk I...,t wet'll hi
 (,h:IIIII)('I' :11)() tilt' hall, tlro:-{' 
in the willdnw.; of [he abbl)1':-; lihl':ll')', tho
(' ill tilt' ('haml...,.. mljoinil1
and tllo...e upon tilt' I'ouf O\"
I' tilt' t'harl<'cl. 011 om. wall wai wl'itcn an admoll- 
ition to prjnl

II N()n hene conCf'ssum princeps rt'git ille DUC8tu 
Con<'Ïlio pI nCt'rum qui non rcL,Ïtur 81\pienlllm 
Judl'\: qllILml() ,....dl'S cave,ls nc jura f'upinf'8 
Jure quitlt.rn Irtuiito. Plebs Rex c"I, Rt.\: sine regno." 

In one windnw of the libl'at')' was writtf'u- 

"Cum 8tudea.s. vi.leas, ut sit virtu8 et boneSl88 ; 
HiC', f't ubiqll
 tibi fillalis cnusa studendi." 

's, cc that on tllP d()o
 of tll{' abbpy chnreh of!:';t. HeuiR, on whiC'1r W('I'E' 
rt'pl'(,Sf'lIh>d tllP pa.....ion, I'psnrr p ('tioll, and as<'cnsioll of our 
a\"iour, tial'
e \'('1':-,,':- 
werc in

· Port8fum quio::quiq f\ttnllcre quæris honorem, 
AUlum nf'C FlumptU!ll, opf'ri
 mirare lahou'm," 

· _\ ni
cnnr<:c of Funf'ral )1'HlUnH'lìts. 

A lj .E;:, 0 F F A J T 11, 


Nohile claret opu
, s
d opus quod, uobileclaret, 
Vlarificet ment
1iI \It ennl per lumina vera 
A.d vemm lumen, ubi Cbristus Junud verso 
Quale sil mlU8 in bib Ùt'tl I"IlIinat ourea porta. 
':\[cus Lebes uù verum pcr lUiLlt'rialiu surgit, 
Et demersa prius hne vi!<:i luce resllrgit.' "$ 

:5imilal' inscriptions, suitable to the offiet' of l'a(,h p1al'e in the Itlona.-;tery, were 

ellerally found. Thus in the alJ
y of 
l, 'llut-Ca

inu, over the place fur w
iug, were these liues- 

(, Ut (oris ohlectet nitor bunc decet tutus baberis, 
Sj IUR men8 sorrlet quid erit si laveris ora 
Aut oculos, puro cor'de lavato maUu8,"t 

Before the cro:;:s in the ('('litre of the great hall of the dead, in the abbey of 
'Cîteaux, was this inscriptioll- 

" Hie deponuntur monachi quando moriuntur, 
Hinc aSSllmuntur animæ sursumque def

In the cloi:;lPl' were tlwse !'olelllll Ver.5e:,
 reminding men that the form of this 
wurld was passing away- 

J undus abit. fortis sirn, non em: sim speciosus, 
Non ern: sim dives, nou em, mundus ahit. 

Iundus abit. non Christu8 abit, cole non abeuntem,"t 

In the palace of Lucullus the apartments were called after the names of the 
god..:, .Apollo, Jupi
r, &c. In the monastery of St. Benedict the chambers are 
di:;tingui:5IH-,d by the names of saints. Pa:o;
ing along the corridors in the con\'ent 
of the Franciscans, at Loretto, I observed over the door of each ceIl some piou

Ilce from the holy scriptures, or the writings of the fathel's, Sometimes the 
tradition re
pecting him who once inhabited the cell sen'ed'ad of any device, 
a8 ill the ruom tH'xt the library in that Dominican convent of St. Ago!'tino, in 
which Albertu,.; 
Iagntls lived fur a while. To walk through the Carthusian mon- 
tery of Calci, among the mountains of Pi
a, and mark the inscriptions which 
are presented at every stt'P, i:, a ltst'ful study in ítseJf, and the words se('m to come 
with '\ greatel" force than they CGuld from any book. Ovel' the entrance I read, 
" Ingrediatllr gens justa custodiens veritatem ;" at one end of a long corridor, 
" PO
lIit eos Delis in Para(liso voluptatis;" over the door of a cell, " In 
dine bnni mores virtmesque omnes disculltUl'." 
Iost of the lines, however, are 
nemorative of OUl' Saviour's pa:,
inn, or taken fl'Om his last sermon; and one 
feels that one is in tlw house of his d('are
t f:ml1liat' friellll
, who cannot rest with- 
out having his sweet image and hi:; divine word
 ever before them. But it is 

* Sug. Lib. de Rebus in .Administratione sua Ge:o-tis. ap. Duchesne. iv, 
t Hist. Casinensis, t Martene. Voyage Lit. 219, 


)[ u REs CAT 11 u LIe I; U H, 

time t,} I'epn.::c after thi
 long ins!H'('tion, .\Ircad,\' from thp e 6r:,t glanc('s \\ C ('an 
umll'r,..taml 1Ilf' justice of Dom ,Martene's IIh"cl"\"atiun, with n'
p('(.t tl) th
h'ry of 
t, Remi, at Hheim..., ",Iwn 1)(' !'a
':-;, "th:lt (.very tinw fl
 \,isit.. it, he 1"('- 
mark..; "'oml'th i ng new that had pl"e\' iOIl..1 y ('
('apt.d his nllti('t'." ::)0 it if ill gt'n- 
('ral with all th
e ancient ahbl'Y";, where th(> friell,ls of God may justly :-,a)", that 
tllt.'Y livp at peace in splendid Pll\'erty Yes, till' inl.:cription in th
 cllIlr('h uflhp 
 Ileal' Pavia, " Nirni..; honor3ti 
lInt ami('i wi Dt'I1!-ò," t'xplaim: 1111' mag- 
Ilificenee of that in('omparahle mOlw
tl'I'y, and t'xIH'(':.;-es th tl'lI(' r('a
oll of the 
grandl-'ur and heauty of an otlH'r:ò. AmI, in t.'fll'(>t, \\ ho ('an ('ea
 t(l admirc the 
grandcUl' and the be.lIIt,)' uf these hol) I'etl'eals, \\ lH'rc cvcr}" thin
art &IS well a
 nature secm
 ('ol1('('ntmh'() to \\ ail IIpOI1 n'ligioll? "llat n trillmph 
fill' nil that \'alllt' inh.l1ectual 
ood that tllf'l"c shonld hI' tllll:'; aln.a,ly a happy t'arth 
when> men of good-will can (,I
I)Y a fiH"t'b..t. (If t 11t' ('alm of Il('a \'(,11 ! tlwt for tllt'lIl 
thpre should be 
uch a pure dwpllillg-pl:we, wh('t,p thcre i.. a clllic,t .ICIIIII vuic'e 
ofsl)hpr r('a::;nn ill all the part", \\hich l'eaC'IHs thp lIIoSt tl,oughtle:,.. eal', c, while 
e\'c'r) shape anil motif> of mattl'r Icnds it
 ftH'('(' tlJ th(\ omnipott>IIC'P of milld, 
\\' hi('h, fmlll its dark mine, drags the gem of truth tu dl'Corate this pal'aùi
peace. " 


TERY, vicwcc1 on its hf'roi<' !'i(lp, wa... a great <,mmtr.\" m
01' :mce
trall'al:lI'e, :tlltiqw.' :md \'cllel'ahle. filII of c'harm..; fc'r tho".. \\ ho 
ha\'(> an owl-likE' '()IIdn ,', f
)r old wall..: alld i\"y, fllll of (.urillu.... mCIll- 
OI.ia::->. r..taillillg tradition:, frollt th" "ld"11 tituc, alltl h"a,tin
 of an('estor
\\'ho ..h,.d an ('t..mal 1"""0\\'11 IIpon 1IH' f:ltnil
' whieh inhahit(>(l it. lIo\V 
wOllld an ordinary hOIiS' Im\'f> 
..d()1'if d in ha\"ÏII
 fclr its fimlldel' 
1I('h a 
hel'o aC\ St. '\ïlliam, ,,,,hll":(' ahhe'.\' in thp de'-;"lt yet heir.... hi:, llall1e? Ordt'rie 
Yitali..: 'a
'q, that thi!' glorious knight wa
 tll(' theulP of mill
tl't'I!-y with t}lPJ"D- 
J!leur..:. ntH'atp} h:ls di
('()\'t'r('(l an oici 1'1I1I1:1I)('E' in thf' hOllor ,lidded illto fcll1r 
. tl'('atin
 on 1IH' c'hildhllod of " illiam, tlH' c'oronatioll of Lp\\is, Ie charroi 
isllle8, alld the mona
tiC' liff., If' moina
c of \\ïllialll, 

j '" 
l \ g 

! 1 

)[nult C
!'ItUÇli filAn("tc' C'hrél i('ntéc:: 
Tf\nt fll en It'rr 1 C"I'I'
 f'Ì('UX e!-t cflurnnnés · 

Every kind of 
Iory. in f:,('t. shcI) lnstrp lIuon the memory of many fcmnders 

.. Lon!!lIt'\"al, Hi-;t. de l'F.!!i...p, Gal. \" 122. 

A ü K::S U l' 1'..0:\ 1 T H. 


of abbeys in the middle ages, whose merit could IIl1t have been exaggerated hy 
the gratitude of their re"pectiye communities. Charl t 'llIagne him"'t.lf, in a certain 
('hartel' [() the nlOna
lery of St. Berlin at St. Ollie I', boa:;Ls of his heillg of the 
linl.age of its foundc!'. "Et 1I1ouiam," lw says, " idt'ID sanctns de genere 1I0:;;:tro 
:he dignoscitlll'." Aud 110 Ìe"s honorable to it wao; another to the !'ame church, 
in whil'h we fhul Rolan<l and Oliviel' lIallle<l a..; witnc..;se!-'"* "'cll might the 
mOllks of Bonlancollr, in tht' dioce"e of Troyes, {.'steplIl as a glory theil' pOí:'
of many charts fì'om :-ouch men as Ilw 1:)<.iJ!n p urs of Joinville an<1 Villardouin, who 
had bpen the oenef:letors of that housp, which they enridwd with many reli(.s that 
they had brought with them from dw f>a,t,t Iwlepelldl'nt of re1igious grounds 
the monks ill gpneral seem to evin('e towar<l..; their f(lunders that kind of revel'en- 
tial gThtitu<1e which Homel"
 men So invariably cheri:-:h f()r their bellefactors, as 
when Eumæus says of his old ma,ti'r- 

ròv /Ûv iyrlJV, c:; 
EÌVE, lCaì OV 1tapEÓVr' óVOJ.UX
ElV alðÉoJ.,lal. 

One is natul'aHy led to take thi
 heroic view of the monastic in
titl1tion on being 
admitted into the tI'easl1l'Y of 
m abhey which contaiued often so mallY titles to 

uggt-'st 3n(1 substantiate it. 
Having ,pen enough now of tower:; an.I ('olumns, of wans an<l gates, let us 
follow this good mOil k who is about to 
ho\V the ancient e:-5timable thin
s pre- 
sel'ved in the most secret recessps of hi
 hou:o:e; fOl' Ihe spectacle will he curious 
and in
trllctive as well as religi ll l1s. \V e fir
t have to pa
s by the costly deposits 
which appertained not to hi", ('olllmnnity, for !Ouch wpre often :fimnd in monas- 
teries, as at Rheim!":, in the 
bbpy of St. Dt-'lIis where the public money and also 
the silver and jPwels of pri,"ate p"r"on:-; n";t'd to be plal'pcJ 
)r security in the hands 
of thc abhot and mnons pxclu,ivel.\', who :dout-' had tIle key; 
md a, at Durham 
and at Strata Florilla, where tllf> gf-'ntry of the cOlilltr.v kf-'pt their deeds and gen- 
, the rl-'gister
 of thfJir' h:'pti,ms and m:llTia
e", in the 
rdli\"inm of the 
mOllks. Lupus, ahbot of Ferrel's, wdte, to Hi]dain, 
, " I do not \\ onder 
that yon ,holll<1 have thollght of committin
 yom' t.,'paSlire to our cn.;tü<ly, since 
you did not know the sitllatioll of OUl' mona
tpJ'\Y ; hut if 
'ou hall known it you 
certainly would not hav{> }{>ft it with II
 tltrep d'I\Y";: ; f.u' thollgh tilP a"cp!":", i
ficult tn piratps, to whom, fOl' our sin
, no lpn
th of ')i.;t
l1H'e is Inn
'f't the 
s of thp placp. alHl th
 small nllmhel' of nwn fit to J'e.;i4. kinòlf's the 
avidity of the rapa(.iol1'-:. f'sppf'Í:llly a
 WP are slirrolllHlf,d with woods through 
whi_ch the.\' ('an f'a.;ily es('apn,"t Lpt liS pxarnine th'It nal,t only which C'Olltains 
the pl'Opt'I'ty of the ahl'ey, and Wp shall find that e,'en the monastic trea,;ures par- 
took of an IIonwric charactpr- 

* Chronic. 'ronß.
t: 8. Bertini, p, ii. cap, j, c, vii. ap. 'fartene, Thea, Anecdot. iii. 
t DeEguerrois, Hist, du Di"cèse de Troy('s, 289, 
 Lnpi Epist, cx, 


1\1 0 RES CAT II 0 LIe I; 0 H, 

Gt'm!!!, nuu"hles, l"nrJ, picture!!!, I!ilver, precinu q Vl'

Suut qui DUD l1abcliDI. t::!ltjul UUU CUlet l1ubcre, 

The monks, :md in a
es of faith, m:lU)" of tho..;p who \'isitt'(1 them, verified 
the latter part of this line, "'lu'n Pope Pa"C'hal C:lI11P into 
"Y the dll'un- 
, he visited tilt' a1.b..v of 
t. nenis, whc,'e hp wa... ret'{>i\'{>tl most 80lemnly j 
but a wOIHlel'ful antI mpmol"ahlt. cxample (li,1 he le:l\'e Oil this oC(':lsioll to all pres- 
ent and future, for he did not dei
n 1'01) muph a
 to look at pith"I' 
old or !'il\'er, 
or Ornament of preci()l1
 sron('S, whieh :lre in tllP a1.I)(',", hilt only prostratetl him- 
self d"voutly alHI wepl ht'fore rhl' holy 1.Otlit,
 :IS onf' wh.. uff.r d himself wholly 
to God and to hi... saint..;. * 
 rt'a()('r, ne\'ertnelchs, cvpr SO dc\'out, I do h.....rech him now tl) 
raise up his Pyp
 a little, alHI "'Uf\'ey with me for a mom,'nt " ha
s of fi,.rJ opal.., 
sapphire.., am('thy4..., jaC'illth
, hartl topaz, gra"s-
I'een emf.raltb:, hf':mteoll"; ruhips, 
spal'kling lliamoncl:.:, alltl fj,ld-,,;pl'n costly 
t()ne..;, of 80 rrt'.H priee a.. one of them 
indifferently rakd may sen'e in p"ril of caluuilY to r,m
()m grcat kings from cap- 
" I delight," says Carlbn, "ill littlf' instrul1l"nt.; ofin
enuity, in gem
, in \"('-1- 
sels, in brass and !'ilver (':l11i
tl'rs, alill in gla'i"; 
,"t He wonl,l he delightpel 
here then, where lIt" would find SI) nnnv e.xqui...ite thing
 lik.. that t'hali('.e in the 
tl"('asury of St. Gall, e"{ clectrlÞ, mim opere, or those ('Upi in that of St. :\IauriC<', 
compoæl of agat .s al1tl'; thuugh :,outh, at first, notwith..t:uHlinp- the an- 
. of!'o profound a philn:.:(,phcr in fa\'or ofthcm, one l'anntlt hilt wondl'r t,) find 
such objpt'ts in !o'liPh a plat'p; f.)r thou
h they flI't' :.11 
jft-, Yt't h('ing as nn...uitahle 
presents to monk., a..: hon;c... \\"oul(1 ha\'e heen to th.... 1)1 int'e of Ithac:t,: the qu .-tion 
still recur
 how earn' thè
' Iwre? Thpil' intrÏn...i(' \'alrlt', howP\'cr, explain'i tht> 
difficulty; for that rendered them, it \Va8 thl)n
ht, worthy ottt.'rill
s to tf'sti(\' the 
piety of the donors. Thus C'athf'rine of LorraillP, wh,) IH'pf,"'rt'(1 tlw qll.11ity of 
Benedietine nun to that of wife or the emp"ror 'h
a\'e to the Bl'np,lic- 
tine monastery of the holy-:òaC'mn1l'llt, at S:uwy, which 
IH' foundl..l, all th(' jew- 
els that had been given to her hy prin,.t.s. I do not deny, hut imnwlllorial cn
fl.n(1 tracp"\ perhap
 of anC'ient mallllf'rs, to th.... inflnf'Df'e of whi(.h, in 
umf' .1<"rn>t:', 
men, in spite of them:,elves, continued t,) be suhject. may !o:OI1lPtillle..; have dictatRd 
thp choice of objects. The usual 
ift;; hestowed hy Ilnmpr's hf>r'
'" t.) tlwjr pa1t- 
ing g'np
9 werp goldf'n cnp.;; 3.n(1 gohl('t
. '[f
a\':" he will gi\'e rclelllaclllls 
the 1l1000t hf':l1Itifitl nnd honorable prf'sr>nt, a cup of silw.r circiM with gC)ltI at tho 
brim, the work ofVulc'n; alltl then hp melltion
 through ho\V m.l1IY prin('(.h, 
owners' hands it has pa
;;('d to hi..: own.
 In mml.l
 wp find Clip" anel goh- 
 thu.:: pre
ented, :111(1 a careful rpcortl kept ofthf> hi..;tory of ea('h. Thus ""it- 
, king of the :\[er('i:lIl
, in his c1ml'tpr to the mona...tery of Cro\\" land, in S

· f'hronique q ,Ie St. D('niq. Rd f\n 1107 
t iv. 

+ Hipr _ C',rd. de Vita PropriK, Lib, ii. c. 8. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


among other gifts :o;ay:;;, " I offel' to the refectory the horn uf my tahle , ' lit ::,cm;es 
mOI1:t;o;terii bibant inde ill fè,.,ti-; S:lu('t l )1"um, et in sni
 ht'ncdictÍollii>1ls mClllincrint 
ali(lll:llllio anilllæ c.lon:ltol'i., \ritlatii.' ,,* Chal'1e.; the Bald" gave to the ahhey 
of St. Denis Ie Hall:!}> Balomoll," 
upp()scd to have bclOIl'rcd to killir Solomoll 
Ü ð , 
" whi{'h is of pure gold," says the chronicle of St" Dc II i... , "aud of tille 
anll fine grain:; so marvellou:-;Iy worked, that ill alllhe kin
dolUs of th
there wa
 ncver so suhtle a work."t 
The hallap which the sultan of Persia, Aaroun, 
ent to Charlemagne, was in the 
abbey of the :\Iadeieine, at Châtl':llldun. The abbey uf St, H.i(l nit'I', ill tlw cighth 
cemury, pU.-;:;e,S.,ed thirteen hanaps, In the abbey of Stavclot Dom :\Iarlellc saw 
a goillen cup, which \Vibal\lu:-; had brought fl'Om Oon.:itantillople. TIlP,.;e cups ill 
,'el'y ancient times were u:òell on great occasions ill the fcfedo)'y, not for the pur- 
pose of drinking to the sainb-:.l custom anathematized by the council of Names, 
I Iincmar, archbishop of Rheims, writing :tgain:,t such a profaD3tiulI, alld Charla- 
ne prohibiting it in his capitula.riest-but for f
stivity at great banquets, 
I:mch a-.; Dom l\Iartene de..:cribes as havillg been given by the Lal.\" awl lwmble 
ahbot of Om'by, in Saxony, on the day of his own arrival there, on occasion of 
the dedication of:1 chapel, when he remarked that whenever the abbot drank tu 
the health of any ont-', the person, whatever might be his rank, stood up while he 
 The use of such gohlet..:, however', did not e\"en imply so much of 
fe,.;tivity; f"r Salomon, ahbot of Sr. Gall, who died in 920, who u:;:ed to drink 
only watel' at lI)e:ll-tilll
S, drank, nevertllf'les
, ont of a heavy golJen goblet, set 
l"olmrl with jewels, cmTespondi ng' to the ha:-:in in It is hed-cham bel', whieh was a 
mO'3t exqui..:ite work of old Greek art. In thp treasury, moreover, the 
 were also placed; respecting each of which there wa:;; often some curiouE 
hi-tm'y 01' tradition. Let u
 take an io-;tance: In the time ofhle;;;sed Henry, em- 
peror, there was in Gel'm:my a ('el'tain blind man, who, hpin
 moved by what ht> 
hcal'l) preacheù, t hat he who left anything fm' God, should receive all huuò.rcd- 
foltl, notwithstanding the remon
tl'ances of his wife, gave his ('ow to diP puor. 
S )011 aflenval'ds, going a.
 usnal to matins, his f()\)t struck again,.;t ,..omething ; so, 
 down, he found a bag on the g1'Ound, which \Va-- !'>Illatl but heavy. On 
 home he gave it to hi
 wife, who opened it, and f(mnd it was full 01 
gold; part of which she kept, cafl'yin
 the rest to a 
oldsl\1ith, who purchase() it 
from her, In'eteu(Hng that it was only bras
, .No\\' it happened that St. Ht-'nr.\' 
carne to that city at this time, :In(l one of his ser\.ants lost a gold spur. This man, 
 for the result, went to the 
ame g,)ldsmith, and pureh:Jsp(1 f!'Olll him 
an .
her in its stead. The emperor, howevel'. pE'fcE'iverl that one of hi
 spurs was 
IIP\V, ami inquired the {'ause, when the whole history was brought to light, as the 
ent for the smith, and inquired respecting the quality of the gold, whICh, 

· Hist. In
ulphi, p..9, tAd 1\0,877, 
t Le Grand d'Aussy, Hist, de la Vie Privée des Fl"ançois, iii. 316, 

 Voyage Lit, i, '>:17. 


M () R E 
 CAT II 0 LIe I; 0 H, 

anl)I' hparing the stor
', Iw condlllh.d wa
 celc:-:tial. Takil.g the gold from the 
hliml wan's wifi.', hc 
a\"c them in ex,'hange f.,r it the \'iJIa wilil,h is now c.llled 
HHI of the 
()Id he t-an
CtI lO be nude an ill1m('n
e ch:di<<'c, with t\\O 
h:llullt's, \\ hi('h hc gave to tllP t'llUrcia of hlc....t'd LallJ'l'Ilct', at \y:-ot..tlt; alld \\ ith 
thi.; cha.lie' Illa:-,:i u..;ecl to h" otlèrecl ftu' tile cmpt'l'or's 
uIII after hi:-, ù('ath. Thi
 :-ohawn on{'c a Jpar on )!allllliay-Thlll'!;day. * 
The ancient ex votn
, could the history attat'hc(1 to them he all known, \\ ould 
lwa !-otmly ill it..:clf not a little CUl'i()u
 anti l'{lifyin
. Co I rt'lUt'ml)l'r," :-3)'S the 
hi,.;torian of the ablx'y of 
["nte S
rl'no, or I., IUt"I'bt>I'
, c, h:lvin
 ht'a:-d one of 
0111' brt'thrt'n 
a)", that the pt'rson who hr.uwht till' :-ih','r ..ilip, and otJered it at the 
altar, mentioned at th
 time that Ill' ha I b,'en dpll \'ereel from a grt'at tern p '4. "t 
IIow m:tny affecting memorial'S of he:n'PII's llil'rt'Y alHI uf man's illjll:o.tce are 
trea..un',1 h,'re, coliM we hur re 1<1 tlwlIl ,'i
h' ! hilt tilt' my...t 'ri()u
 talc is only 
half-disclosed, ami S 'all,d is now (':teh lip that eoul.1 1I:L\'c t"ld it. 
The riche
 of the mun'Is' l'ri,.
 in platt.
 al'o.c rNIIl till' prodi
i()lIS q lIantit)' of 
gold :uHI silver whi('h t'xi.tL.J in tile mid,tIe :lge;:;, a Ilr
e pal t of \\ hicla p:I&.J to 
thl'ffi in the way of offl'ring", fronl till' dl'\rution of till' lay nuhility. fIll' Comte 
de li'oix, in 14.,}7, gave a ballqllPt, at ",lIit'h wpre twch'e tabl("i of s,'v,'n S('rvic
('adl, and for l'a('h :o-cn'ice them were 140 silv('I' pJare... Lc GI':l1II1 .I' \'IH,Y re- 
markM, that I.,'mis XIV". c ,,,1.1 ...h,nv Ill)rhin. r ('o'llpar.ihlc t, th" ridl":o:, ill tliiR re- 
spect of Kin
 Charll'''' \...., an in\'pnt"ry of whU:)t> plate still t>xi..t"',
 \Vht>n Louis- 
le- GN,.; tlie,I, h<' lpft all his !!,ol(l allli ...ih-"I' plat" to b,> distrihut...1 ;IlliOllg ùif- 
fprent ahht'Y
, Philippt'-,\u
lIste by hi..; I:I:-,t will It'fr to tile abl)(')' of 
t. Dpnis 
all his jewel:" prf'cioll,.; stom'
. and t.r.'....(.:i org"I.J, 011 conditioll that tw. nty IIJllnk:i 
should tlrt're daily :-,ay 1IJ:l
.; ft,r hi..; soul. rhe cllriOIl"" drinking horlls aUlI va:o,t's, 
mountt'd on stags, 3ulllions, and bllars, 1I:,t.J In' kin

, \\crp oftcn }'.ft to monas- 
teries. Henry \T. g:n'e a goM :-o\'r\'i<<"C, r''Iwe..t'uting- \gin('l)lIrt, lIonflpur, and 
otlll'r where he h3,1 trinmplH'd, t) the ('on\'Pllt of '-'ioll. whil'h \\a..; only 
1Ill'It"d (I.", n within Jatl' Yl'.II'S hy some IA>lItloll ,J..\\'!-o, t.) whom it had h. l'n pled rpd 
for 1Il(1)('Y to supply the DPCP -..itit.'s of that poor ClllUfIIllIJity durin! their abode 
in Lishon. In the annals of Corby, under the datE> of 1171, "e, cc Ilenry 
(Ie 4\.:o:loh, in honor of th
 hn.h'e Apo..tlp..:, !!avp 10 
t. Yitu..; t\\ cl\'
 cnp.::, each 
\\ ith th" cffi
'y of an Ap.,:-,tle, awl Otlwlricus .It.> 
a\'p a ..ih'('r Jroo
on the fm..:t ofHt. 'I:lI'tin ft'r fr:ltt'rnity."
 "TII("p p..iC'f""'1 (If plat.. in ahl)t,ys," 

a,\'S Le Grawl<<l' .\II";";Y, cc w,'rt.> lu'\,('r lI..e<l hy till" mou1.s, bllt tlu\y \\"1 rp pI',. 'rn,J 
in the tre:I
III'Y alllOll!! oth('r curi(lsitie
 which tI
t'd to he !'hown on certlin days 
aß\1 hours." Thc ahbe\' of 
t. Riquier in theeighth
ntUlY possc.
c hallapi already 
poken of, kni\'f"
 :uw1'I1C11 with g.,lrI and jt'\Vcls, and a 

<< Anon. Leobiensis Chronic. Lib. i. An, mviii, f\p. PM, t'cript, Rer, Austriac. 1. 
t Chronicon 'Iontis Sereni ap. 
cript. Rer. Germ. 11. 
t lIisl. de la Vie Privée des Francois, iii. 262 
 An, (;orb. ap. Leibnitz Script. Bruns, iii. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


3ilver ink,.;t
1Ilf1. Similal' prpselJts u:-,ct1 tn he :-lul\\ n ill thp convent of FuntanelIí>, 
l.nd in lIlall)' uthE'r religiuus hOlJ:--es. TIIt:
tery uf.Fleury sent many pi
cl's 0) 
plate, amongst which were two eam1t"bbras weighillg 30 mark.., to Louis-Ie,. 
Jeune, when he wa", to Sl't out for tile Holy Laud. 
"Chari\:::, the Bald," 
a)'s tile {'hrllllicle of St. Delli...;, "gave to th(' ffi'lrtyrs his 
great imperial crown, which un g.-anti fe
tivals is SII
d b
fore the high altar, 
with the crowns of other kilJg,.;."* 
Tile kings of 
"'r3l)('e ill gelleml left their crown to tIIP ahbey of St. Dellis. 
ays the hi...;tori:.lll of ,Mount-Cas::;ino, "carrieù oft .he treasllres of 
the abbey, cOJJsisling of the rich pnsellt:'" (If King:'" ('lwJ'ìe...; and l't-pin, of Kar- 
Inman" and Louis, amI others-ill form of ('halicl'8 and patt'lIs, crowlls anti 
Cl'Os:;e,.;, phials alld V
lse;o;, alld precious (ll'llalllenl
, :md 130 poulld
 of the purest 
gold, alld !-ilk with g,)ld and gpms, hesidf'8 the golden ('/'OWIl of his far her, ad.. 
ruirahly adol'lle.1 with carhl1lwle:--, and a qllalllÌr
' of 
f)ld alJ(l 
il\'er coin,"t 
\\'hen the DanE''' arrived :It the abhpy of Pt'terborulIgh, ill ]070, thp
' took 
awa.y the goldt:'n crown ill tlIP d1Ul'ch, t'mht-'lIi:--hetl with gt:'ffi..., from the heat) of 
the (,J"I)(,jfix, and the goldell stool, 8et also wilh gems, fl'om lWllf'ath its fef't, two 
g' ,Idell Lier
, and nille ot her
 of sih'er, :Hlol'llt"d with gold awl gellis, and t wel ve 
cros..:es, some of gold and other,.; of silver, gilt :Inl) gellll1wd, amI an alllipelldillm, 
all of 
old all<I1''ih"el' :md Iu'pciou... sront':'", 
III the mOlla..ter.\' of Ripon Wl:'l'e DIUI' Guspel...;, wl'itten on a purple 
I'onlltl in 
lettel's of gold, PI)(.lo
e(l in a goldpIJ ca
kt't, which haù heen order'ed hy 81. \\'il- 
frid. 'fj;e fUl'lIiture fill' St. 1I1a\; famous ehapel ill the ahbe)' ofGlastollhury, the 
COllstrllctioll of which co:'"t 2600 poullds of sih'el', while the yalue of the altar 
was estimated at 264 pound:-i of gold, wa:s :'"uitable to its :-plendor. The cov
of the GO!o'pE'ls WE're of gold, above t,,:ellty pounds ill weight. The priE'8t'
rllellts interwovell with gold, alld cunnill
ly orn:lIlJellteli with precious 
The tre3!'ury of Crowlantl ahbey "':IS t'qually rpmarkable. ".. e read of ont' ahbot 
of St. Alhan':'", Simon LalJ!!ham, gi\"in
 to that ahht'Y at one time copp!" \'e
melJts, and other Orn:Imellts, to the value of 4:37 pO ".11 ds. The chalice
, l't'mon- 
, cro:;
, slll'ille..;, and binding of bouks, whieh the Lutl.eran plum1
fouJ\(] in the abbey of St. Gail. in 1532, were of immel1:-e value, and many of 
tlwse objt'ct,.; had been in the ahbcy 600 Yf'ar
""p may ob5el've tbat man,' thing:"; a1:-:0, of pure (,\lrio!'ity, pxistetl in the tl'e3S- 
UI'Îes of ahhE'Ys. Torq Ilcm:lde, who delÎ
ht!' in the marvt'llous, 
3YS, that the 
Fran('iS('3Jl"; of a ('ollvent in '
alpllcia pu

E'd SOIllP .'UOl'omns bom-s, which Byn- 
1.H Camppgio, who 
aw them, 
nppo...;pd to be tho,.;p of a giallt. Xo doubt in 
many Illon:t:'"tc.-'rif's D):,sill'E'main..;, alld mhel' ohjPct..; of 
l't-'at natural clIl'iosit
" were 
d from ancient times, hilt thill
s hi:4ori(>al WPI'P dliefly Tf'!!ardpd. III the 
treasllry of the abbpy of the I
le Bat'be was pre:'wl'\"t:.d the horn of Roland, which 

* Ad an, an . 

t {,hronic, S, 
Ionast. Casinensis, c. 20. 


,[ 0 n E:"t CAT II 0 L I (' I; () H, 

the lwaù of the family of \IIIßt-c.l'or, \\ ho b(>)ic\.pd its.If c1f'8('()udc'CI from him, 
t'njo)"t'c) till' I'ri vi It'
l' of c'x p,,!'i ng' OIll'{' t>vt'r)' )"t':I 1", Tile l'ht':-;...-boa rd :u)(1 IJ)f'n 
ni" Charlt'wagllt', Wt'rt. p1't'
t'I'\'('t.1 f'()r mall." ag('
 in till' uhh.,y of 
t. I )l'ni
, In- 
nUlllerahle pl'(.'('iou
 worl.::o; of art l'anll' into the 1I1011;I
'('ril'''; of th · \\t't Oil the tak- 
 of {'onst
lItin(lpl(', in l:!O-:l, by tlae ('ru
a,h'r... In 11... abhl'Y of HIll'inau \\as 
a \\OOd('ll ('r\l
:--, uine iuC'Ìle,.. hi
h, cut out of a 
iugll' pil,{'t', \\ hi('h <:.hO\\l>Ù III more 
tl':1n 100 figurl':-- tl)(' l'hit'f l'a:o'
:lgt'''' of our Sa\'Ïour's litl', wilh (;rt't.k in
addt'll, whi(,h till' mOlll.:s tll<'n al'(l'lirHI. 
\\' lIat curious all d I'n'('ious \\ orks of art wel e in tLt> lI1ona...h'ry of ::;t, }t'loren- 
tiup, of '::':lullillr, in 1004! TIlt' ahhot Roh(.rt, who W:lS a diligcnt inquil'er, ùh- 
taillt'd a mllhituc.le of IIl1ht'anl-of ornamt'nl
, J!rl':u ",('n't'II... of \\00) which \\ere 
t'Xll'lIdl'(l in thc ehoir 011 high :,-olt'lI1lliti(
. n'prl''''l'lItilw ",('('lit S f!'OlI) tl)(\ ..\ Po('- 
al.,"p'.', c'lIrtaill
 al1l1 lap('
try ('O\'t'l't d with fj
lIr('..: of gre
lt lions in the fields of 
blood, and otlll'rs with white 
H'd.>r"', ill \\ hi('h \\('re bca
ts :Jntl binls: I... 31"'0 
mati,. t\\O 
hieltl...; of wouc1ron... si e aJH1 beauh'. Thr ahhot l\IatlH'w a1:,.,') m:u.l- 
.. ' 
Í\\O dor",al!', amI abbot \t1I1l'ht'rt is 
,litl to IIa\"c m:ull' t\\1t Hiln'r ('ant1dahra",,* 
A\mollg tlu..' ill('
timab)t' treasure.. ofjt"H>ls ill tll(' ahh(.y of,;:,t. btt'phl'n, at rl'o
Dom :\Iartt'ne 
aw tht> P:':lltel' of ('ount I IClll'
', tilt' ftllll1dcr of that uhi...,)', \\ ritt
ill ]ett('rs of gold. still frf'",h after molp thall I'UO ye31 s. III tile Irl.Jsury of 
C'itt.aux hc r..m:lrkt'd the :1DC'il'1I1 hrt'\'iaric... of till' munk:o:, \\ I'itt('n inl:3maIJ letters, 
oil little movahlt. !'h(,f't...;, fi,l' tllP pllrpo
t> of ht'in
i\','n in palt...; to mOllkH who 
t ra\'el I ('(I. II.. :--aw thl'l'p 3):0\0 tll(' ('II:li.. "hic'h h,.lollg,.(1 to 
r. Bt'l'II:ml wlH'1I he 
waS a l!Ovi(H. In tl... ahht'Y of 
I. ,ra'(imill, at Tr('\'.'
, he ",ay'" i:-- a (I'>..t of the 
Go:;pels in letlers of !!olcl, ('O\'c'I'('11 \\ itll int>
timahle jt:"\f'h., a prc
lIt fl'om the 
PI'iIH'l':":-- Ada, lJall
htcr..f Ki II
 P('pin, Si:-otC1' of ('harlcm:.1
IIP, 3t the elUl of which 
are thrf:" verSu5 ill unc'ia I It't (('I'" : 

· Hie \ilwr c'st viift'. par I(li
I, PI f)1If\llIor nmnes. 
('),UI1 8alulift'ri pllndt
n... miral'ul., ("1"I,ti. 
Quæ pill' oh nn..tram vuluit fe('is..
 I'ulutt'm : 
QlIt'm devoh' Dlo ju
!-il prescriht're l1U\tcr 
.\tb ,:tuC' ill a Dei, puleh m''1ue orlllu c mclullis. 
Pro CIU,\. Il'li'IJuC 11'!!'1\1 vcr
U8, ur>tre ml'mento." 

In the abl)('y of 
t, Uiqlli(.r })(' 
aw Ii tpxt of tllP (;(I
p('ls in gu1c1"11 lI'ttl'rs on 
purple vplIum. gi\'l'U to 
t. \1Ig-:lht'rt hy CitarlPlII3glIP, ancl alo;o th
 original lllall- 
us('ript chroni(,It> of tIlt' mOIl:l:-:t...ry hy lIal'illlfl', 
\\Oe may oh:.:ervt>, that tll!' \'f'r
" c,lmrtprs ancl If.1t 'I''''; prp..;(,l"\'(.rl in 01(1 monasteries 
poss'I.;:'l'tl a high clp
r('(' of int.'r('...t, " PI,'a,e it YOII to tlnclcor:;taml," \, rites OIlC of 
C'ronHVt.ll's mi:-\c','ahlp 3
, cc that ill tht'" !'f'a(lin!! of thf' mnnill1f'l1ts 3ucl (Oharters 
of thchou..(' ofH:'m
(>y, T found :t ('lmrt"r of King' E(l
:l", writt(,l1 in a Vf'r\' antique 
Roman band harcll\' to bc re:ul at 1 he fir
t ,i
ht. I am 
nl'f> \'011 \\ 0111,1 tlplight to 
, , .. 

. ChronÍ<' Turonensf- np '1\tl\rtl'ße Veto Script. v. 

\ G E 
 ().F 11' A I T II. 


see tIle same, ft,r the 
trallgenes..; and antiquity thereuf." In monasleries there were 
often preserve(} the letters of 
lUl'i('lIt king... 
Ill<l grf'at lI1en, Thlls the Domini- 
cans, at Ban-clona, 1'0s.,,;
sL(1 a lettt'r, in the hand writing of 81. LOlli
, to filther 
FraDci:; de CClidl a, * The famous charter, de Lihcrtat iLu-I Chlllitatu:-i Devon., 
granted b
' King John, and its confirmation b)" his son Henry 111., were pre:,erved 
in the abhey of Tavistock. t 
In the abhey of St. Germain-des- Prè-; was pre....en.ed the charrer of its foun- 
dation by Clotai re, or a very ancient (,opY of it, an(l a diploma to the ahhey of 
St. Denis in the 
e\'enth century, both of whieh I have seen in the archivcs of 
tht' lamel SouLi:õe. Both are legil,le, the original material having been cenlented 
in latcl' timps upon a kind of cloth. 
Iany of the (liplcHl1as, how('vel', puhlished 
by the BClle(lictines, are only copies; for Loui..:-Ie-Debollnaire authorized :-õevera) 
abbeys to write out afresh theil' ('hartel's, though 
ome real original diplomas un- 
questionahly exisr. 
uch i
 that of Clovi:; to ,llE: ahbey of St. Dplli..; OIl pap)'rus, 
so ('arefully preserved in the treasury of that abbey, aud out rarely :-howli. On this 
i::; tlu:o signature of E.igiu..;, St. Eloy, in great Roman characters. 
slwaking of the eleventh century, remarks a laudahle cll:--tom of tho:;;e rnde age
a..: he term..; them, when any (louut existed as to the authencity of a charter; an 
acenrate f!xalllination of it wa.; ill:;riruh.d by the j'Hl
. The form of character 
-the date--the !-'ign
-\\"ere all cnnsidere<l ; and if the diploma w('re proved to 
he a forgel')', it \\"a-; <,ut with a knife to prc\"ent it from heing e\"er again used.::: 
nut the mo:;t inten.stillg ol
eds pre:,en'eJ in the trea
urie:; of abbeys were un- 
doubw(lIy the \'estm
nt...., c1alice:-:, or books which had belouge(] to the eminent 
saints who had either livèd or occa-:ionally resided within their wall
In the abbey of Bllbbio one 
a\\' the coffin, the chalic(', the holy 
taff, :md the 
missal of 8t, Columhall, its foundel' ; in the ablwy of St. Gall, oefore the here- 
tics plullllered it in the fiftet'nth celltury, the hones of S1. Gall and of Constance; 
in the abbe,\> of Ein:;i('deIin tho..;e of St. Othmal' alld St. :Kotker, which had bt'en 
removed thither hy tlae Illonks, to escape destruction, in the night between the 
23rJ and 24th of Fehrual',y. 
" In the abbey of Stavelo," says Dom )Iartene, " we saw in the tremmry the 
cllasuhle, stole, mallipule, 
andals, cowl, and ('omh of St. Remade, \\"hl)
e body is 
here {'nshriIlCll. I was greatly moved ar seeill
 hi:; cowl. I t i
 of co
m.;e stuff, 
brown, and all patdw<1, It was th{> habit of a man who aplwarl.d with snch tdat 
in the ('OUl't of 0111' kiu!!s, and who 1'f'!toU1well lai
ee to liv(' in }wuance in this 
solitudf'. The form i
 tb3t of tilt' :wcit-'nt cha:,uahlc
, eO\'f'ring the whole body, 
) without 
lepves, It is th
 most prpciou:-i monument of antiquity of the kind 
that we pos;:,E'S
In the ('on\,('))t of CIH'lIe, on the )Iarne. h(' i-aw the chaJic(' ofSc. Eloy, which 

· Touron. Hist. des Horn. 1I1u
t. de J'Ord, S. D. j, 5 
t Olivf>r. Hi5:toric Collections rdating to the '[onasterie
 of Dpvnn. 
t Antiquit, It. Dissert. v, 
 Vo)':tge Lit. ii, 



s nrorly half a fi)(}t deep, :1ll11 thp same in dianH'tcr. I n the ahb<,y ofClain Y :1l1x 
aid 11130"'" \\ ith Ih(' (.lla]i('(, of 
t, Bt>rn:lrd, alld \\ ith that of
t. 'la1aehy, LOIIa 
of them ..ruaJl, not half a fitll! in hl'igllt, hut the ('up ið large. thollgh :-1.:11]0\\". 
" On St. Edmollll':o\ day," hc S.I)'8, .t I -aid lIIa
-; ulld(.r th.., Slll'jllt:' (If Ihc :-aillt in 
thE' abhey of POllti
..i, with hi
 cilasltahlc, which i.., \\ hol ;)' NUlJlI at the bottOlll. 
I hall the consolatioll 301"0 to 
et' his :,al'l'('ll J.o<ly, \\ hidl God had pre..t'l'v('l1 with- 
uut ('orruption. I1i:-; h,'ad i
 harp, :lIld hi' is ..Iodlt'd in lai.. pOlltÏti('al laahi1 !-\. IIi.., 
Lody is \\ hit('. I II the trea:-ur)' I :-:lW :11"0 hi.., pa
tor:t] I'jllg', the ('hali('p am] pall'" 
\\ itl. which he was 1>lII'il-ù, allll 301"0 hi.. gohlet. IIpre also art' foolu)\\ II tile pOll I iti- 
('301 \'l
tll1('nts of St. Thoma;o; of ('alltt'rhur.\', allli tl.(' ..Impel in \\ hil'h he u&.d to 
pray, alHI \\ Ill'rc he h:1I1 a rcn.1alioll of his martynlom," It \\l1S at TI"II)"f's that 
I.e :-:'lW the ro('het of 
t. Thomas, of tin - linen, ill Ihe form of U 'reat tlllli(', Ull 
which were mark;; of hi
 OO(liLS of 
aillt'i ('Ollstitllt('11 thp 1I10!"t \'ahu>(l rpli('S \\'hi('h mona..,tcri..,s 

t.(1. Tht se were the tI'pa:o\urt.:-, wI. il.h a' t l':lt,t<>11 tIll' d"\'Ollt pil
I'ill1'" from 
i(ll'. who w(,l'e (IrawlI illto t 1H'..e ..;q itud(... by tilt' mt'mory of :-ooll1e mall or 
holy humilit,\' mill austere lX'nauæ. I ntl('NI, tooO great (Iiel this attraelion pro\"e, many ahhot.. :lIId mnllk.. \\erp IInwillllt their'ries ..hould he :->0 
enl'Ït'lu'{1, lc:-,t ,he C{)It('I"I1'
l' of pil
l'illls in ('on'('(luell('{' 
holll<<l dic;turh the tlau- 
qllillilY ()fth('il' R'l.ll1ù,,(1 lilè. cit. Cuthh'rt, ill hi.. dyin
 (liS('our..e to tl... m"nl
who ('ame to Fame Isle to vi,it him, ..aid, ., I would r:lt]It'.. It(' Imrit d in Ihis 
island: 301111 I think it \\olllcl b. e,"en bcttl'" t..r your'..lvt,,,,, that I sll(.mld n"t IlPrc, 
berausc (,f the nllmbl'I'S \\ 110 will ('him ..anctuary. \rhatc\'er I may be in my:--df, 
yet, 3S 1 
hall he I'f'l11l'm1.('l't'll, as a 
I'\'ant uf Ch..ï..I, tllt'y will tIo('k to m.\" hOlI)' ; 
So that you will hI' cOl1lpe)]I.'tllo illtprl'l'll(. tlll'IU with Ih,' pO\\"(.rfìll of till' ('arlh, 
and will, COU"N}tH'lIt]y, he 8I1t
1.'l't 10 milch Iroubic oil m)' :IC('Ollllt." II if; a f:u't, 
that ill many'l'i
.s the lIlollk.. were oh]igt d to ('('Iehl'ate tlwir ()ffiec in a 
chapel !-t'pal"'J.te froll) great church, ill ('.on:-ot'qllcllcc (If the multitude that 
flock..d to it through rcverPIl('{' fttr ho]
' reliC'S. Tit..:, \\ ilhin 11lf' ('Ioi!otf'rs of bL. 
Gall there was also 
t. Petf'''':-. ('h:l})I'I, in \\ hi(.b th" <Ii \,ine Offi(1,' \\":18 
; for 
111 the gl'(':lt ch n r('1t it \\ 0I1lt) nllt 11:1\"(' I)('('n po....ihIE>, fl'olll tlu' ('1'0\\'11 of pil,rri rns 
to the :--hrinl' of 
t. Gall. The ('apit'llul'Îp..:, frolll the yt>:tl' i
'-t to 7!)
, nt Fmllk- 
f.trt, actually pre""I'iLt', th:lt in :11] IIllln:lst
'rit's containin
 the hody of a ...aint 
there should be 1.uilt a (.lmp..1 :uljoinin!! fttr tlat:. cli\'ine oflie'p,* 
" There is a d('\"out hOIl . · of mlr ordt'r," f::t.\.s thp Cal'thll..ian :Sutoru.., " in the 
p of 'I-In
, fimn(}N} hy th' JJoL]p f:uuih' of 
\ l('n<<;oll. G:lllfrill of 
wlao ]je...lmripc1 tllpr(', 1-hoJJP with mirac1t':-,!ooO that multitllllt,=-, flocl
(,l to hi
m"l whi1p T \\'3"; in that mlln:t!--t("'
. it w:tS in COJJ
('ql1('n('p d..lihf'l';tt. (1 \\ I)(.tlwr that 
spd :1ll11 canOlli7(,d pontiff 
hlltllll not hI' tmn
fi'I"'l'cl d
ewlacl'c,"t The iucon 

· Ihh.fonl'l. Von An (1ec;c}lirhU', dE's 
. 0:,11 i. 63, 
t Pet. Sut. dt' Vi"\ Carthn..i:m:1. Jiv. ii. Trart. iii. c. 6, 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


v<:nience must have been grievous when sueh a questio u cou1ù be discussed, seeing 
thp immellse value attacheù to :-ouch treaSl1rt'S. 
In./ee<l the p"so:e..;
ioll of these holy bod;c-; wa
arded as furnishing 3n a(ldi- 
tional incentive, to all who dwelt undl.r the :-amf' ruof, to be Ull their guard against 
allY :-;pirit that would òerugate from the peace and ::;anetity of the mona..;tic 
btate "Beware," says Petrarch to Brother Jame:-:, the Augl1:-:;tinian friar of Padua, 
" huw YOII forget 01' (lisgrace the gl(,riolls lIallJe of .A ngll:-tin, aud the sacred de- 
lights of the eremiticial life of so lIlany devout, religiou"" lIlen: hut rememher 
that under the same roof with you repo"{> the venerable bonc..; of that Augustin, 
and let his image be ever present to your imagi nation, and, as it \\ ere, a witnes
uf all your action
 alHl word:-:, that yon may fear in presence of such a witn('.;s to 
offend Christ the Lord, who is his aud your ma:-oter, as of liS all."* 
Any wilful misrepre.;enlatiolt as to the authenticity of particular rt>lics was 
deemed :l crime of the deept'st dye. Sp,.aking (If an ath'lllpt at Ratisbolt tl) elaim 
the po,..session of relics which were elsewhere, tht' ehronide.; of St. Denis use this 
expres:-:i1m. "They ft)rgot the fear of the Lord,"t 
H:l\'ing, in the third book, explained the di:-:cipline of the Church in regard to 
this devotion, we need n"t delay noW to hear the cavil..; 01' the 
neel's of the wrong- 
hea led men who :,y
tematically oppose the \"eneration which she pays them. "I 
conld never understand," :-ays :\Iidlelet, " the di,-dain of the Protestants ftll' rt'lic:õ:. 
These were great historical te:-timonit>s. In the abbp}' of St. Denis the hi!"tory of 
France wa:-; thns relate(} by relics. Here was a portion of the real cross, given to 
Philip Augnstl1
 by the Greek empPl'or wlaen Constuntinople wa..; t3ken by the 
allers, Here were reIic
 of St. John the Baptist, gi\"en by the emperor IIer- 
aditns tl) Dagobert. I-Iere were the of St. Dt'nis, the heat} of S1. Hilary oj 
, thp cross amI sceptre of Charlt'm3gn", the chalice u:-:ed by Sugel', that 
true founder of the Capetian monarchy, tlae crown and ring of 81. Lewis, and a 
portion of his bones." 
But it is wrong to speculate on the errors of these unhappy men in su('h a plaC'e. 
Let \1:; fall upon our knees, :uul behohl \Vitla re\'ert'nce what is now to be unfolded. 
In the trea.mry of the abhey of Clair\'anx, where m04 of the relics were pre:--ents 
fl"\)111 the emperor,.; of C,mstalltinl)ple, D"1ll 
rartenp was 
hown the sknlls of St. 
Bernanl antI of St. 
lalachy. But only observe how rich in :,u('h holy treasures 
were once the Engli:.;h mona;;;teries. 
axon laistorie8 ther
 is a l()n
 catalogue of pbce
 in whi('h th
. ho(lie" of 
saints re-t, TIm..; it says :-St. An
tin, who prt'ached the filith tl) th{> English 
nation, re5ts in the ('hun'h of St, Peter, in Canterhnry, now the Angnstins', with 
the -hilly hishops L:1l1I'pnf'(', 
Ipl1itl1";, In.;ttls. Honnrin,..; :111<1 in th{> cbnreh of 
Chri,..t. within the wall..;, rl'st th{> htlh. a\'chhishop..; Dunstan, Odo. Edlel
ar, and 
Elphpg'Il'i; in Roclwo:ter, rest:, 81. P
ulinns, archbishop of York; in London, St. 

* Epist. Lib. x, 17. 

t Ad an. 1050, 


( 0 n K 
 CAT II 0 I. I C I; () H 

En.'OII\\ alt.} ami 
t. Thl'oc..hed; in \ hillg,lolI, St. Vinct>ntius j in \\ïncllt'"t'r, in 
thl' old mona...tery, 
t. Swidlin, :lIul :::>1. Etilt'lwahl, an,1 ::;t. Bi..iIlU:;, :111,1 St. 
] It..tlda, :tlltl :::)t. Birstan, Li:--hllp,,;, ami 
t. J .....ttl:i, III:U tyr; a..d in dIP Ut'\\' IHon- 
a.-:h'ry, St. GI')"Inhaltl, pric...t, ami ::;1. J lHIO<', (.(Ulf........U..; i.. Tl.ignmuuth, ::;t., 
king; in 1)urh:lIu, ::;t. Cuthbt'rt, bishop; in lk\'crly, t;t. .'"hn, bi
hop, and Brt'- 
tuu, aLhot; in 'Vynt'}wlt'l1ml)t>, 
t. K('ncllll, martn'; in I )t'rh\', ::)t. Alhmlll)(lu..., 
martYI'; in Li('hfiel(l, bt. ('l,<lda; in ::;I.erb..rllt', 
t. \\ u)...iu!'\, hi..hop; in 11,'refcml, 
St. E
t.lbrith, king; in 
lalrUl'...hllr,\', ::;l. Ahh.lm, hishop; in Tam\\orth, St. 
Elgitha; in Halll-.ey, tst. ::\IerC\H'n :11)(1 
t. Ealfll'<l, ab1>4:....8, 3fill qu' 'n, St. Haltiltla ; 
in Cow'ntl'y, bt. U....lmrga j in Ripon. ::5t. \rylfriù, amI Ht. \'el'.t, ami St. Egd- 
; in EI)',81. Etheldritha, 311(1 '-'t, \\ïthlmrg:l, :11111 Sr. Ernwnil(h, :11111 
t. St-x- 
burg-a; in Oxtord, 
t. F..('tlll'...wyth; in It.mS:l\, SL y\,o allll ;-;1. Ft,li,. hi...llOps, 
t. Ethell'pd antI St. EthclLrilh. m:lrty"
, ami ::;,. E
t'lfl\'tI, qll "1) ; in TIHtlllI'Y, 

t. .\11111Ifl1:-:, awl St. Firmlll, S.. I1cl'l.fritlu:ò, hi...hop:--, and St. Bllthulf, abhut, 
and St. Belledict, abLot uf \r ercllwuth, St. ri
"e and II UIIC, pric.;t:--, amI bt. Tan- 
ered, amI 
t. Torhreù, hel'll1it
, and 5t. rm'a, virgin; in Crnyland, ::5r. GllthhU', 
pril'!"t; in t'h:lft(.sbury, St. Eth\:ml, kin
 amI mart
'r, HI1\1 8t, Elgi\'3, qm'PII ; in 
t. nrihthdm; ill '111a1tt't, 
t. El'm('n
" lIæc propter )q
eutinm iIlSt'ruimu...," adds the hi
t()rian, " ut qui 
aliqUt'm s:1ndum Haire voluerit, :-ciat tlUO f'Uln requirat," 
Of the zeal and in!!f'nuit
. of the Crn"'a,]p1"8 in a('quirin
, wllt'll COII"'tanti- 
noplt' wa..... bkl'1) in 1:.0-1, tlll'rt' are many ('lIrioll"; d .tail:; ill tllP chronid 's of the 
mOIl:l:-It-ri('s to whidl tlH'Y bra\'e tln-m, J 1('111')' of Him, :-peaking of'\ particle of 
tile ('1'0:,:; \\ h ich he ha...; gi veil to 3n ahbt')', 
ays, "tllat it is the trlasurt> above all 
t.artilly po' .,,:-...iuns tit(' deare<jt to his Iw,u't," 
The hare si
ht of tl. ...f' reli' \\35 a,.kllo\\ led
t>ll 81.; a divine favor, with piou.; 
gratitude, Thll!o' aDflt!.pr t:'x('laim.., " (>>('1' om Ilia h('IIHlidll
 Delis qni mi!.i, !-f'rvo 
SilO lict.t imlil!lIo et fra
iJi I){'('('atori fNt' in 
t'ni() jam (''lIti, divilla pif'ta... viù 
con('(' !"* Tlu.' l'!lrollidl'S of 
t. ()pni..., d,'..('rihil1,r the Emperor Charll's IY., 
 the relic-; of th. ah))(')' awl of tile huh- ('Impel, !-a)'. Ihat being unaLlt' t) 
\\ alk. he C3u;;cd him...clf to bt' <,"Irrif'd, \\ itla grl'at pain allJ 
uff'ring, ht'fi>re the 
t-hrine; tJaat he jflinPtl his hands and Wf'pt, and pl"'.t
'(',1 lollg', allù \\ ith J!1" (It'- 
VOl iOIl; ami th"II, 
lIppol'tetl on tlat.. arms of hi... attf'mI3Itt.... appro:U'ht tl ami ki:O-"l'tl 
it.t lIt' (Iee}al'( d to tht.> ulIÎ\'el 
ity of 1':11 i!'1, that hi:- c"hif'f 1t)
('<'Ì in \'isitin
}1'ranre wa.... to Ix'hold th.., > n,li('..;' ami :w('onlilwh, tlIP kill'r iutimatptl totlae aL- 
, .':-0 
Lob whu
 house:; he \"i...itec1, that it wa
 hi.. tlf'' to 1.(' I'('('ei\'td as:L pilJ!rim 
come to Vf'lIer:1te them. Of th(' ..<'li( \\ hirh A hh"t 
artin :-cut to Paris, Otho, 
<<If Sf. Blas"'.1":ly", "thf'S(' 
11f'(1 In..lrl' UpOIl ail (;('rmalt
' nntl .A 1"3('(>;" allll Gun- 
, "hy thf' t'omilt
 of tlU'..p. all Thl'otonia he!:all to be ('ounteù by men 
doriou8, aI)(1 by Gotl lIIon' happy ."

· Rigord, c, 48, 

t Ad an, 137t;, 

. Ap, llurter, 2;:;. 

A li E 
 0 F FAT T l(, 


The monks of Fos:o:a 
 nova, thongh Ci:;tercian:o:, wouM not ha\"e con:o:ented that 
the hOlly of 
t. Thollt:.l
, who had dic,i there, should be tr,Ill
lated to the con\,('Dt 
of hi:; ol"tlf'r in TOlllollse, if it hall not bepu in con:o:iJcratÏon t hat the relics of St. 
Do:ninick, the apo
tle of the south of .France, werc in Italy, at Buloglla. It be- 
ing 1'L"ill",<<1 ,",eretly to remove the bo<ly of St. John of the ClOSS I'rum Uk_Ie, 
where he llied, to Segovia, an offieer of the court arrin
l by night at the mc)lIas
allll, having (1esired an audience of the tather prior', for 
 matter of tllt' greatest 
con "'q lie n'.." he inti", at e<l to him the md,'r uf wh id, he "as the I,..aee r; by w h ieh 
hewa.'i enjoined, 011 pain of excolllmunication, to take up the body secretly, withont 
appri-ing anyone of what wa' to be <lOlle. Thi- wa- an nne"pcc!e<1 bl..w to the 
prior. Xeverthele:-;:;, to ohey the first snperior, he took the neCCS:5ary measure,.; ; 
so that, when everyone in the mona.;tery wa.; aslc('p, he \V1e.nt down into the church, 
accompani('d hy the offieer and two mon
:o:, whom he hall bound over to secrecy 
under the Bailie penalty a.., that undc(O which he lay him:o:elf, a.ulI, when all was 
arraoged, they ol'en<<llhe 
r:J.\'e, The saint had been dead a year: hilt, 10 ! the body 
was s:ill perfe,'!, and the flesh nn.1ccaye<L ,\, his hnues only were deman<led, 
the \.rio r conclnd..d that it ""as iml",,-ihle to effe,.t tI,e o\
cct intended, at that 
time; so, having covere,l the with quie];Jilll", they it a!!ain in the 
gra\'l', and ""nt back the offie'Cr to report wbat ha.l been ,lone. _\.t'te,' nine months 
he I'etllrlu:.a ; and, with the Mille precaution:o; :\:0; befure, the graye was opened, and 
the ho,ly, whieh was still perfect, being ouly dried nl' hY the lillie, was placed in 
a leather cas

, and cOl1lmittell to him, Thi,.; man left the IDon:l:--tery about mid- 
night, ami, it is sai.1. th"t btrauge visions were öeen by mill!' the Fame hOllr. 
One monk was:-;o impres="t'd with a cOllyil'tioll of what wa.... pa:o::o:in
, that he lt'ft his 
cell and carne llown to the church; hilt he found the prior :--talilling at tbe door, 
who refused to let him enter, alIll <1e....ired him to return to hi:; cell, and bury his 
sm,picions within his hosolll, The offie"''', who bure tI,e body 10 8e!!ovia, declarel, 
that, after le:\\"ing Ubt',le, while the desert mountain, he heard Hlany 
voi.'es, whieh he thonght c'ml,1 not be hnman, and that he wa- greatl)" tet'l'ifi<<L* 
'Vlaen Heloise wNte to Peter the V em'rable, reque
til1g that the body of Abe- 
bra might he inte(Ted in her ('on vent, accordin
 to hi
 own dp
ire, long before 
intimatell, the m IIlk5 of ClullY, who had 
een the !-anctity alld fef\'or of his last 
years, esteemed it so \"alu:lhle :\ treaSllre, that they would ha\.e oppo:'l'd their ab- 
bot if they h:ul ";1I,.;pectu,l that he wOllld ('omply. Peter. therefore, promised to 
grant lwr rp(luest; hut on cOIHIition of her k ('('pi I\!!: his intpntinn 8eeret, and leav- 
 the choil'c of the timp to him, a;;; it was nn affait' of difficulty. The !'nmmer 
and autumn pa.;;....øl : hnt, wmlf-' (la'...; :1ftPI' .All S:,int
, 11le abbot ofChmy went to 
thè priol'y of St. 
[a"('Pl. nn pr('t('
('e of making the 11,u:,l " ; and then. one 
ht, while the mnnk
 rppq,e 1. he (':1u':f>cl tllp hnÒ\' of Alu-.larcl to he raisp(1 up, 
and imme<liately !=et off wit h it. and arri,'(,d at Par
clet on the !'ixteenth of Nov- 

* Vie pRr le P. Om:ithée, Lih. viii. 


l 0 HE S (J A T II U LIe I; 0 It, 

('m her. Bllt \\ hI) ('an dl'seribe tht' joy and the Sorrow of II, loi..e, \\ IIt'II he,11'(1 
the 11l
1l\II'ious ('hallt.... of the choir 011 the l'ntl"all(,C of tl)(' body into till' (,Ium'h ? 
The abbol ofClullY Sllll
 hiO'Ia ma"i" : ufl('r wlaidl Ill' lIIade a I,atht'tic (.:dlOrlati"ll ; 
a III I thell 111\' hody \\a.. placed in thc vaulr, halfl-f which \\as \\ithollt rill' banl't- 
uary, amllulf in the nUll's choir. Tht' ahhut IPit tIlt' ('OI1\'t'llt full of hIlly afft'C- 
tion fi.r lIc10isp UlItI fi.r th.. eOllllnullity, \\hieh lit' a"
o('iat, d in a 
pirilUal :-oeiHy 
with ('Iun
'. Aft"r t"i
 s"I"l11l1iIY 110 IIHH'(' is IIt.anl ofll..lois,'. Tllc pt'Jl filllillg 
frolll IIt.r h:llItI, ..he \\'ritt.
 no 1II0re h.'ttCI'
, 1m Il'a..&.'.. till' 1"t'l11aillilig h\t'nty-two 
 of lael' life in the ('xel'('i..e of p"lIiwllce, alul In the \\ iN' alld holy go\'erunll'nt 
of Par:Il.\t.t, which l
c'ame nnd!'r ht'I' th,o orn.lInent of the ("llUr('h of Frall<'f', and 
an exam pip to all tlae IllOllaSI('rit.:-\ of the ag-e. 
\Vith re
peet to thc rnall'rial \'aIut' a....twiatl.d \\ ith tilt:';' rpli('s, it will he !-ufli- 
eit'nt to ub
el'\'e, that t Iw-e \H're cllllh1i IIl'(l ill sh ril1t'
 or 1'(,1 iClllarips '" hi('h \\l're 
often prodigie.. of art. Dom llonillart, ill hi.. histllr
' "f tilt' abbt,y of 
t. Ger- 
m:lin-du-Prt\.., ha.. gi\"pn c'n
 10 rt'pr":->t..'nt tIll' fill'llI of ..,11111' 01"11... I1w..t 
uncienl that \\ el'e in tile trt':lslIr.\' uf thaI 
1bhl'Y' fhe hlHly of 
t. nl'i
il, U' Kil- 
ùarc, \\a.. o\'erhun
 \\ ith gold anti ::;il\-t'r ('rowns; :lIul tilt' 1"(.lic'" (If 
t. UlIlllmlta, 
whil'h the abhot of 101m reUlo\"t d for "'af
.ty to Irf.lan.l, in .. t), :lrf' ..tat..d to lIave 
I)(,'t'n l'nt'lo.;('(1 in a !ohrine of goold. nlll tll(' monk, \\ ith :111 .lllgc1ic 
lIIile, wav
us 011 : 10 ! it is the church \\ e arc pntl'ring. 


" f ' O
[JXE, qui opt'rati ..lIlIt justitiam. hahitabulH in tabprllac1l1o tuo, et 
_ 0 ' ., " 11 I I fi 1 

 ' n"plle...cellt In nl..utt' -allctu tUo. 0\\ so ('nlll are t I" r:-t !'ooUIIl .., 
'. I S :111\1 wlaat jod'ul fen','uc\' i-l'xeitl'd at tllP SI)(-('I:u.lp \\ hid. p"t'
t Ill... it::,..lf! 
=' . 

 Tile c.h1lI(,II(':-, of tlU' mOllash'rit S lIa\'t' 1It'\'t'r a IIPglt''(l ait" :1:-; jf tho:-c 
'rvt'd tlac'lIl had tiu'gOlh.n thaI ('arl' about minutia' i.. tll,' })(,(,llliar 
mark (If all inll'nSC ami 1'1'\"('I"('llt am'c.tion. T!.p mClnk
 cltl'm('(1 tll:lt. 
U there cOlild bl' n..'r 1:1:;1\: fi.r a rati"nal bein
 than that of providiuC', "ith 
th{' mc.:--t pnneliliou
:lctn('..;.;, (cor tlu' clu... cl'1..1)1'ation of tllC Cn'.ltor'" \\or.;hip; 
8nd 110 worthier cl('lli,'atioll of thp offi'rin'!
 of natllre, an.1 tllP d",'ic'('5 of art, a]] 
alikt' his gift, th:11l in thp allornin
 of llis parthly clwc'llill!:-pJ.I('c'." .xu ft'pidity 
, a.; an atmospllt'rp, into tllPi.. l'hllr('lIl'>..;? Xo ('olel, cll'3,1, fi)flll:ll :-ollml
fallillf! Oil tla(' f'a.. mOft' rnOllOloll,IUS thall tht' drop of rain in thp pool ofn 
indicate 3 
lIh..;titut;on th('rp of ('II:,t '111, ,'oid of :-0111, for rdigiolls fPTyor and 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


active zl'al, ministering to the de:-,ires of the inb-rior ]jfe! "The variety of holy ob- 
 dispels wearinel"s ami apathy ," 
Y:'5 St. Bernard, allutlin
 to Ilw officf'!i 
in the abbey of St. Delli.., after thp cunversion of Suger, which had lC11 to tilt' rp- 
f01'1ll of the whole communit.\". * The words whiC'\1 I ..e:.HI in the abbey chm"('h 
of .Eillsiedelin,-" V crð Dominus e!-t in i:-,to loco,"-seem only to t'xprcss what 
is upperlllo
t on the tongue of all who ('liter the ('hur<'l1 of a religious order. ''''hat 
;s al
o singlllarly striking in them is that profound silell<'e, that f'xtraordinary 
respect, ob:-õl'rved Nothing ('an be mllre imprt's..;i\"e than to see the ('(lmmunity 
as..:emhled,-that profimnll recollection; thosp ki:-,
e=-, of peace; tllO!"e low "'aluta- 
tions, whi('h the monks make to each other; that general prostl'ation; those fi)re- 
heads in the dust, when tbe bell allllolilices the opening' of the dOliI' of th
nacle in which the Lamb without :-pot reposes :-all that p..oducps a 
I'eat f'ffect, 
and speaks a language of the soul which it nndel':;;t:,mds, ami seldom hears el
"Incidence to be noted," says the chronidel' of St. Denis: "it happelit'd, at 
his time, that a man who hall quite lost hi:; senses returned to a right mpffiory 
in the church of this abbey."t Rightly, he does not affirm it a miracle, bllt an in- 
cidence. In effect, to account for it by secondary eanses would not be impos- 
sible. It was not unprecedented either. In the chronicle of 
I()l1Ut-Cas....illo we 
read that a mad woman. who usell to wandel' through mOllntains alld valleys, 
woods and field:" by day amI by night, never re:,ting ex('ppt wllt'n eumpelled by 
exhau!'tion, coming one day to the oratory of St. Ben(.dict, was from tbat hour 
restored to a sane mind.:t: 'Vhat strikes one so in the,e mona
tic chnrehes,- 
what soothes and inspires snch (Ieliciou..; ealm,-was, not the material, bl1t the 
living temple; not the vista of arches and column:" but the man of cowl ador- 
ing. 'Vhile in the monastic churche:-; it mu
t he remembpr
'd, that all which 
wao.:: visible was only a type and shallow of what really existpd within the minds 
of the men who served them. The :-;oul of the monk wa:s the interior temple, of 
whieh, the vi
ible was only a material devplopment. 
Aflel' the solemn consecration of the ehl1r('h of the monaster,'" of Cava, by Pope 
Urban 11., on the fiflh of September, in 1092, in pre,;pll('e of Dnkp Roger, and 
all the people of Salernu,-of which, there is :;uch a splendid and cUl,iou:-, a('('ount 
in MUl'atori,-the pomp being finished, the pontiff, wilh the rardin315 an(1 Duke 
Roger, returned to the cloister; and then, having assembled all the m{lnk
, the 
popP spoke to them a
 h)l1l1w::; :- 
" Vidisti
 (I ilectis.;imi- You have 
een, my belon
d, how many sacred unctions, 
h(.)w many ceremonial rite.;, and hnw many prayers we u..;cd, while this honse, 
by the mini::ìtl'Y of our 11Ilmilit
., was dedicated to the LOI,d : all which things, 
without dou1,t, were donp for your sake, and for the 
ake of all who are to come 
after you, to the end of time; in whom will be spiritually fulfilled the things 

· Sl, Bern. Epist, 7

t Ad an, 1193, 

t Chron, Cas. J8. 


'IOn. E :s CAT II 0 LIe I; U H, 

which this da}" have been fort>:--ha(llIwtd 011 \\'all..:.: for what has now been 
<1011(> in tlit> \'i:--ible hous(
, JesllS Christ (Iaily work..; ill the 
tl18 of tlie f
For the
t> are I
no\\ n to be truly aut! rt'ally the tCll1plc
 of the noly 1Ilio t. 
You, 0 illY :--on
 ! are th
 temple of tll(' living (;11(1 j a
 tlH" \I'ostlp :-aitl, ' Tlae 
temple of God is holy, whil'h YOII are.' COII
idt'r, tht rctùrt>, in 
 0\11' llIind
brethren, how great j..; the dignity of a (Ievout monk, whum GüJ hath Il-d from 
the hoi:--tl'l"oll:-; waVt....; of the \\ odd ill to tlte mlm port flf reli
iun, that the CY(' uf 
his mind l)(>illg purgetl h)' tilt' llIonao;1Íc discipline, hl' ilia)' the more ea
il)" !tl'I'('Ci\"e 
how all human thin
s are n:UTO\V, lI1ortal, alHI full of .'rror awl of vallity; :Iwl 
although :-;till on carll1. he is n .\'t'rrllt,les" l'dl'..;tial, a III I alr"':J(I
'. in a ("'rtain m:lI1- 
ner, a&l)Ciated with the hi >""l.J, }'\>>I' thl':--f
 are the true orllamcllt.., thl' > au' tile 
admirable in8i
nÍ't, ofmouk... Th(>re{.lr,..Iaold fa.....t \\hat pm po 
,that lIo..n' 
may take away you I' crown; al1<l, d,'art'st brl'thrt'n, 
il1<.,'C }'OU (':tIlllOt in th" way 
uf authority. at It'a:-t hy )'ollr prayers, a"8i
t UO; to bear our Itunlt.n, amI ('olillolt
\\ itl. u
 with the .ltJèl'tion of pit.ty." 
'fht'n the bretl.r,.n ha\'ing bcPn admittt-d t.o ki:3.i hi
 fet.t, the Serene Dule, 
nnll all who ha(1 aC'('Omp:mied him, retllrned to &Il'rno. * 
. 1\[..nk8 were men of pra)'t'r; and perhap:-. th",t is to include all in one wurd. 
" C(lnsi(lt'r," say..; :0:1. Thoma.,;, .. what 8 fdicity is 
raltted to }'Oll in pmYt'I", tH 
8pt'ak \\ ith Gild, to 
'n(r;lg' in eOIl\'er..:ltilln \\ ith l'llI'i..t, to ('h()(11"C what ,you 
wish, alld to æ-,k "hat you de.
irp."t \\ïth .111 this, we II1I1:-,t take into UI'('Oll11t 
tlH' !-aintly :1IId impl'L
bÌ\'e looks of the monks ali(I friar
, the :,olt'l11n hi
rp('ollt'cti..ns awakened hy the si
ht of th{'ir holy abboL; the effi d prO(III('c,1 by 
okcrving them pas
, now Sl'ClI. no\\' IlIst, :1:-1 they g-licle IIl1cl{'r 8n.h('(1 doi
t(>,s to 
or frol11 the interior of th,. convt'nt ; and thl'" Iè>elin
 which uriS/,s fr 1111 ;t, that 
one is tlms admirt'd t.. cateh a glim:-;pe of the dOI11('..tic life of the ml'ek men of 
GocJ, who think IIpon thc anC'ient days, nntl hs\'t' in mind th(. ..temal yt'als; "ltU 
meditate hy ni
ht with thpil' Ilt'art, an.) e
er(.is' alld 
':Ir('h th(>il r-pirit. \ll 
this apt..,1 pow'rfully un th... im I
in.\tion" The p3\"f'mcnt of th('SC dllll dlb 
was tholl
ht to burn under tilt' ft'N of e\,il I1wn, if 'hey cbr('(1 to putel' thClH,t 
'flIP annal... ofCorL)", in Saxony, rplatp. IIntl(>r th
 elate of 1415, that Ju:-tin 

trol)(,l", a de\'out ru...tic among the pe:J
ants ()f
t:1lll, woultlllt'\'cl" entel' the daurch 
Ulllt...s hal'pfi)ot('(l, throllgh reverence filr th,. holv pl:l<'e.
 Dtln;zo, the Bl,U(>dic- 
tim>, say:, that ()nn <<1a.\' thp J!reat Boni(.IC'p. duke of TI1R<'any, eamc to the nLht>Y 
of Pompo"3; alllJ, wllt'n :t.....i...tin!! at tl1(> di\.illt:' offiC'p, from a lofty trilu1II{" tholwh 
not with a proud 11('art, Juoking on th
 ('hoi,', hp !-:lW the f:u'P"; of all t1lf' boY8 
fix('(f up"n the !!rol1nd, while "'we('t1
inginO' th.> HOlll's ; :111(1 having 3hkE"<J \\ hy 
tlu',\' òtoücl "0 immo\'enhJp, he was toltl by thp monk:! that tll(>)" alwa
tood SO : 
then he 
:l\"e SCCI'Pt or(I,.!'S that some one 1'hould IrO 011 the roof of tlae chur('h, amI 

· Rer, It. Script, tom. vi, 
t Cæsar. Ht:I
t. lIlust. 
Iilac. xi. 54, 

t If. 2. 9. 83. a, 2 ad 8, 

 Ap. Leibnilz Script, Bruns, Illu8t, 



throw ùown pieces of ßlOlwy. And, 10! when ten li\.r('s ft'll with a great noise 
upon the pavement, in the mid...t of the choir, the t,Yt.lid.; of the ho\'s were never 
raised, ami no oue stirred to touch the Illoney. * 
\Vheu Othgar the Paladin, that glOl'ioll" hero amI frit"nll of Charlema
ne, had 

olveJ up ,n lca\'ing the world and elllbra(.ing a religioll'; life, he made a jour- 
. ney, fiu' the purpo;o;e of vi",iting, as a 4range pilgrim, various lIIunas:erif's, in or- 
der that hE. might udge with his own ey('..; whl'fe the regular Ji:;cipline W3:3 Lest 
observed. For this pnrpo::,c he procured a ::taff, to which were attachul lIIany 
little thongi of leather, and at the end of each thong \\"
's an iron ball, which he 
u"cd to let f.111 with vlOl('nce upon the l'an'ment of whatt'ver mOlla.;tery lie en- 
d: artfully q,nd diligf.ntly remat'king whetht'r the monks, at the souml of this 
staff. would lightly turn round through vanity of mind. IIavillg in this manuel' 
visite I lUany mouastel'ie.;, he .fìmnd, it is !'aid, nowhere snch absence of \-anity a..: 
ill that of 8t, Faro: tn' there, when he had dashed the appeliJages of his 
upon the paveult'nt, and made a prodigious noise, not one of the mOlll\:s moved, 
or turned rounl} to see what wa" tire matter, with a mind re('alled from the inten- 
tion of devotion, excepting one boy, wI.o wa:; shord)' after 
trllck with the wand 
of di-;ciplille,. and malle t,) return with his eye.; from that distraction. The 00- 
haviqr of thid society appeared the most strict; and there, accordingly, he as- 
sum.d the habit of a monk, where he Jived in great :;anctity till his death. His 
tnmh, of which l\Iabilliou gives au engraving, was one of the greatl'st curiosities 
in th:1t 1U0lusrery. t 
 coulll exceed the m
lgnifil'l'twe of the mona:-:tic churches in the middle 
age.;. \Ye h'1\'e aht'ady remarked the pro,ligious :-:cale on which many uf them 
were built. So less striking wa-; the elegance of theil' architecture. The pilIal's 
in the church in the abbey of Lobhe, in the country of Liege, were 
o :-:lellder, 
th'lt the duke of Alba, coming ther(', did not dare to enter the church, It>,..t the 
vault shouI.l fall on him, and exclaimed, " this will be the monks' tnllib."
obert 1. covet'e.l that of the abbey of St. Dellis, on the out
ic1e, with fine silver, as 
the chr,micles l'
 \Vhat must ha\'e been its brightll(_\
, within't The riclles 
Hf the ('hllrcb of thi
 abbey, the 
plel}(lor of it", altars, the beauty of it". paintings 
and m Haic." are all de5Cribel} ill detail by the abbot Sng(.r. De:;.iderius, the ab- 
Lot of \IOlmt-C;l:,.::)ino, brought O\"er artists from Clln
tantinople to adorn the 
church of that ahhey with preciou::, mo.;;iac..:, te..,elJated pa\'Pllll'nt, ",tailll.d gla"s, 
and p:lilltin
..;, beRide
 which, the man ofalll)1'udence caused the boys of the nlOll- 
tery to be tanght by the..:e arti..;ts, in order that the :Irt 
houIll nf>ver aftel'wards 
be )o...;t in Ital v.1I In the twentv-fourth dig.;el'tation of bIliratori 011 the An- 
-. . 
tiquities of It.dy, many detail" m:lY be found on this 
ect; but one cannot 
open any mona:;tic {'bronicle without meeting with striking instances. The an- 

· Vita 
. Lib. 1. c. 14. RP Murl\tor. Rl'r. Italic, 
cript, v, 
t Acta g, 0rd. Benedict, Sæcul. iv. pars i. * VOYI\!re Lit. de Deux Bénéd, 
9 Liv, v. c, 9. I Chronic, S, Munast. Cø.sineD!L Lib. iii, c. 29. 



nals of Corby, in Sa"tOIlY, un,lel' datc of 1:1:30, recortl that .John dc Slienbnrg 
gave to that abbc)' figurCb of the twch"e ap()
tll'S, as hugc a.. life. * Ima
 of this 
kilHI wel'e oflcn of !-oli(1 silvcl'. "In the dum'h," &1)'s bt. llCl'lIal'd, "al'e lIot 
only (,1'0\\ II
, but \\ h<..'I.I..., !-tnddt'(l with }'\\"cls, amI ..urroundccl with lamp:;, ,hin- 
 110 Il'
S \\i,h pl'{'('ions 
tonc',,; th:1I1 with th<,il' li
ht... For c:uuJ(.1abms \\e Bee 
illlDlt'lise trees uf hr:&:o-"" fabril'at{',J \\ ith wOlldrous art, alld not ..hinin
 1Il1ll'e with 
hts than \\Ïth thejcwds :-ct in tht.m. The pa\'clIll'lIt is fnlI of illl:wes of8:,ims 
alHJ allgeh:, ami inlaid with he.mdful colors. Pcrhap.. Ihi
 is \\ ell, a' .uu]in:; to 
 prophet, ( Dlllllirlt', dilt'
i dt'('ol'('111 domu
 tnæ,' \\"p III:IY 
nfrcr tlli.; in the 
churl'h, h{'('au,c, ulthough the.\' are injurious to thc vaiu anlJ a\'arÎ"ion..:, tl1<,y arc 
harmless to the simple amI devout.t 
"r e r{':uI that IlIImo, dbhot bf Bt Gall, hegan, and lIeal'l)' fÎnisJ.ul the rolllCIl 
tablt.t \\ hi('h is bdi)rt' the altar of :::;t. G:,II, whieh is more pl"('Cious for th" al tern.. 
ploYf'd in it than fur the m:ltt'rial
."t Tht' w:&lI:-, of this abht'
. dml"('il \\ prt' pailltcJ 
anll inlailJ with 
o1d. The hi ,.h altar was c..n'rt.tJ with gllld, alill tt'n other ahars 
were of 
ilver. The splendor wirh \\ hich till' divinc worship \\a-: celehrak'(l in mon.. 
R!-'t.'rit's COJ'l't'spOluJpd to this magnifì('l'm
t'. ,,\. rtad uftht> :-alUc ahbot, that lit' also 
malJe tllC ehaslIblt's, in one of wh idl our I.,..rd's a "'nsioll is \\ rou1!ht in g"ld, and 
in anllthel' i
 wovell \\ ith divillt' illla
irnilal'ly lie proviclecJ tht" gllllJen !-tlllt's and 
dallilat i('..., al)(1 otlwr ec,'le:.;ia
t i(':'11 oTnallU'nt..., fi II i!'h"tI \\ it h !,(I(.h 
II ht It' 
kiJl ; a IHI 
111311Y otllt
r thillg..; he did, that therc is uo prilH'c in the "ol'ld in our :ll:;t' \\ ho, in 
so !-ohol"t a tilllP, could accompli..h "'0 111all." lIIagnifi('l'lit \\orks. "',,"llt"It('c," de- 
mallds BnrJdlal",l, "('ollld he have SIH'h 8 weight of gold 
o many peal'Js, surh 
prpcilllls pUl'pll', 
o many ...;lIbtle workll1f'n ?"
 Ont> 1't'lIIon..rran('(' ill thp ahhey of 
Einsietlplin rlJntailll.J 2.911 l)l'al'I
, 5U5 dialllond
, as ;o;aphil"t.
, I.') t en1f'ral.I,,;, 857 
G hyacinths, and 19 allwrhyst.;. It \\8.. of 'olid 1!old, and t:'le\'en 
 of \\ork Wt're I"l'tl'lirt-',l ro lIIake it.1I In the nimll alld tenth ('t'nruric-..; J)oth.. 
 \\'a:oi fpart'C:l tn add grandenr to dlt' divine \\"or
hip in 
r. G.III. The sa111e 
arwllti..n wa
 paid to it in th... ahht'y of 
r. DClli:o:, afl,'r it hall cmltral't...1 the re- 
form under Sliger. 011 eertaill fpstival... ,..ixty grcat W:IX (':,ulIlIl'.. u:o'('tJ to h. Jighted 
"01111<1 the hi!!h aJtar. In the ahbey of Ein
ietlclill, l)('fi}rp tlI" hilI)' chapel, 
k,'n cnOrIlH)lI
 wax tapel':o-, wci
 lIÏ1wty pOllud'i p:H'h. 115' d 10 hurn Jay and 
hr, at tilt' (,Xpt'IiSC of thp Swi:o-:-o C'3.ntoIiS. ]):t
ol)t'rt tilP Fil,..t ha,J cstahlish{'{I a 
rent (If 100 JÏ\'re
 fOI" tho li
ht.; of tllc ahhey of St. D'lIis, to l)p fllrni:,Jlt'tl with 
the I)f>
t oil from 
rar'cillt'S; :11)(1 Pt'pin :ultlf..1 a pri\'ilt'gc. that rbe ;o;ix c:1rfð 
",hidl \\ere to ('on\'cy it Wt'rc to l)p CXf'lIIpt (mill all toll rhe wholf
 way from d1at 
, to flu' :lhhl'Y. RO
f'r, e'lrl of 
a\'e tf) the mnnkc; of OUl'hes 
't'ar, at rllf' l)t'ginnin
 of TJf'llt. 100 livrt'''õ f!'Om his revenue of \I..nçnn, for 
light... da." m)(111 iglat in t Iwi r chllreh, In.fure t h(' fh.!ur(' of 0111" I.J(}r(lllpoll tIlt' C1'08:o'. ** 

· Ap. L('ibnitz. 
f Burkhard de C'R"ihns S. O.11If. cap. I. 
Cbroniquc!I de f't, Denis. v. 9. 

t S. Bcrn, Apolf)
, ad Guillel. c. xli, 

 Id. cap, i I Regner, Chronique d'Eins. 78. 
.. Ord. Vit, v. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


And there was no mouasotery to which donatiOIlS were not made for supporting 
the lamp,-that lamp, "who:;e narrow fire i:-; shakcn hy the wind, amI on whose 
cdge <le\'(}llring <1arkne
s hovers;- that small Hallie, \\ hieh U-ì a (I)'ing ImJ:...(' ri:o:c-i 
3011<1 f;tlls, :-:till flickering up 3.11<1 down, waH (.mhl(.matit. of om' lift', which cv("n 
now thm; wa::;tes anù :-inks." The f'hul'l.'hf's gPII(.rally wcrc 
rillialltly lightlJ ill 
the time of Charlemagne. 
\ldrie, bi..:hop of 
Ian:;, ol'llaiDt ù that C\'l.ry night 
tllPre should hurn in the t'lder church three light. of "il and OIiC of wax, from vcs- 
per:-ï till =--ullrise ; that during nocturns ther'e shollld bHI'II ten ofoil all(l fiyc of wax; 
but on 
lInday:oi and minor festi\'als, thirty of nil and tin. of wax shonld bllrn through 
the night, and on the gr'eater festivals thi:-ï nUlllherwas to he tl'iple(1.* Inadorning 
their churches with such magnificence the Itlolll,:-; a("b.d not without deep thoughts. 
" Let each one abound in his own sense," 5ays Sliger, " But I (,ollfe
s what Illo::--t 
please::; me is that whatever is m04 df'ar awl prCf'iou.; oHJ!ht, above al1, to be made 
sub:::ervient to the admini:-;tration oflhe thrice holy Eu('hari:-;t, 
(lmeoPI)Pse to us, that 
it :mffice.-; to bring to thi.. a(lmini..tration a holy milld and a pure :-:oul, amI a filith- 
ful intention. An(1 we al..o imleed hold that the...;c ar'c t'.'pecially required, But we 
pl'Ofess al
o, that on nothing so much; Oll this huI)' ::,acrifice ought all external 
nubleness to wait in conjunction with all interior purity; for in ull thillgs uni- 
versally ought we decently to serve our Redeemer, \\ ho in all thing...; llniver:,ally, 
without exception, did 110t refu
e to provide :"omewhat for u:-:, who unite<1 
under one admirable indivi<1ual, our nature with his own, who pr'omist>Ù. 
that placing us on his right hand, He would grant U
 to po:,se::,s hi:-: killgdom, who 
Ii veth and reignedl our Lord through all the ages of age
. t Dom Gervai:::e, abbot 
of La Trappe, praising Suger f.n' the holy magnificence with which divine worship 
was celebrated in his abbey, add:.:, " I know indeed that 8t. Bernard declaimed a- 
gainst the splendor of ornaments in churehes, and \\"i
hed that men might be contnllt 
with bringitJg a pure heart; but neither am I ignorant that all the 8aints were 
not of his opinion, as may be witne
sed in S1. Chry:-:o,...tom,"! If one can seek in 
these thing5 to please his own \'aniry, one can al:o;o have a design to honor God; 
and it was with this intention that Suger' :-:pare(1 no expen:;e in providing for the 
pomp of worflhip. His own <...>ell was a.::; poor as those of tilt-' other monk:-:; it had 
neither tapestry nor curtains, and he slept upon stra w : he used no carriage or 
litter, but alway
 travelled on horseback, e\'en ill hi
 E:>xtrcme old age. His table 
had all the simplicity of a monastic board, and two p('r",olls always sat with him 
when he dined,
In some monasteries there were three distinct choil':\ of 100 monks each, with 
children, which sllc('eC(k,<1 each other in singing the divine praises. So that thero 
was a pel'})étllal p:,allllody' night atul day. II This wa..; the ('a-:e in the ahbey of St. 

Iedarll at Soi:"sons, founded by Clotaire 1. in .5,
7, one of the most celebrated ab- 

* Gesh Aldrid ap. Baluze 
IiscellaD, tom. i. 
t Sug. .\ hb. Lib. de Uebus in Adrninistratione sua gestis, ap, Duchesne. iv, 

l. 111 }Iat . 
 Hbt, de Suger, !iv. vi. I Gerberf de Cantu Sacra, 


M U n E!-' CAT II 0 I I C I; 0 H, 

beys in thl' "urltl, illnstriuu' t)r the It'arllillg of ilS ll)onl
Þ and tIlt' multitUt1t> of 
ib :oõailJt..., Il)o:--t of t h, m ofuohlt', awl &urnc of l'''yal blOOt1. Organ-, whieh ' 'me into 
Fmnl't' fir:-.t in 7;')7,* :Hltl whieh -ome or.ler..;, a... tl". Tl.p.ltin
 lwrsistf'tl in rc- 
 ,tiug, 'H're onen built ill thf> ll1f1ua,tt-rips. Cardillal BOlla :-:ays, that tht. Ci'ler- 
t'ian ahbe":" wcre ceh.lmltptl f,)r th.. trr:llltlellr of th,. (li\'in > musi(' whi(.h re'soumll',l 
in theil' chnrchh Ilight and day. Th. offie'
 \\ere ct'lebrated in thE'IlI with slIt.h 

, :md <If','otiou, tllat it sl'ClUed a, if one lll'ard tllt're the voice of :l.1I
.:\r..n n'r
d in littlr
ie:,l alltiqnitie..; \\cre pIt as "I \\ itll certain l)('('nlial' ('u...tOIl)-, 
vt.stiges of l.arly tilllc;), whit'h wer' f,'1I1lI1 in tht' (}.Jt.bratiull of divine \\OIsltip, ill 
religiuns order:;, a'i in the C'arthu,ian.. :lIld f)ominÎc8u:" alld in JldrtiC'lIlaJ' mon3..')- 
tcrit:'" ;S ill that of 
t. 'I3rtin of Tour.;. TIIII"', ill the ahbey of 
t. !)C'lIis, thele 
\\t:I'e' l)1'actiel"S ol)S('rn><.l :"inct' 
he time' of the' ,rt'ro\'il1l!Ìan,. t'IiCla a.... the anthem 
\nte E":llIgdium, ali<I that ,\T('nit. Populi bdl)l'e tllf' t'tHU'ulJnioll of the pt'uplp: 
011 certain tcsti,"uls tilt. ('OIUnHlllioll \\".1' gi,'cn in two kind!', by Illl'ans of a tuht., 
and the ma
., \\"a- ""lllg in (jrt'cl
 In tht, abbc)' of::;t. Gall, nl...o, 011 certain 
day...., the {iloria, ('rt>tIo, awl Patel' liS ,i to ),p ...nng in Grf'l'k, of which, the 110t(' 
in mu...ic art> stil1 pr,'scrycd ; alltl in that of Pa":.I('lt.t ma,:" hatl been !o-ung in 
on the ft.a....t uf P('nt(,'('o..;t, from tIlt' time (If 1If'loi:,..a. One of tIlt> rulc:, of tlu 
Capuchins waS, that in tOWI1.; or chit... wlll'rc bl.'culars l'3.11 flow info ellUJ'('ll('
to In'ar the divinc officc, un the thrl.'C days of holy week, lIIatin -;huuld he 
not in thE' e\'ellin
, but at rni(lnight, according to th > clllitum of the ancient lather":,
It W
b th,. l.u-tom at Cluny, fOl' the pl' who 
i,l m3 1;;'" , at the high altar, t() 
mlmini:,lt'r th.. hilly ('omnumiou 1111(11'1' the t\\O kind..: to tllP .1":\('1111 nu,1 slIhtll'al'OI1, 
a lit I two lIIinistl'rs, who :\ '1'\'l.d.1I TIlt' C:lrthl1
ia"!-', in
t :ul of llll're1y knf'eling, 
pl'v;:,trated tlU'Ill'clv(':-; un the g-rollUtl awl ki";:oõt'tl it, at th" HOlllo f
l<'tlJ-) c:oot.-; III 
thc abbey of :\Iollnt-Ca"illo, 3::, in the b..l
ili(,1 of St. Paul at ROU1t:', there \\ er
('ertain tOllt.S of tilt' chant \\ hie!. ditfert.d from thc GI'p
)..i:l1I. ** In the abhey of 

t. GaB the dwml song wa;;; sin
' ..oleum, It rl}Sl' high amI then s:mk intt) 
depth, unlike thn t ill other' pIa '('s, whieh was 1l1<H'e unifi)rm,tt Thc pro!o-('s ur 
 used in thi,; ahbey hefi)re the (;o'pt'l \\('1'(' 
ullg through all Europe. 
The hymns peculi
lI' to some h()u
('I'-, in hunor of their f('spedi\"c patron,,;, use.l to 
pl(':I:--('31!-o hy Ùle :"trangent'
1) t)f tht'il' t O I1(" " 1I0t (.lteerful, nor) et 
ome (lull 
old thing, ...0111(' ()ut\\orn and unll-('<I mnnotoll,\', ..1I(.h as the' countr)' lIIatl'olh 
('atd)in}: fmm tllt'llJ I"in
 alHl :-pin till tht'Y a}m.....t forgt.t they li\'f'." Bllt \\"Imt 
ehidiy dml'll1Hl tho.;!' whu hatl milltls slI:)('('l't;hll' oftllC "'uhlillH' in thi-;ord'.I', \\"a- 
ÙJI' !ooolemllir
'nd rdidOlJs rc\prelll'e with which the (Iiviuc um 'e was (.pkbrnted 
in all r('li
iou:, houc:;e::.,. III mOllast"l ies th(' tone of \'oicr, tIle time, ('\"pry t hillg 

· Chronic. Qucdlinhurg-cnse np, Lcihnitz, SclÏpt, Brnn
v. 1111\8t, iii, t Dc Oivin, Pdll1. 4:)1. 
t I ebæuf, lIi..t. flu Oinct\". PHriS, Hi. hl

 Con:-lit. of the first Gen. Congrc1!lItion in 1,j29 
... Pel. 
 do Vit.... C....rt hu
iuna. ii, iv, 5, 
tt I1d.cron
 \'un ..\I"x. 

I Cbrhnic. Cluninccns, 
.* Ot" h(.rt tic ('ani U 

A G 11: S 0 F F 4\ I l' H. 


W;1=:i fegulatE'!] by a general :-:en
e of what was best, from which no one wa.... l'l'r- 
mitted to dt:'viate. St. Jerome 8:tyS, that a malllu;:,rs dignity, who, on accuunt 'If 
an immoderate and indiscreet mode uf 
illging the ,H\'ine uffice, incurs a eharge of 
 or of 
Ioomi ne..;
t. Rene<] i(,t in hi..; rule (]esil'e.; that mOfo
e h dioll
should be a\'oide(I ; and \rlll ia'u of Paris and Gar."ion buth cummaud that \nari- 
SOIllC :111<1 dismal prolongation:; ::;holild be rf'pre
N"ù, and that 
pil'itllal hilarity 
should be observed. Such attention \\as paid to the music of the choir, that fre- 
quent 1I0tice-5 occur in ancient bouks of circumstances relating to it. "I have heard," 

ays Cæsar of Heistf rhach, "that there W:l" a cl'rtaill monk in )fount-Ca.;;:-ino, who 
had :-:0 !-'weet a \.oice
 that when on the vigil of Easter he blesRed the pa:-ichal 
candle the dulcet tonf'S ofthat bel1t:diction J't:Sounùed in the ears of all as a celestial 
melo<] y ."* 
The truth i:-:, that the diville offic(''S in general cuuld never be sung with such 
e1fcl't as in these regulat, communities, in which tbey were loved anù studied, and 
uuder:,tood proÍcH!DÙIY. Timt deep meditation uf the muuks and ùevuut sisters 
on the pra)'ers
t have produced gl'eat effect::; in the celebration of extern3.1 
hip, St. There-a say:o; of til3t of our Lord, "\Vhen I have finished it I can 
proceed no farther. This compri
es all consolations; this conve)'s 3 
olid in- 
struction f,)l' tIle mind, and a great remed)' for alJ the troubles of the hl'art."t 
It W:l:'i in 1U00li1stel'i
 that the affecting :-:ymbols of the Cathulic liturgy wer(l 
most fully appl'eciated. POlijolilat speaks uf his seeillg an oM monk weeping, 
wllf'1I the prior came to wa-h hi
 feet with the rest Oil l\Iuliuday Thursday. The 
of course was, that he saw Christ in his superior. \re find that when 
monks lIsed to he jH't:'seutpd to eminent saint
, who were supposed to obtain from 
God whatever they pr
yed for, what tbey u
ed to beg on these occasions might 
be demanded for tht.'Ill, was the gift of tears in the church; one would de:-:ire that 
he mi
ht alway" weep durillg mass; another at the !"olemn vigils of the second 
and fifth Feria and 011 the Sabhath,t \\?hen tra\.elling and in strange churche
monkí' were to ohsen.e the b:lllle demeanor as other
, for those who have only 
oue heart and one soul ought nut tù appear di,..silllilar extt'ruaIly.s The devout, 
reverelltial fo:tep of hoo(]e(1 men am] their profimnd gpnufl.ectiolls in tht'ir chllrcht':', 
were actually so JlIany a('ts of t
lith-the re
1Ilt of a deep and practÎm} convi('tion 
of the respect whieh G0<1 reqllirp
 liS to pay externally) a
 well as internally, to 
the mysteri
s or the symhols of reJiJ!ion. Let 11S hra!' a narrati\.e of Cæ"3.r of 
Heistel'l>aph to iHu:;trate thi:;; remark. "In the abhey of Hemmenrode wa-; a cer- 
tain couvertite, a nati\'e of Colo g np , L\p name Liffard an humhle meek man 
. J , , 
whose offiee it was to tend the swine of the fJlOI13ster.r. Toward
 thp en<] of hi
litè, as Lord Hel'll1ann, then ahhot, related tn me, he wa!ò tempted hy the spirit 
01 pride; fOf lie i)egan 10 
:J.y to hirn
!'lf, '\fhat am I doing here? I am well 

* must. 'lirac. Lib. iv. c. s, 
t Cæs. Hei
t. lIlu
lirßc. ii. c. 22. 

t The Road of Perft>ction, 42. 

 :3-1. Bonaventura Sp('culum Xovilior".m. c. 30. 


11 0 H. E 
 () A T 11 0 L I VI; 0 }{, 

horn, but Oil account of this vile offi('e, df:'f'pise,I by all my friend!'. I \\ ill not 
stay hCl'c any longer.' Su he l't':",ol\"cd to Ita\'t' the I1lOua
[(>r'y next day. But 
that nrghr, 
 hc \\alched in his Lcd, tlJt'rc :Ippe.u-el) tl) him a vcncraü)c person, 
\\ hI) made signs that he shouhl ÍlJ!lo\\' him. lIe rosc up, took his :",hoe
, amI fol- 
lU\\L'ti to tbe door of the dormitory, which opcneJ of itself. Tlwncc tlaey pa
t to 
the duoI' oftht' ('hul'('h, whi{'h in like Jl)alll\(
1' opt'net) to tlll'lIl. The figurc mll\"('I) 
up the {'ilOir of the cun\'crtite::, ; he ftlllo\\"l'<I, ulld m, they l'a:,
c\) hy the altar of 
St. Juhn the };
rJ made a profoUll!1 illclill
ltiolJ. The other, \\ ho \\('lll tir
:-:,Ùl then, 'You ha\'e done well to buw l'e\"t'rentl,y.' Then cumin(r to the sonth 
ùoor of the church, which lead::) into the doi
tcl', they founJ it also Opt'n, as \\t,1l 

 that \\ hich It ad
 to the (.-cmeter)', all \\ l.ï(.h arc )'rgularly {ucked every night. 
On their entCI ing thp t'emetery the gm\"c:::> of thc d
ui \\ ere all opeu, and the fi
lire 1t'
lding him to tllat of a mall who rCt.t.'ntJ}" tlilù, stupp J awl :",aid, 'D" )"OU 
mark this 111311 ? Yon will :-.00n be like him. 'sm\, whitla
r ÙO you \\ ish to go?" 
Tht'n as lit' wa..; ahuut tl) leal I him tl) ot'If>,' putrid i)(.)(li('
, the c'ol1n'rtite ('ried out, 
\Spare laW, Lord, :",pare lIIe; for 1 ('an not tht, :--ight.' Then I't'plierl the othcr, 
, 'rh.
' through pride \\ill you dt':",ert the port of ..;a!\'ation? Promise to me on 
thi:; "'p')t that you will r(-'main ;' :Iud he I'romi:-Ctl him. T'1t'1I tilt' g-rave ('J . >tl, 
ami they retnrned, car'h door 
hlltting af'tel' tllt'1II a... the.\' \\"t'ut throu
h, and on 
 h,.fore the 
ame altar, hc :l!!ain humbled hilU
df as ht.'ft,rt', allù thc'n felt 
all interior clln\"iction how tlaat fir:",t art of humility had cnde.lI'pd hilll to God; 
and enÏt:'ring the dormitory, tilt' c100r 
hut of it!-('lf after them, ami wlwn lie lay 
down ng;iin 011 hi.; 1)(>d, the fignre \'ani,hPt1, alH) froUl that hour diP tc'mptation him. * 
II u
o of St. V'ictor explains whv in the diurnal aUI) D()('turnal office., thc Imme 
of :uuhors :u"e not pronounced a
 they are at ma
s, by b.l
'il1g, "that h('rd
aIltI worknwn who a&-i
t at the lattcr wou!11 not know who wrote thec;:e P:ì,.!-':tgp!-', 
if th{>)' were not told; wIH'rea.. clerk" anel dome
ric... of the ('hllrch kno\\" who are 
tlte :l1Ithf)r
, from having ofren 'warel them." The monk" 1(>\"('(1 the di\'ine t'm- 
ploynwnt of the ('hior; :lnll what is 10n,(1 i:-. well done. Cal dinal Bona mentions 
a monk of the Cistercian order, who fl'OlII il! lit alth 113,ù ka\"e from hi.; abhllt to 
abscnt him
('lf from matin
; yet hl' hardly ever availetl himc:plf of the libf'rt)". 
IJeing askPtI why he {>xpo
("d hilw....lf Imnpæ:'!-o3ril
', "I cannot dn oth('rwisl'," 
h rcplit-'d, ht:,r rpmernht->ring' th,. eonso1ation r pXlwrit->nPe in my !'oul (1nr- 
 the divine OffiCf', I am pained to tht' la
t degree not to be present in thp 
chllr('h where angels antI Je:,u, Chri"t him
)f are pl'esent with the ('hildrf'n of 
\Vhen L:mrentÍlIs Ft'rl'arus, abbot of St. :\fartin's at Palermo, nc;:ed to hpar the 
helJs f)r th(' divinp offi(,p,-"Let u:; go, hrethren, joyfully," !;:Jid hp, "to reer(':lte 
()lIr min I
,"! "\Vhile :"'Ilfferin
 un(ler mv st'\.ere nuskr 3.t 
hool," says Gnihert 

it l1ìu
Iir. Ï\'. 4. 

t I)., J)j\'in. p" 11. .i

lci1b bacfa, ii. 1082, 

 U F F A I T 11. 


ogellt, " I did not try to avoill the .ecclesiastical uffice; nay, when thc hour 
came, I did 1I0t e\'en prefer my supper to it."* 
\\llCli Gobert, of tbe abl)(')' of Villiers, was travellilJg amI singing the utfice 
"ith his cOlllpanioll, the of :-;ome dogs \\oul(l illduce him to hreak otfuu- 
tll they hall pa-;sed, that he might lu:;e Iwthing of the hanulJlt)" of tilt-' :-
chant , . fi,r tllOu
h he W:I:; 0111\' a la y orotlll'r without cleric..l kllowlcdlr(' tilt' mere 
...... 0 , 
S()lllld of the hilly words fillcù his heart with .swpetlte:":,,.t 
:\Iollk,.; u!"cd oftl'n to remain ill the chur('h durillg thc lIight, evell while t1lt-'rp. 
was DO offil'e, 1 n dlc dC('I't'tal:; of Lanfralll', I'Cfel'l'ing to die 5"ason from U('t"ber 
to Å(lvcnt, we remI, c, that the prior at midlligllt, befure luatins, is to go through 
the church with a dark lalllt'rn, kSI all)' one shuuld oe a:o;lcep tht're, amI that If allY 
one is praying, he is to pa:"s him hy in 
ilcnct'." \re rt':ld in the chronicle of 
l\Iehose: át the date of 1259, that there was a monk in that aohey "hu for Ì\\ euty 
years wa... np\'er knowlI to usp his be<l ; he slept oefore the altars, E\'en in the 
wiuÌl'r he u...;(.d 10 :-öpend a gr\ at pal t of the nigllt in playing 
acred melodil'''; on 
the l1:1rp in h')ßor of the Bles:-5e(1 \'ïrgin. 13y day, while reading the P:,altar, he 
u,.;ed to Hit neal' the door of the church with a ha'iket of orea(l ; and no poor per- 
sons deparlet) without having :",ome[hing to carry away from it."! 
Sugar al ways went to mat in,; when he was at 
t. Deni
; and wLen afIàirs of 
state callpd him to the court, or when he was tra\'elling, he uselI to rise Ly night 
to ...ay thl'lll at the same hour :18 he would have ri:,ell if he l1ad been in the abbey,
lartellC, on occas:-5ion of his \,isit tn Clail'vaux, remarks that the abbot, in 
hi,.; 80th year, a
:"ist8 at Ikal'ly all the offices, alHl rises constant!\- at two o'clock 
fur mat ins. He retire..., to re:-;t ut ten, having eaten out one meal in the Jay, amI 
dl"allk 110 wine. 
How interesting is it to find the great St. Bernard, whose counsels directe(l 
king,.;>> \Vl1o
e pell guided the nhri::stian:; of the ea...;t as well as of the west, explain- 
ing to a monk of Clairvaux, wh
' he hall not replied to hi:; letter:-5 on recei\'in
tht'm, by saymg, that he wa., (,('cupied in the ('elebration of lllP divinc ft-'slival. 
" Y onr h.tters came to my hands 0:1 Chri4ma:-:-day, when the ðolcmllilY of ('our.-;e 
did not permit me t() thin k of all}' thing else."11 
imilarJy he :.1Plllog-ise.s to Uf!:er, 
a canon regular, fur replying to him in a very short lettel', on the 
ronnd of its 
heing the :-:e:l!nn of Lent, c. There i,.: a time for silence," '::oaid th\:' wi:,c man; 
" out what time \\ ill have its :",ilenct' if coufalmlatioll is to daim fill' jt:.;plf C\'t:'11 
the sacl't'd days of Lent? \rhell we call1lot e\'ell speak to the pre..;ellt what we 
wish, call wc didate 10 the ah:"ellt? Ollt while J dictate or write, what lei
or silell('e call J ha\"e'? But \"t,U ....ay, I ('all do all thi:" in ::5ilellce? Y Oil calillot 
say-!'o seriou:-Iy, f()r what a IUHlult ::0. iUlh.. lllilld of tllP dictator whl'n a multi- 
tude of sentences I'l'sollnd,.:, where a \'al'it'ty of w()rd
 and diversity of :,enses con- 

* Guih. .\bh,' de. Kovigentn d(' Vila 
lIn, Lib. i. c. 6. 
t HI!'t. )[nna...t. Villar. Lib. ii. 1\[1. )[arlene, Tiles. Ancc. iii. 
t Chronic. de :\failro
- Rer. 4\ndic. :-'cl-ipt. i_ :: lIi,t 11e Sll
er Lib. vi. 

I Epist. 86, 



CUI', whcre of[(,11 what O('C'lIrs i... J'('jrcted, an,I that which vani hc'i i'i 1'( quirl."tl ; 
\\ hen it is cOII
i(h'n'(I what i1" tlH' lit'S! l'xpn :,t;ion, the 1110..,1 COIl
<'qIH'nt sl'ntel1('t., 
the 1II0000t, the III( 'it lI,t'fll), what i... to ('()IIII' fìr:-õt. \\ hat b
t, all(I oth".. thin
(If 111" sanlt' kimI? _\11(1 (10 YOll tell 1110' that Ihi::, is (Illipt? alii), IJ{'(':UI:--' tlae tOlWII
i:, sil'l1f, will you ('"
11 this "ilcllce'?"* _\llihat dralllatiC' iIH('r(':--t, tllC'I('fore, 
attaC'laul t41 tilt' f; stival..:, of \\ hich we !'pukc in lhe huh bo(,k, \\ 
h f;,lt in m"11- 
tl'r:c'ð ill th... l,i
lu':-ot perfedioll, \\ hcre it wa..; the dc.",irc> of c'\,pry 011(' to ('o-opt'rah', 
in the tlt'cp...,t Il't'es...;':, of hi:, sOIlI, with the intl'lItion.. of th" dmr('h. 
The st'clllar dergy, \\ ho in a certain st'lbe IIIlht mono with tile world, 8 ('Il) 
oblig" (1 f'.)metimc.. to 
i\'e lip thing...; of \'t'nerahle an,I of useful oIJ
r\'alJ('l" throll
('olllplialH'e \\ ith tilt. manllers .1rotlllCI tht'm. I f tIlt' puhlic bt ('OIllI'S to) (1i'bip.lIecI, 
or too much occupi,'CI \\ ith the worhI, to han' Il.i!o\lIrt. for :I
..i:-otillg at the divilJ
offi('c',,;, Illt'...e officc" in the cllurch
s of thc sc(,lIlat, :ire eitlll'l' t)upprl' 'c1; (anlI 
"hate\'er coullcils or 

'lIl)(,l-; ilia)' say,"!, rtqllirillg that tho \\hole Pa ,hal \\('l'k, 
and thc 
ccunc1, thin), anù fimrth feria
 after Pcntt't'o!'t :-ohou},1 he ("(>Iehrat(',) \\ itla 
pomp a
 the chief day, all tIlt';:\. great :n1l1i\'t'r
:Lrie-; :11',' nelll('t'll t) liu)(' more 
tlaall all C)l elimll')' oh..;prvall("(,,) 01' t'lst', as we :o-t,"e l'Cl'OIl1t11Clllled in Pllhlh.-.atiolli 
sty It'd CathllliC', thpy an' to l)t' ch:nwl'cl :lIHI 
tript of their :l1ll'it'lit univcr,al char- 
acter jt 
o that, in fint', tA' a ef'rtaill l'"(t.ent, the r('
ult of their ßC'quiesccnre 
all1011llts to all illtt'r,Iil't, whieh comes to hE' cOlisidel'('I1 an ilillII Igc.'nc,'. 
Hilt tltc rnollk... 11:1,1110 oC'l'a..;ioll for .-u('h :-"wl'ifìC'l3: wllt'th,r ppople of tIlt' worltl 
clwse to b' piou, or in,lit1"'I'Pllt, thl'ir dllll'l'llPS rt':,oulI,!t.,I \\itlt the prai
 of God 
amI the holy ('il'clc of ecclt....i:L..;til'al ritf' wa..; mailltaill' d in all It. sublime order, 
IIl1l11aillt.>Ù :lncl una(lultt'ratt><1. The IIIOllk
, not content with faithflllly ce}ehr:lting 
in tlal'il' own imll1t'diatc dlllrl'h, ('\,en ma(Ie foulldation.. to pro\'irle fi)r tilt' 
rite..; of the di\'illc of1il'l', wllt'Ten'r t11f'ir inflllcllC'C cxlt.wlllI. Th4'r('" a, a pl'iory 
at \lIna)' bcl011frilW to tlte ahh,.y of ClIlIlY, ill \\ hich \\'prp tCl hI' ah\ays Ì\\ 0 Illonk
along \\ ith the priur, \\ ho were to say rua..... there ùaily, :l1ll1 to f-illg vc:,pel'
 \\ ith 
1IOt(, e\9cry cJay.
The lllollks \\"0111(1 not 
ll"pl'nd thpir officI;:) through allY human motl\'l'. '1'l1('Y 
II3.d 110 parti(.
 of p1t'a"lIr(' to arr:.lII
e at l'crrain pf'rio,ls of tht )'mr, \\ hi(.h tl1('Y 
prl'ft'rt't.l to the eOlllmefllomtioll of an apostlt'. XU( en'lI 11)(' dc:o-tl1lctioll of 
thcir 1l10na
t('ry wOlild ('au" an illtt-rruptioll tl) thc,ir psalmody. IlIglllphll:O- re- 
late" that at cby-brt.ak, the IlIl1rning aftcr till' fata' ni rht ill whi,.h lla. abbcy of 
Crowl:lIHI was hllrm, the monks pprfr, nUke \\ ith :1 111
uhrioll:-o \'oi('(' 
ill the IIall of GrilllJ..:etulll
, the ('lIrr()(lial'ilis of tIlt' ahb.'y j :l1IÙ not till nfrl'r\\ al(]... 
did tllP)" prOt" ('11 to f-':\.:Iluinl' tÌl
lttOkillg rllin:o-, whl'l'c the fire \\n
 tlOt ('\"'11 th('J) 
lIi,llf.'d,1I \nd Ic,t it he oh:'('I'\'f'tI, tllat tl.i!-i ('lIn,talH'Y \\:18 the re:-ldt 
much of private indin:ltiull a' of ..trietnc.-,s of diseiplint'. Thlls, durin the 

· Epi,l. 89, 
t ('.Ith. ,I.,.!. XO. ,
Q. l

t S} D()(tU!J Inei1enh('mt'n!'l. ap, ('aniss, I..( ct. Anti'}. 

 RihlinthCC,1 C'lunhc, n,..i... 1';16. I 77. 

. \ G E 
 0 F F A I T II. 


intcrllict, in 1199, oeca...iunl.d by the conduct of Philip .\ugu..tll:-: to Ingelherge, the 
prillI' of 
t. J uhn-de::s- V Iglles, at 8ui-::)ons, aud three uf hi:" monk
, :.tfHidetl at 
tile :silence ill theil' church, left. the city on the day of the A:--
umptioll, anù pro- 
('ceùe.1 (0 a IlcighbOl'ing mountain, where Ihert:' h;ul been for Iller!) a hermit. 1n 
that lle.-;ert place tlwy sung vt:
per;o;, amI after a fl'llgal repast took )"epo!õ=e till 
midnight, when they rose to siug uaatins, during which, it wa:; said, tht.)' were 
ll by a choil' of angel:-:.* Even in òulth the desire of the monk..:. always 
;'pp"arell t) be to continue their holy song 011 earth to the last mumcnt, befure tle- 
p:ll'ting to the world, where it was to rt'souml ft /I' evel'. St. J oh n of the Cros;;:, dying 
in the convent of Uhe\le, after receiving extreme unction, at eight o'clock in the 
t'\'elling, requestl'li the father provincial, amI the oUler mOllk..; who wished to re- 
llIain with him, to retire and take some repose, telling thcm that he woulù :"elld 
)r them in time. ...-\ft('r the cOllllUunity had retired, he rt:'lnailleJ, ki:--sing the 
cl'l1t'ifix, and murmuring words of love till IIi lie o'clock, whell he a!'ked the hottl, ; 
:uHI th.... infil'marian having told hilll, he i'aid, " \V e 
hall depart hence, to say 
matills in hea\'en, at midnight." Then, after reciting many psalms, amI hearing 
:"ome chapte[':i re;ul f\'Olll the book of Cantide:-:, he continueù to a...k l'epeatedly 
what the hOllr wa:-:, and when it was half-p:.tst eleven he begged that the commnll- 
ity might be ::summonell, anl11hen re
ponded to the prayer:; in recommendation of 
his s Illl. A;:, ...oon as the clock had 
truck midllight, a monk left the room to 
s')Illlll be belL Openiil
 hi", eye
, at the sound, he asked what it wa..:, awl when 
they t"L1 him that it wa-5 the hell for matins, ,. Glory to God," he exdaimed. 
Then having looked roun(1 Oil all pre-;ellt, he put his mouth to the feet of the 
cl"llcifix, and s:lid, "In lIIanu
 tua..:, Domine, cOlllmendo :-piritulll meum," and 
the :S11n. instant expired, alS if he fell into a :-,weet sleep. This wa..: on the 14th 
of December, 1591, in the ftlrty-ninth ytar of hi:oò age, and the twenty-eighth of 
hi..; profession,t How sublime wa.; thi
 undeviating course of the regular hours, 
which nuthing coul,l interrupt; 1I0t evell dIP holy spectacle declarell to be pre- 
 in the sight of GOlI, of a death-..:cene such a;:, thi..; ! Xo wonder that the heU 
ofthè ll1"ua...,ter.,', which annotllwed their celebration, 
hould awaken 
;uch emotions 
in all wh.) he:ml it ff.lm aLII'. 
Iethinks these tletai1s will en'n give an ad(litioual 
interest to tint allusion to it by the pl)et, who de...crihes the ride of Sir 'Villiam. 
of Deloraine, 

.. WheD Hawick he pnss'(l, had curfew rung, 
Now midnight lauds were in )[elrose sung." 

\Vhell the fleet of French l''lbdinlô:, under Philip Augu
tlls, bound for Pales- 
tine, encountered the (lreadfnl :,torm in thè :-,trait... of )Ie:-;
ina, ::if tel' the horses anù 
 ha.{ been thrown o\'er bO:1I'<l, the willcl anI 1 thunder seeming to grow 
more tunihle, all hopps of saft-'ty were hpg'innin
 to v:mish; hl1t 3ftel' mi(lnight 
the kin'
 con";f)1C\1 the men, !-ayin
, ,. C.-ase your fear
: already the brethl'en of 

· IIist. .ie SOi".SOD
, ii. 67. 

i Do,ithét.', viii. 


:\1 0 It E $ CAT II 0 L I (' I 


Clair\'allx are to ll1atill
. TIH' baillt..:, \\ 1.0 (10 not forgf't (}":, are reciting 
their holy :,cl'\'i('(' ill honol' of Christ. pray('r..: will .!t'lin'r liS 1'1'0111 thi.." \ s Itl' 
pok(., JIll' tll mult of till' at III ospllPl'l' :-ub
idl'.I-tlle fllry of the 
willli \\a.. upP('a'l'd, tilt' mO'1il amI :-;t'lIsag.lin appl':u'c 1, a III I the":l grew ('alm.* 
"rc may Oh:;('I'\'I', ill c,'nclll.,ion, that monk..: ill tilt' Illiddl.. a
ei \\"l'n
 1I0t ('nt 
in thl.ul.,gical :-ciellce to ùeÍt'1Il1 tIlt' "is.ll)m of th"ir (li'l'iplillc, in thi.. n"pO(.t, 
ugHill,t tht' cavils of ol
, cc 111(,' wo:'ship of tl1(' C:lOir," 
's th.. alln:lli,t of 
the C'apw'hin..:, cc is lIot a religioll of ill.ll1ll'nt :11111 igIlOI':l1It 1ll('1I, :1'; \rYl'liff a 1111 
lais p('Cl
 illlag:lll', hut ofdi\'illc 1I1l'1I, 
uch:ls tilt. .\th:1I1:1S;:1I1"', tlu' B:l,j)" th.. CY- 
, till' Chry
, the Cyprian..:, th.. IIilaril's, tlU' .\lIthW
tS, the _\lI
IIcreti(p in CVl'I'y ag-c h:t\'c utrac1.l'IJ it, \\hile tll() ('hurl'h hab ub\ays prouolIlI('cd 
.,('ll th(' lIat ion.. in \\ hil'h it was oh:,('I'\'('I1." The hPllcfi t rl.... II 1 Ii IIg frllm 1m\'- 
ing tlH'
C elIUI'elH:-;, 01' mllnu..;'erit s, at 3. :--horl (li.;;t 111("( fl".III1 hOUlt':-', wao; 
dl' 'ply :lppn...iatPll h.\' thc p,'oplc in a
(':i of fiaith. cc Xl':lI' 3. mona..:tl'ry/, was tll('n 
till' ql1alificatioll to cuhalll'C till' \'alu' of.:m l',hl('; a..; 1I0W it is, " I)('ar a pack of 
Iwullù.." Tuc Iwighl)llrhouù of br. Gall, ur ""t. D,'ni" of Gla;;tonblll')', or ""'t. 
.Alban's, W:h th"11 illdl'p(1 (l('sil'(.d (111 dint'rent gl'onn , l... fl'Ont wha' it w0l1111 1.(' 11()\
At tht',(, pbl'c" 111:11))" Í thl'ir hearts op(,Hctl, :11111 their :-0111.. il1,tantanpon!-.l
' CII- 
fralll' trom al1 the "Cl'\.jlc hOI1lJ
 of tlai.; world. Th....(. \\'('1'(' (.:\.t modi..a,')' in. 
6taIWt.s, but no le

 allmirahle wcrc thc gell('ral 1" liltS tu the 'UCil.ty 3.roulld 
ùll>m n amI tend('r' 111('1 lId ip.. of th(' cia n rch, h.\' l11('an.. of t h..:"".. i n..:ti t ut ion,:, 

aillt.d ac('('s:.; to th()
(' who, for want of them, w.,nlel ha\'e (It'gt'I1f'r:atl.d, a... \\'f' IIOW 

'C su man)', frtlm thc dignity of tlll'ir bapti'IU:II \'()(':lI ion; fiJI' 1I1!1..:ic of thi:-- 11:1- 
ture i,.;a :ottren
th"lIel' both of the mind :tllli of th.. hpart. If a m ,(II'I'D philo..:\)- 
plu'r doubt.. whptlrcr the :ullllirahlc 01'11('1' of till' r
I'cc1æml)ßian:, W3" lil'II'(' owing 
to thl.' law:,> of L
lIs than to thc ('le!i(,:i of Tyrt:CII":, \\ (' III" (illot \\'lIn,I.'r that 
thost' who lin.d Il,'ar mon'l
teri('s, !-llol1ld ha\'e imbih('(l '0 lIlallY h,,1
' :11111 
. Ill'rOIl.. 
f'('ntiml'ut.. 111 ('rd.\' by singi,w th(' Gregorian ('hant with hllocll'(1 1Il( n, _\ t1t,ction 
for the tli\"inc offiel's (lit.tatL..l a delicate :-oli('itlul(' for the wanb of tho" who \\'cr(' 
<,mplo'yCft in tllt'il' c(.lchl'atjon, of which we fiml m:my tml'(':,. II('ßce, Charh.... 
the Ha1(1 fOlmd('.1 in the ahh.y of St, Dl'ni,.:, " fift,,'n tap('r.; fill' thl" n.f('("t I 11")' , to 
b(' pl:u't.( I on the ta hl(.s in \\ i liteI', h '('an ';('," a..; t hp (.hrlll1 i ('1 ('.; ohsprn', "tilt' ('11111- 
II IIl1lit.\' :--l)nll'til1l(,
Ot'..; \"('ry late to ('olbti..n. frllm th.. sen'i('c in the (.lallr('h !}lIt 
h:l\'illg bl't.'n fillislll d hpf.lf(' ni
ht-fall."t "TllI're W:1S :l pl)or man," N1Y
of IIl'istl'l'ba..h, "who had kppt flocks in his yomh. hilt in old aJ!f' \\':1": obli
('(1 to 
II('.! at thn door of our abhc
' f'lllirch, lIe n ','cr \\"OII1d l"av p tlaP churcla 3... IOllg 
a..: till'l't' \\'a
 all\' p:lrt of tIll' di,'in(' office ('('1 eh 1". tt ill!!. Th('I'('f"rt', he was )0\"('11 
by ('\,pry (lnc."
 llld('t.d, fl'om all 0111 ('lIlllpbint a:!aillst the monks of 

· Philipej,1. Guillaume Ie Breton, CJ.nt, iv, 
t 1IIu..1. :\lirac. Lib. vi, c. 33. 

t Cbroniquc:> de :-..t. D. an, 8jj, 

AGE::) 0 1<' F A I T 11. 


Ca:;...;ino J that" they mutilated theit. books in order to make p:-:altcr:; fi)r the use of 
\\omcn aud ehihlrcu." we lIIay iufel' how wdl their offict..,òS wcre followed hy the 
sUlTouuding poupulation. Thrl'e aged lad iI's liVt Ù cl(15C to tIll' 111olla:4er)" of Bee. 
Their libcJalit)" to the con\'t.J1lt was unhounded, amI they re('cÍ\'
1 all kind atten- 
tion:; from the lllonk,., Of the last who survived, we read, that she ('outinu
her hahits of dt','otion to the cnd, and in exu'eme wcaknc:-:s :,till a..;:--is((.,d in the 
church daily. 50 dl.'epl.\' wa..; the scene ofhet' ad"rations imprcs
c(l on her thought
that e\'en when carried home aud sittillg Ly the fire, 
he ::itill constamly thought 
her:;elf in the cburch, In the annal..; of Curby, we read, that" ahout thp middle 
of the fifteenth century Rcgina Salm..;tn amI Veroni("a de Stcinhrug were ::;0 
(le\'out, that neither cold, nor the night air, DOl' hunger, could ever drive them 
frum the church of the abbey, but they lived in it constantly, to be ol
ects ofim- 
itation to others."* 
In the monastiC' churches, beside.:; the regular offices, many devotions were ob- 
sen"ed, which endeal'eJ them to the people. Thus, in the annals of Cor boy, we read, 
under the date of 1402, that "the chapel of St. Gertrude is repail'ed, and it is com- 
Illi.lmled that every morning mas>; :,hall be ct'lebrated fi)l' the sick in general, 
wherever tllf'Y may be.t U In the abbeys of Ouches, KOYOIl, and in other
, there 
wa:oi in:")tiwted, "saysOnleric Y'italis, "a solemn :1nni\'er
ar)" in fa,-or of the f<Jth- 
ers, motlH-'l':;, brothers, and si:;ters of all the monks of the monastery. Their 
names were iu:--el'ted in :1 lung regi8ter, which is placed on tbe altar. The same 
day the almoner recei,-e<.l in the abbey as man)' poor people as there were monk
J and 
ga\'e them an entertaillment; aftet' which, the ceremony of the :\IalHlatllm was 
performed Lyall the religious," The verse::; for tbe solemn proce:':5ion of the 
relic:5 of St. Gall dC:-icribe the fitithful crowd sweetly singing, bearing the blCS5ed 
burden through hills ami vales- 

" Scandens et descendens inter montium confinia, 
Silvarum scrutando loca, valliumque coucava, 
Nullus expels ut locus sit istius solaminis, 
Jamque cælum, jamque terra, jamque pontus laudibus 
Planùat. atquc cilcumquaque vox em is sa plebibus 
Auctorem pa:remquc t:\nta tam que clari luminis, "t 

The Benedictine., of Eillsie(lelill, ill their processions in the open air, u
e a por- 
table organ to gui,le tlU' yoicf's of their choir. It wa
 a custom then oIH:rn>d h
all the inhabitants of the town, to W(-'3r lon
 cloak,.: while in the church ofdit' ah- 
Iley, to which tIH'.r u..:e,1 to h:l:;ten at all the regular hour,.:, a
 jf they were them- 
sèh'es mnuh.s. I nd
,('d, tlwre are few of the aucipnt chronicle
, in which we do 
not filHl mo;;;t r('markahJe te;;;fimon
-, to flu' benl;fìt re:;:ultin!! f!'Om the churches 
of the mnna4e'.i('..; to the ('ommunity at large, Let us hear what is recorded 
under the (late of 1330 :- 

· Ad an. 14:;

t .\ p. J ,'ihni! L.. iii. 

t Lih. Hi. 


11 U H E 
 C..\ T II 0 LIe I; 0 H, 

" It i5 un ancient l'll
tum of the citi/('u... of Pavia to visit Ofu'l1 tlu- thl'(':-;ho]as 
of the 
aints. Un the lIativity of uur LOI,d Ihey pro('t.(.d ",olt'mlll}' to tlu- IIl1JllaH- 
ter,\' of
t. Sa\,iotlr with 1ll
C:.l1 ilistt'lilUellt.., tYIllLrcl
, am} trumpet.;, :md ilk hall- 
lIer,.:, with lhe (.hiet' magi:--tratt' at tlwil' hc:ul. Similarl)' 011 th' ft.:o,li\'als (If''\t. Pt'ter 
anò oi
r, .\tlgll:o,tiu, tlley procl'ed to tlU' monaster)' of St. Pl'tt.'r in Cæln-aureo, at'(l 
ofJèr pallillm
, the lUultitude ofwhÎ('h nlay J.x. :--('CII 011 tlll'
C f
 :--ti\'als Wlal'lI tll(
Y UI'e 
extclldlJ in the chtlr(,h. 011 the \"igils of Sr. Peter alill of St. ...\ugtl!'-tiu, cro\\ù' 
from mallY parts of Lombardy pa
 the \\ hoh, lIight in the church. III the 1II0n- 
:lsrery ..If <:::t. Pt'ter} ill Cæln-aurco, where is the hody of "'1. _\.tI
rill, thcrp. is, 
011 e\"cr
' s('conel reria of thc year, a solemll serlUolI, at \\hi<,h lIt'ad) th(' "lit/Ie 
city as
. 011 ever)' tllil'l1 f{'ria tht'I"(' is a 
t'rtll(lll ill dlt' hothl' of tIll ]ll'rmit., 
of St. ...\lIgllstill" 011 thl' fourth, the 
ertlllln is in the dmrl'h of the !)cHuiuit'.m:-:. 
011 the fifth, in that of the Carm..Iire:--. Ou tIlt' si\.th, ill rhe COJl\cnt of tlw 'Iin- 
01'9; and on th
 :saturday in Lellt alone it i!:l agaill ill the C IlYeut of thp Domin- 
. Be..;idc:; the:-,c, there arc particlll. r :-,t'rlllou!'= oc{'a.
iollally in diflerellt holy 
plal,(,";. \ml the t'rowd- whi{'h att"lul th..m are Sit 
r('at, tllat OIlC mildlt f'npl'o:",c 
the pcople 1':11'ely heartl th \\"ol'll of Gild; :uuI there i:. al way<; at the t'lul a gen- 
eral cUlltf '
Ol1 and henedietion. 011 fl.stival:-:, alltl cvel'}' day in Lent, the (;;cr- 
 are more lltUlierou.... On Good 'Friday eV(lry onE.', frolll the h'
18t boy of 
the tOWIi tu the Illo::;t df'Crepit olù per::ooll, l'f'pairs \'er
' ('arl)' tu the COII\'t'Ut of 
11II"r.; to hear tll" ..erlllrlllS ou the P'l:o;..;iuli. 1 alii de('eived if I have not 
::)('el1 :-tlch IU1Iltitmlt'i that the whole city r 'maim...} tll':--crll'll. Thcre onc witu' '- 
es h'ar
 alltl g'roan
 abundautly, anti the wholt' da.y i. "pent in heariDb 
ill diffcrellt plnrl::!. III a \\"Irtl, the m,'n ha\'e a... 11111('h Je\"otioll 3::! the wOlllen. 
So that if thel't' be ,",,,.Hut' hwl :ll1Jon

t 1I
, t hl l gn all'st n1l1ll1)l'r... or lIu.. inhaI,irallt8 
arc de\'out ami iutpllt 011 tilP Di\'Înf' \\\ml."* It i
 markL'l1 in a caleudar of the 
1ifh'cuth ('('utury, that on GoU!} Friday, in the church of the Gl"t':lt An
u:-tills, :it 
ari:-:, then.. i., always, in (liffert'nt partb of the cJ.un'h, a :-eI'IJIOII ill Italiun, Ger- 
man, antI Frt'ueh,t At Durham, we heat' of tb.. f:lil' iron pulpit, from which 
olle of the HlOllki 11:-:('(} to prpal'h ('\'ery (lay of dp\'otioll :1t 011(' in tJ.l' aftl'l'lIoolI. 
SalomlJll, abhot of 
t. (;all, :-öhortly Ix,fj1rt his (Il'alll. 011 \
l1l1(by, pr(a('!lctl 
fOllr ti.m's to 
hc people. Tht,l't, wa
 hal'(l1y a ('ity 01' to" n ill all FI:11l 'e in 
which :1 Fr;1IIt'i
;(,:1l1 tlJt>.II()
ian fl'lIlIl Pad.. did not pl'(':l('h il1 Ad\'('nt or Lcnt. 
Th('rc W;18 hardly OnCl'onV('lIt of till' 01'(1('1' that (1i(Illlit fill"l1i:-:h ..i
, ten, or tWt 1\'0 
dc\'ot1t pr('a" ;t the ft,r<'f' of whi(,h di,,;'indion m 1.\' ht' ('nl1.i('('wred flOm what 

t. Thoma
, that "it hapP(,I'!' fr'NII1('nth' th:lt thf'
' who appma('h with 
hanIl'llt.d hl'31't:-õ, 11)' JUI'ans of th(' ,,"oul of pn':H'hill!!, art' kilHlI, d to the dh'ine 
The chnrchE:5 of the mOll3sferiC3 po'..;c"-jcd :11.,0 a <1c<,p lli
torical interest from 

· Anon. Ticinen!l. d,' L'U).1ihuc; Papi:(!, c. 17. 
n. 'rllrnt'1f. RPf. [t. 
('ript tom. xl. 
t Lebenf, IIi..t. tlu J}io(',....., IJp P:II'i... i ii 2 t W.1tl.iin!.!. ,\11 'Hnm. .m, 1234, 

 Opu:-c. iv. I. 

 () F F A I T II, 


the innumerable memorials which they coutaincd, of pions gratitude an<1 domestic 
afft..ctic'll comllleIllOl'ativc of the dead \\"h,) repose I IJf'I1l'ath them; for they were 
,rl'lIcralI\' full of :-:c l )1tld1l'e
 , 1113m' of thcm in the hi.rhl'st deO'Tt'e I' 

 .. '" 0 l:) . 
Here lay l'mpl'rol'''':, philo::,ul'h('r::;, :-tate:-llIl'u, and hl'rl'c", who had !-o of((.n rc- 
pO:-5ell a while ill abueys from the care
 of their re:-pcstivl> 
t.:.ltiOIl:-:, 01' in their bt- 
t..1' year::) had sought ill thpir pe.lceful :-;olitude that calm fi)l' \\ hich they vainly 
si,rhed throllO'huut a trouLh,ù cxi:4t'nce. TI1P histOl'ian makes us ac q uainted with 
;:, 0 
tllt-' ('v('nt
 of their lives: the monk re('alls their ml'IHol")' in a manner pCI haps 
still more forcible, by !l.ading u
 tn theil' tomb
Thp abbeys of the \\"c.-t, Sù lIJany of them founded by the Cru-adcr:-, bore re- 
cord in mal,ble of the aud c:,<,apc::J uf their benefactors amit]..:t th(IBe grt'at 
f'vents, Thu::i in the Cistercian ahlu')' of Bn.üil-Dcuoît, on the rivl'I' Ellre, founde,I 
in 1137, was a chapd f'recteel in pursuance of a ,eo\\, matÌe by \\
illiam de 1tlar- 
('illy, :,on of the first foul1 l 1er, to te
ti(r hi
 pious gratÏtlH1e for hi
dcli,'erance frllm the band", of th<' Turks, and return to his parents and country. 
But what, aho\'e all, aI'l'e:-;tpd the attention of tho.:e who vi:,ited llIona-ïteries with 
a \'Íew 1<:. intcre:...t of this kind, wa... the sepulclll'al lore in which they were so 
singularly I,jeh; for in con:-:equence of many considerations, the desire to be in- 
terred within thEm \\'as throughout the middle a
es almost tlniver:-::al. 
Louis-Ie-gro:-; use(I often Þ) explain his moti,yc for wi:,hing to be hUI'ied ill the 
abbey of St. Denis, amidst the 
aints, "It wa.:," he said, c. in ordel' that hy Ihe 
prayers of thp pilgrims and others passing, he might ohtain pardon of his sin
Even when humility shl'llnk fi'om burial with the martyrs, men still dung to the 
hope of being ao;-ociated in the grave with the mona
tic deaù. Orùeric Yitalis 
MY=-, that in the year 1108, Philip, king of France, fpll sick, awl seeing that lai., 
end W<l:-; neat', he convoke(I the grandel'i' of the stale '1I1d his frielld-, and spoke 
as follows: "I know that the :-cpultllre of the French kings is at.:5t, Denis: but 
a,c; I feel that I am a great sinner, I do not dare to have 111)' burial near the body 
of so great a martyr. I I'evere 
t. Benedict, that tender father of monk
, ane1 I 
de.,ire to be buric,1 in his ('hurch on the Loire." Accordin)! to hi
 dt'sire he wa
thcrefi)re, ImrÏf'd in the mona...tery of 8t, TIf'noit de Fleuri, betwet'n thc choil' 
:md the altar."t ,r e filHI in4ance.;; of n'stitlltion being made to monks, with a 
vipw to gaining burial in their church_ 
Frederic d'Etampes, SOli of Gaue1ric alHI I::;embanl, suruaml....l Payen, ma(le a 
solemn re...:titlltion of ecclesia
tieal !!oods tl) the nlOn
tstery of LOll
pOllt, Fred- 
el'ic came tlwre and c1epo
('d the act npon the altar, The monk
 procC('ded to 
as.-:-ociate him in tile prayt'r:, of the eommlmity, in giving him the book of the 
<1o:,pels to tOllch, anti they prolilised to hury hill) in their church. Afier whi('h, 
he ga,-e the kiss f)f peace to eaC'h of the monks.! \Yhen they coul,1 not have act- 

* Chroniques de 
t, Denis, an, 1137. 
* Lcbcuf, IIi
t. du DioCl-"" tie Pari" xi. 262. 

t Lib. xi. 


.\1 0 H E 
 CAT H 0 L I C' I; 0 I:, 

ualh, 8('lml1 urt> with the mOllks, :--tilllllclI ..otJtrhl to h:I\'l' tliP 1){'lJefit of tlH'il' 
, Thlls, tlU' :u'ehbi
llop of Tour.. apl'loa,.hillg his la..t hour, ('ans(.(llt,tiers 
to 1)(. wriUl'lI to Popc InllClecllt II I. "hid.l a/wr hi..dee't'a:,e "ere ùclin.r,ù IIIHl('r 
hi:o' &'al to that pOlllifJ'by \lagi4(,1' Pt It'r ell' \Yi('.t, ilJ whi(.1t h.. humhly hes,.ught 
him to ('h:lr
c, by It.tter:" the Pl'ior and 1ll(l1l1
8 of Gl'ancl"IllCJIH, t,) pray to (;011 
for hi..: SClUI.* 
It is ('a=--." to :t('eoUllt for this g-eDE'ra] :-olicitndl'. From the place lit tIlt-' ]j\'illg 
to the peace of the tlc:ul, the tl'31181tioll ()ftllOlI
ht was lIatural. TIIP IlJOnk:o; who 
!>rtl\'idl'tl 1:11' thc fùnlltr, hael ]eisul'c to 
tlltly what \\a:-; cOllduei,'c to tilt' luttt'r; 
the'y had time to tlunk l.f tho..c wlao Wert' lh.parh....1 to the otl1l'r world, allli he IIl't' 
wi (h l:'I'\'('l1t fincl fratcrnal 100'e they 
on)!ht to 
"('II re I:)r ('vcr)' mall a trallq II i I 
!!I'a\'e :1IIc.1 311 (.tl-ma] 1'(':0:1. They \\'(,l'e ilJ
t'lIi, 'U": in (',\cl'("i..iu;! ("harit), to the' deae1. 
J n tiaf' ah1>,'y of'dc1in, tlll'I'e \\':IS all :1l111 iVt.l':-'.'l'')' oßi('e fill' Ihe :--lIlI]S of tlu- 
poor SI 
1I)tr('. pilgrims who hallt)i(,(l thcl'{,. 
" Le't 1I0t thl' brc.thrCII sillmher," ::;a}":; Cæ:>:tr of IIei:-terhach, " when tilt')' ('hallt 
for the (lead; hp('aus' a.;; klli
hts :lre gatrlered tClgctlll'r to a tntunamf'ut, :-0 fluck 
f'OIl]... to t ht' oflì("t' of the (le.lll. "t 
lell obsl'n'l'tl \\ i th what li(l(.lit y alll)l'(,vPI'
monks of aU on)"I'" :o:ullg tIlt' I'l'eplil'rn of tho:,e wh()
e :--ouis Wt'fl' ('OIllIlIt'IHlp(l to 
tlll'ir pl'a)'ers. )[..I'l'o\,('r, the Christiall worlel l'ouh) 1I0t he hCtdll
' of thc (a('t, 
that it \\a..;; ill a ll1olla..,t{'r)., that of ClulIY, lItHler Odilo, ill a
8, that tht' fpast of 

\1I soul.., must afTl'{'tin
, mo..:t tt'IIÙCI' ('omml'moratiol1, \\as fir
t ('(']l,hratl'iI, 
whie'h ill till' f()1I0\\"111
 YC,tr was r('
' ill:,titnl('(l for the WIIO](' dlllrch hy Pope' 
Sih'p...ter tlu-' b('colld. It was ('\'iell'lIt that tilt' illt('re..ts of the dl':ul were 11111..t 

tudi('d alll) alt '1I(lt.
tl to ill th(.:-:.... ('olUlIlullitit's. \rtat coulll be Illor' natural than 
that mell should desire to comc ill per
ollall,\' f01' a !ohare (If the ht'n( fit? Thuse 
who he...t lwew what pn..
t'eI in m()nnst(,l'ic..
, frolll Lei II
1 n's thei I' ill mate 
may he prllpo:o:pd a.. taking- the lead ill m:lllifl"tarioll..; of thi
 dl':--il'e, TIllis the 
holy fcHIIHlel' of the ('pJdmtte,l ahhey in thc fc)l"t...t of FOIlt('\'rautl 1)f-,ing on his 
tra\'els. anù prt'{'('i\'illg hilll:ielf ahout to die, 1a:ullio otilcl' f('ar hut that of 1I0t he- 
ing- illterred in his he]ov{'(l hou:; '. " 0 Fontc\'raud, Fonte\'rmu]," he cried, "I 
\\ i..lH'tl so lUut'h to l"t'st with YOll!" belldillg- tlr tllp hi"hop of the city, he 
to him, .c Farllel', kilo\\' that I do not wi..h to he lmripd at]ehem, \\ I.l'rt' God 
dt'i)!lIl'd to lit. 1."1'11 of a ,'il'
in, nor at .Jl'I'tI...alcm 1)(':11' the hili)' :-cpu]('hl'(" nor at 
U'lme arnOIl)! the martyr:-; it is at FOlltt'\'..:lIltl. 110 \\ Iwre hut at Font('\"ralHl that 
I \\'i:o:h to J'('po:-c." There nccorùin
ly 1 )0111 'rartc.>l1l' I:HlI1d hi., tomb at the 
of th(' aHaI'. Tlw:--è \\ ho ill Iifi\ had gi\ï'll till' 5tron;:(.:-;t proof of at1ae'hm{'nt t.) 
the nH)llI

 hy fotllulillg' uhll('Ys, lI1a
' he ('ite, I 1.; f.,lIowillg' tlaelll nroll':o.t in rt.
to this 
()li(.itlH)c, &, Kil1
 Jlenry." :--ay:o: Ol'llc'ri(. Yilali
, ,e c1i('t) at tilt' ca
tle of 
Lynns, in .Kol"lu:uuly; lml at his dc...irl', hi..: hody afre I' the dl'lay of a month, ill 
(\()u"{'(IUt'Dl'c of ullfa\9orable winds, during- which time it lay in tbe choir of St. 

* Epist. Inn, Hi. Lib, x 47. 

t Illust. 
lirnc. viii. {)() 



Stephen, at Cacn, was at length placed on hoard a ship by the monks, who wpre 
charged with the officE:>, and tran:,portpd to EII
l:tnd, where it \V3
 huriNl with 
great honors in the 3hhey of lteading."* Of t}l(' zpal pn\,inec,) by :-urvi\-ing rpIa- 
tive:; to fulfil such de:-,ires, e\'t'n whPIl they \\,PI'P only prt':-,urned, many in
o('('ur. Thus, in 1146, the mal'chiorw;;;..; of Lu('ard, taking offenc
 at having hecn 
ome fi\\.OI. by the ahhot of 
[ount S,'rcno, and a few da
's after dying at 
Gerhestad, was buried there by 
I(lviec of I [(
er, (,01111t of )bnsfe]d. \..t that time 
the )[arquis Conrad returned from ueyoml the sea, and on arriving in Bavaria 
learlll'd tlU:' 
ad event of his wife'::) dt'ath, Hearing that !òhe ha(l not been huriecl 
ill the abhey of ::\Iount Sereno, hy ad\'Îce of Hojel., he became very angry, :lIul 
declared that he woul() compel him to dig hel' up with his own hands. Hojer hpar- 
ing of his anger, awl wi:õ;hing to regaill his f..n"or, went by night and per..;uad. J. 
the gnardians to di
inter her; it heing :-:ix month.; afV'l' sh(' had been bnrif'd. Thi..; 
being done, he cOIH/.eyed the hody tl) \Vittin, whCl'e he met the m
rql1is. Thence 
it was hOl'ne to the Illona:--tery of :\follnt ScrpllO, and burie!l the same 
day; the marquis making donation
 to f'ndo\\' three altar.., fur the repose of her 
soul, to each of which six manses were appropriated. t 
.Again, we must remember that monastel'ies were often the only a;:ylums for the 
bodies as well as the !"olJIs of men on wbom the world frowned. Hence \H' find 

Il('h persons in their. last sick ness, eager to reach them befure they dicd, !jke 
'V ol
ey pursuing his journey to LE:>icp..:ter, and greeting the ahbot and hi
there with these words: "0 ('lther abbot, an old man, broken with the stllrm
of !-'tate, is come to lay his weary bones among yon; gi\ye him a little earth for 
charity." In the Saxon chronicle the account of the imprisonment and blinding 
of the innocent Etheling Alfred, 
on of !(ïng Ethelred, who was afterwards led 
to the monastery of Ely, concludes with these lines: 

co Then to the monks they brought 
Their captive; where he sought 
A refuge from his foe!! 
TiIllifeYs sad evenjn
His body onlercll then 
These good and holy men, 
Accorùing to his worth, 
Low in the 
To tl1e steeple fuB-nigh, 
In the south aisle to lie 
Of the transept west ; 
His soul with Christ doth rest." 

- There wa
, In fact, a spirit of generou
 in the religious order
which prnmpte!) them to di
reg:tr,) al] 1.a;;;c fear in granting 1.urial to the dead, when 
by that aet they might incur tl1P l'e..:entrnent of the powerful. Hence, the abhey
ahonnd with tombs of unhapp
' men, unjustly cloOlned, IIow many gentle, and 

,.. Lih. xiii. 

t Cl1rouic. )Iontis :3ereui ap. 
cdpt, Rer. Germ. 11, 


1 u I.. E 

br.l\,(" and generous, ovcr whosc dark filtP no 101'11 hal'tl hr('athel1 one IlH.]"diotis 
sigh, whose lWlll)r is a\'l'n
ctl b
' monks in tlw in
riptiull 011 their :-eplllchre! 
R:lthcrills puc:,ul, sed tel' lbthel'iu..; eXlll, is th,> " 'ntt'llee "II the tomh ufthat g-reat 
bish"p uf Verona, \\ ho afwl' Lcillg n.I)' ex I H..' 11 t'tl from the. ..d 
 of Y crona 
aUlI Lil'gt', llied ill the c'on\"ellt uf Lnhl'S, \\ here lit" had origillall)' lx,t'n a monk, 
and \\ here his tomh was ere{'t..d with only this epitaph. * 
In th Ci..ter{'ian hOIl": > of the Cumplut .nsian acaùemy, at \Icala, i
 the tomh 
uf '\"ïlliam \ralsh, a Bellt dictin > monk and bi:,hop, un \\ hil'h, it i:'! btatL't.I, that 
after suffering' an illlpris1lllmPilt of thirteen Yt aI's for the Cathulic raith. he dit.d 
. hel'f' an l'
ill'.t In 1l:1-t, Rolx.rt 11., dnkt' of 
 ormalllly, <lit'll at l'al'tlitt', ill th(' 
t \H>lIty-eighth )"l'ar of hi..; impri..onnJl'nt, afler h l\"illg heen taken:u Tllldll'hrai. 
Urùcric \"ïtali:. only add..;, "he' 1'(>PO:-)l'S lmri\cl in th.. COUVl'ut ofth. lUol1k:-: of:-;t, 
Petcr, at Gloucester,"! CUUllt \Yaltle\'c, acclJSl.....1 of tre.1:)()n ag-ain
t \Yilliam, wa:. 
kept in prison at \\ÏIlt'he-;ter. "During .L year." ..ays Ordt!rie, ,. he ditl p('lIanrc 
t:lCre (;,rtllt' 
ius ofhi:o, p:lst life, aud n('vt'l-.fili]ptl t'\'er)" da,\' to 
ing on" IHlnd Hod and 
lifty Pðalms of David, "hieh he hatl kanlt'd in Iii... ('hildhood." lIe sllrp:l
mo..t men ill gènerosity as well as in l'Ollr.lgt'. Dc\'ollt adurer of Glxl, 11t''lJ('(l 
\\ itl. reverCIlCC to the ll1()nk
, and eh >ri..h, d t('nò, rI.\' the dlllr(,la and tlw poor. 
For tlWSl' rl'a"'on
 he wa"l Ll'Io\'ec.1 by all \\'ho fulfillt'tl th(' will of Gild, 3n(1 hi.... 
dt']i\'erauec wa,.. ardently (l..sir(''lL Inglllphu-l sa)'S, Ihat the ('ollnt's cCln(;=-,-OI', the 
\.rcl.hisla()p Lallfrallc, dedar{'t.1 that h ' \\ a!-' inuo('cnt of tlu
amI that hì
 dt':uh woul(1 be that of a mal1yr; but that Ili:-, impi'llis wi Ie ('''ntl'i- 
Lute.1 to hi..; death, aUtI also, that the Xonu:lIls lou
<'C.l tH' hi..; ]ol'(bhips of .l\orth- 
amptoll and Huntingdon; :-00, ill filip, his ellemi
 prc\"ail(' I, awl !ÕÒl'llt('II('C of tll ath 
\\':1"; pas..;('(l alltl exCt'ut, cl I
're tlae c'itizpns of \\iIWlu :.;tf'r 11:\11 r;:-'t'li frOIIl t;u ir 
hl'(li. lIi:i body was ('a:o;t imo a trench, and no one cl:lrt.<f to touch it, Bllt :111,.1' 
JifteclI day:, it W.1i taken up, 
till quitè frcsh, by Yï..kete], ahhot of ('.oylalltl, 
hetl, and C".lrried \\ith gellerallllournill
 to the mOIl:I
 cry ofCro
'bnd. \\ht re 
it wa... lmrit.(l. Illgulphlld 8aY
, that the abLot coutilluillg tu ('xlul hilll in hi... 
:-erIllOIl:', the Sorman.... bp,-:,ulI.> t'llra
ec.) amI F;llIllmollcJ him to a collIwil at Lon- 
(Ion, whel"C he wa, Jcpo.. c1. c"IIllI'>ml1(
,) to pri
on, aUtI 
ent to (;lastonlHlry, to he 
far from all that kuf'\\" hi III, It wa... Oil thi..; o('('u..ion. that I Il!!nl phn:-., \\ ho aft,'r 
:-tml.\'ing at ,r c-tmini..t 'r an.1 Od()I'II, an,1 mak;n
:1 pil
..ima!!t' to .T(>I'n
:tlt m. had 
It(,f'n prior at FOllt:mdle, ill Sormall(ly. wa..:: elect!'tl ahhot of "'ro,Y]a1HI. r 11 <It> l' 
him ill tlh> Ilt'xt rf'igll, tht> monk... !!rie\'in: that the tomb of thcir h'llt'factllr, 
Cuunt \\
ho\)la he (''(po.. 1 to thp win.] ntu1 th
 raill, r('
lIh"il, h.,' :uh-j('c 
of In
ulphll-;, to tralls1att> hi
 r"ffi',ill!-o into th,. church, \\
llPn th(' (hy came, a 
crowl) of tàithflll J){,dpll> :1'H'l11h]('(], and the monk..; prol.'l'('tl",1 with li
ht:-; alltl all 
re\'el'cncp, exp('C'ting to filiI] onh- hi... bnnp-z amI ß-I!tpo.;; f.tI' it wa..; tIlt' :-ixt"Pllth 
year of hi..; sleep: but wht'n the tomb \\'a..; opclIPcl, tllc)" found Iii:, h,d,. as wlJole 

· Trithcrn. ChroniC'. lIir"'Ul1!. 

t Sotit. .\bh Ord. Ci!" .. 

; Lib. xiii. 

_-\ G E S 0 F F A I T II 


3S the day he wa..; buriet1. The h,.a.} wa.:; joill('(l to the boù)', alld olily a thin red 
mark like a threall was rOllnd the neck. The abbut Ingulphus kllclt <10\\,1) and 
ki-\::ied him 011 the face. The body was then solemnly borne into the churcb, antl 
placed ill a tomb by the sid.' of 
t. Glltl.laf', on which, the monk;;; placed the fol- 
lowing in
C!'iptioll: "TuiR stone CO\'t
I'::; the intrepid SOli Siw
m} the Dam'), the 
excpllellt E:lrl \Yalden>. lie li\"ed with hOlloI', feared for his }>l'owes,. Yet in th(' 
mill.;t of corruptible riches and honors, he 10Vl'd Christ and eudea \.ore(] to ple:1se 
him. He ser\'f'd the church, loved with resppct the clergy, and in a peeuliar man- 
ner the mtmks of Crl)yland, who wefè faithful to his memory. Final]y, struck 
by the 
word of Xorman judges, his lilllhs were cunfi<lt.d tl) the earih on the last 
day of )lay. The marshes of Croyiaml rejoict:d to possc...;
 the tomb of a nohle- 
man, who, aii long as lw li\"et], 10\'ell this place with a great respect. )lay the 
,AJmighty grallt to hi8 soul etel'ual rest in the ei:adel of lteavel1."* 
Soon after hi., election, Illgulphu:; had rithlen to Lllndon, 
md macle snch in- 
terest with great men, that he procurp<l th(' <1elh"erance of his predt>C('s:--or, Y'isketel ; 
and he accortlingly sent an e..wort to conduct him from Gla..;touhury to CroyJantl, 
au(l, says Ingnlphn
, " with all [;1\"01' and filial love beholding his worthy :Illil 
\"enemble person, :-:0 excellent with the most holy piety, I replaced him in his an- 
cient stall in the choir, all(l while he lived r only I'egarded my:-:elf as the procur- 
ator of the mona:5rery. From him I It'arnt mnch cnnccrnin
 England. The \'en- 
erable m'm died 011 the feast nfSt. .Jerome, in 1085." 
I n the (yreat abbe\. of the C'ele,t illS, at )Iarcollcie
, was another memorable in- 


tan('e; fOl' here, in thp mid.He of the choÎl', with his feet tl)\\,ar(]:-; the altar, lies 
a sculptureil figure of the fOlludel', ,John de .:\Iontaigu, who is buried under it; 
and the inscription on the tomh prove..; the pious fi,lelity of the monk..; to his 
memory; for it end5 thlls, "Ieqllel en haine des hllns ('t lllyaux seryiees par lni 
fait::; all Roy et au R')yanme fut par le
 I'ebelles pnnemis du Roy injnstcment mis 
à mort à Paris;" and on another place t11f'E'e \"el'ses- 

I( Pour ('e q'l'en pais: tenois Ie sang de France; 
Et soulage,)ig Ie peuple de 
Je souffri
 mort cnntre droit et ju,tice 
Et 8ans raison : Dieu si m 'en soit propice," 

By his side wa3 buried G(,l'al'd d(' :\Iont
1Ïgu, hishop of Pari
, brother of tlw 
foullIler, It wa:-, the :-:ight of thi..; tomh. and the nohle reply of the monk who 
showe(l it, that ma(le Frallcis 1. dec!:u'e that" he wouI,l nevel' sentence an
. man 
to death h)" commissioners,"t 
- In S I }anish hi
 we read intlero that the maO'nificent :,e l mldll'e of AI\.arns 
" 0 
de Luna, at Tokdo, wa
 de;;:troyetl by the inf..'!nte Iff.nry Pf>tel' ; bllt, in general, 
thi" charit}" of the mOllks furl1i
hed an oc('a..;ion of which princes availed them- 

* Lih. iv. 

. Lptwnf. IIi;;:t. <in Dincè,e òe Paris. is:. 


)1 0 R F seA T II 0 LIe I j 0 U, 

s 'lv('
, to evince m:lgnanilllity, as when King John of Ca-tillt' 1'4401'1 d thf' S('p- 
ulchre of th:lt di..:gr:lC'ed Ulini
t('r, am) n:jN't('() "ith imli!!,n3tion till' allviC'(' of 
 courtic.'r..:, \\ l1l'n tlwy l'omplained that a man bphc.':uh.d by hi.. onlt'Jð should 
l1av(' 3. tomh amon

[l'n who had ()\H'lltldin"ral1('(' fro 111 t\ae h:mc.I.. l'nl'mil'-- to the inh'rces- 
sion of th
e ffit'n of peace, \\tmld natllrally dt'sir,' th:1t tbeir bone... might r.-t 
11mI' tueru, where the 
al))e pra
'ers wbich had I1w\'(.d ern..} II1PD \\ 0111,] 1,(\ ofiercd 
in their behalf to th(' GOII of mpn'y. Al'l'or,Iingl)', tbe tomhs of '-Ut.h nH n are 
onen found in the l11ona..tic dll1l'dU's, Thll
, in tl&e Cartlm-ain mOlHl-t.'ry of 
l\I:1wl'baeh, we filill the 
qmldlre of FrcI]('ri,. II 1. of .Au:--tI"ia, who, in 1a
2, af- 
ter till" battle of Emphingen, in ",hidl he was c.1c..fl'ated hy the í'mlwl'OI' Lf''' is of 
!>..l\ aria, was tl&l'O\\ n into pris(m, first in t\ap ('a..tle of Dornht>rg, ant) aft'.rw:lrd.... 
in that of Trawsl'nIlil'ht, where hl' n'mainl>t] in mi..;el')" until in 13
.;, whl'n, af- 
tel' fruitlt...s attl'l11pt
 hy the pl'pC anti man
' great pen-(ln:wt.'b to ohtain his n.h'a..(', 
he \\:1:-; c.Ielin'fl'tl hy mean.. of the prior of thi.. mOl1astl'I'y, in which Ill' now )i.
buried. Une ancient chronit'le rel1lark
.., that he bore his mi
fì)rtunp with (!reat 
c(I'Janimity, alul preferred !':uffi'l'ing that cruel imprisonl))<:'lIt to f!3illin
 hi.. liI
hy nnla\\ fllinwan
 ('urions tah., that wllt'n "0m(' om" Wilh 11101"(, Zl':t} 
than knowlt'd
e :--cnt hy nt'crom:l1Icy :111 evil tlt'moll into the pri:'()JJ, h)" whom Frc....I- 
eric l11i
ht have ht'l'n (]elin.rl.'c.l, tilt' pions hero refu:-'t"'), and ordered the moW'.t 'I' to 
deparl, :\1ul guar(letl hi..: furdu-ad and bn'a-t with the :--i
11 of the l'l'O-", 110\\ ever, 
at ll'nt
h Gotfl'it.tI, priol' of 
Ia\\"rbal'h, true to th(' etymology of his lIame, a 
p(':tce-makl'I', Wt'nt in till' Hpirit of f()rlittH)c to Lewi..:, an(1 baic.l, (. 0 princl', \\ hy 
do you 1I0t parllon YOIll' reIat ive :1nll fril'nd? why attend to the COIIII"(')" of the 
\'ain, \\ 110 cDdca Vel' to subvert the df'lI1t'I1('Y of pri nCt::) ? PI) )"'11 not perf'f'i,"e 
that you will gain more honor by di..pelling )"our!!uation than by cl'Pri
it ?" Ll'\\ is \\':I
 movl'd at Ih(' word...; of the monk. lIe onlentl FI(>tlerie to be 
1c....1 illto his prl'
t'nce, where till' prior l'eIt,hrate,l lI1a:--:, mHI Jr-l\"C tilt 111 hoth the 
:"!\l'f{'(l cornll1ll11ion from one lIo!'t. Fn.tlerie awl Lf'wi.. thc.'n 
:tn' l3.('h other 
th,' ki-:o: of peace, 311(1 became evcr afterW31'()" as do:".)y UIIÌt{'(1 3"'; .JlJlwthan :lnd 
Da\'i(1. FrHlt>ric returncù to Au!':tria as he C:ll11e out f!'Olll prisoll withollt h:wing 

ha.\"ed hi,.; ht.ard, :--0 that he conld bl' scaredy r('co
niz('d h
' any on(', II i... l'(.tllrn 
 11(':11'11 of \\ it h im mPII:,{' joy hy all tIlt' pc.'oph-. TII<'II('efi)rth laf' attem ph.d IIl1th- 
 again-t Lpwi.., hut li\'t. 1 Ifui. tly, amI wt'nt 110 more to hattlf>; hut a
ays, "}>04 PuuiC:l hella qllil'tu
." 1....i'l31Jy, in 13::!fJ, he fOllnd this quiet 
gravt' \\ith till' men who hall ùelive..ed him.t 
That the lI)ona:--tic l'h3rity, in rt'J!'ar,l to tIll' hu..ial of thf' <I, 3<1. W3
also to the tho;,. who di(>d in a state of utt('r c.]e...titlltiol1. appt.a..... from a !-'t3tllte 
(If thp Capuchins in their fir:,t gtnl'ral congregation, held in 1.529. "\Y e ùecree," 

.. Rod. Santii ni!'t. ni
p. pI. iv, c, 33. 
.\ nnn. Lt...hif:n:.;
 ('h, "1\ T.ih. ". np. P,'z. 
('riJ1t. nt'f. .\m:t, f. 

AGE:::; 0 F F Al T II. 


say tho
e fathcrs, cc that DO cleat1 bodies, he
idt>s tho:;:e of our br{.tlll'en (1t'})arll'tJ, 
shouh1 be a(1l11itted into our chun'hes. uule...s pen.haBcl' of f,OlUe poor l
rðl)lIS tll 
WHom burial had been rpfu:-ed by the parish prie";l* ull a('count of po\'crty. [f 
such bodie.
 should l>e brought to our conn"'lIts and tu our dc,erts, tlwy must lw 
received am1 burie<1; for it is a work of picty, Let nothing be received fuf 
thpir sepulture; but for charity let us pray to GOt) for tlwir 
Perhaps one of tile most affeclin
 of this solicitude occurs in the hi
of 81. Hughes, who brought wIth him, from tilt' Carthu,.;ian C'loi:-tcr:5 to the st'e of 
Lincoln, all the mOlla...tic tendcmess. To the Lurial of thc dead he continued ötl 
devoted tllroughout his life, that thc historian of his ordp!' 3ltributes the singular 
magllificence of hi:, own funeral-at which a
,d two kin
..:., three ar('hhi-hop.., 
en bi"hops, more than olle hl1nd!,...d ahhot..:, and a crowd of COUllt:" baroll!>-, 
and knight:;, ElIgli...h, 
Ol'/I)all, Frane, Burgundian, Irish, and Scotch,-to the e:,- 
I)('cial ordillant'e of dlt> pr\lvidt'nce of Gild, as indicating how mUl'h his pi
ty to- 
wards the tlt'ad had pleased heaven.! It is related of him, on one uccasion, that 
being at R"uen, and in\'itt-'d to dinner, by Ri(>harll, king of England, he rpfused to 
go to the palace until he had as;.;:isted to blll'y the dead; aDd to the courtiers who 
uqred him to lm..;ten, replied, " Let the king sup in the name of the l
Ir it 
is Letter that he ;,houltl 
up without lIS, than that we 
h'HI1d neglect humility ac- 
curding to the command of the eternal King."
 Such were the lessons he had, 
learned in the school of St. Bruno, 
For all these rea;;;ons, then, the chUl'che...: of the monks containell the sepulchre
01' at leas[, the bone;>" of those who had drunk to the dregs that cup of manift)ld 
adversity which is adl11iui4ered for wisc aud henefil'ieut purpo!o'ps to man)" 
aruulIg:--t the children of mell. But now abandoning this particulal' view, let U
take notice of the tombs, which eviuce th... dc-.;ire of the grt"at in general to ob- 
tain burial in monastic ground. Tile nUlllhpr of the-e in the anciellt Benedictine 
abbeys of Europe might he styled infinite; and after the thil,tef->nth <'''Cllwry, the 
)Iendicant orders took full part in the ,.aI1H' mil1i:4ry, The cl'owd of m:'gllificent 
sepulchres in the convents \If the Franci
('al1s :,llow, indpPd, with what pecnliar love 
that order \Va..; regarded by the l1evout nobilit
.. "Frllm the fir4 comill
these and the Dominicans to v"" enicp," Dandolo :-,a)"s, "that we nlH1 the dukeb 

e\lel':\ll,\' chollsing to be buried either before their door::, or in thpil' ehun'hc:,:."IJ 
\Vhat a II1l1ltitlldt> of 1!reat princes alld nohles were entomi)ell ill [he ('OI1\'cllt of 
, at Ylelllla !'I and in the houses of that ortIer ill Frallce h.llw many 
!-;ppllh.hl'e..; of herOt's! many of \\ hom, like COUllt Elzear dl' SaLran, in the con- 
vent a Par;s, ha(l been bUl'iel1 eve II wcarill
 the hahit, It Wa'i in the Franci:5- 
can con\'ent..., ill Ireland, of Athlone and Kildare, Ihar were fuund the tomb:, of 

* A cas(> however which subjeC'ted him to ecc1e:;iastical censures. 
t Annalcs Capucinornm, ad an. 1;)29. 
 Dorlandi Chwnicon Carlus. Lib, iii. 13. 

 Jd.. Lib. iii. c, 8. I.\.n.l. DàJlduli Chmnic.. pa
!'im, up. )lnrn1. Rer. It. Script. xií.. 

 Necrolo s . R. R: P. P. )Iinorum, Couv. Vienn, up. Pcz. Script. Her. Aust. ii. 


 l'..\l'HULIVI; UI

 Dillons ami till' 11)...1... of On
lly.* E\'('rywhel'p the ..:tIUf' clC'...irf' wa:, 1lI:lI1ift.:-- 
h'tl, ill
olllu('h tilat "111111' 1 tI,,,1att' and ...eculal' cierI.:... l'\', n c1l'lIiNI tlat. la..t sacra- 
nlt'nts to dUN' who cho:-;t. their 
t'IHllc'lare in the ('on\'elH... ,,1' dIP FI:.IIC'i
"an,. ; aud 
P"pe ..\ It>
amlcr I Y. wa:-, ouligt<l to write ag-.lin:-t :-tl('11 IIIju...ti('l', to d.,dare Ihat 
tlw:õe huly friars might continuc to pn)\'iùl' tlIO
' who turut.'ll 10 tlu'lll in df,:uh 
with quil.t gmn's" t 
\rhile pl'uee l dillg now t4) ,
ie\V tht> IOIllU
, \\ t.' lIIa
' relllark \\ hat an aùditillnal 
intc.'re...t 11111:-;1 h:l\"e attemletl !-ouch ill"'pedilJn
, frum tht, circuw:-tan
e of havillg 
ft.)r gui,lc a monk \\ 110 \HL'" uftell a It
arned historian ali(I a ,aint, Thc (lffi{'(' of 
 to the 
 'p"I('llrts (If thp kiu
s in thc.' ahl)C')' (If 
t. nl'lIi.., \\a..., 
at on" time di,.dlargf,tI by 
Iahillon. "'hat mu...t it han' IWf.n to IIt':u' tll(' ('um- 
ment.. (If ...uch a guidc staudiu!! 0\',,1' the 
lVt' of ::;t. Louis! ". t.' have oilly to 
C.l:-t uur cycs arounù ll.. a... we walk Oll, ur to dc....(. '11(1, hultlinj! th, light.J tap' 
f'r:-;, to tht' ('rypt:i \\ hert. SIt many slPep ill dlill ('111.1 I1mrhl.., to filJ(l an iIlÍl'll,:,t ill 
Illolla...t.'ril's, whieh, if there laad hl't'li nothin
 f'l...t' to allt'J!
 in rlU'ir f:n'or, pught 
to ha\'c 
,<'url,'cl their\'atioll to th f-ud of tiltl(.. \I't' WI' in the ahhcy ('1'1Ir('L 
of ClulI.Y ? how mall)" ..epulchres of saillh allll illusirillll
4ina!!t' 011 all 
i(lt" ! 
Are wc ill 111:lt ofSt. Yaast, ill \rras? Wt" ha,'c around liS the l10blÞt tumb... ilJ 
till tlac low l'olll1trie:". DOIll :\farh lie, 011 \'isilÏlIJr thp :Ihh('
' of ""I. Germain at 
\ UX(,ITe, oh:"(,.n'c...., " rhi
 pla('t' is pf'..ha p" t lit, most \'l'llpral,lc.' ill tilt' wholl' k i IIg- 
dom ; alld, arÌt... the cata('olllh:-: of HOIUC, I tlo not kllow iforw can fiJllI any more 
Iol'e than sixty canuni7.C11 -aillt... rcp":-c 11t,.rt....
" TIlt> uhbcy of "1. Victor the wall., awl lilaI' the port," 
ay:- Dom 
:\Iartclle, "i... thc most \'ellt'rable pl:H'e of 
s; all the lanel about it tb:cI 
to be l'alll-'ti paradise, frum the S:lIIclity of th(' mnllk
 wlao il1llabitt'll it. Ca...
\vas it..; fOllndt.r; hi
 .t'pulchrc IIf marhl.. i... tlu'rt', a.. also that of PUpf' IT ..ball Y., 
who hall hc'n abbot of this 1101I
t'." 'I'h.... 
lIbtt.rrall!'lIl1., dllll'c'h a
.l.ill of the 
 at \..h..., which \Va:"! fi)rnJl'rl
" a priory d('pelulpill 011 Leriru;. ill
pirt:,. ht 
sa) s, a l"l'Spt.l't whi('h C:UIIIOt he C'xprt "
f'(J. Uf'l"(' Ollr' :-.-t';o, !,. \"C.'11 marble tomh:-. ; 
81ll1111g-:-t olht'l's. that or St. II ilar
' of .\ I'll's, \rolllul tilt' ('hllrl'h are all il1fillit
of marble epul('hres. Dom )lartl'I1C think..., Co that tlae tombs around th.. little 
chUl'ch of tLe Holy C'rw...., thought to havt' he.n built h
' Charlem:I!!IIt', wlli('h 
...t:uuls upar the'l'r (If 'Iolltltlajour, to tlh
 JO' ,"tl. of \ rlt.
, \\ ere 1I0t tlw...e 
of tilt' '" ,Idil...... of that kin!! :-:l.lin h.\' rill" 

in..., hilt that tl... plae
 wa.. th · all- 
{'if'nl ('('mptpry of tlw l11t1nk:"!, wh" II:tll a dl:lp..l in th(' midst :ll'('(ll'Ilillg to :lit' oh.l 
 Bnt ..onll' :1IIl'ic.'nt allt h"r..; arc.' vt'ry po:-õitive 011 this Pltint. TI,e
. :-:l
that gn'.at was th. (It.
ire of mallY to he buric.>tl in tbi... field (If Eli!!iw.., fwm rill' 
idc-.l. th'll no diabolic delnsion.., lik.. thll
'" r(':ul "f in the 1!o..}w1!i :1!' (lwt'llil\
tomh-, w....e slltlcrec:l to lin
cr rnllwl tlu' rl{'a.J hlldi,:" 1 ha: r,.:-;tl&cl in it. ..\ II tlaat 
in Gaul, or rOlintl the !.)yrclltC.1U l11ollntaills, or thl' 
\.pl'lIlIille.... f.ll in battle with 

· Walldiug, AUD. ,Min. iii. vi. 

tIll. i\". ad au 12GO, 

t Voyag t . Lil . i. :ili. 

 Id. :!..1. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II, 


the pagan
, wi..hpd, they tell U
, to ha\'t' theil' blll'ial tllPl'{>. and WPfP hnrn{' thithpl', 
some 011 chal'iot
 otlwr.. 011 hllr...t'
, otlwrs ill hoat:oö t har de
('(>II(h.d the Hhonp, 
whosc water:i, to prevellt tbeir p;,c,:,illg bey"nd it, would \\ hid thcm rllllild ill (.'('a...e- 
Ie....,;; cil'cles ifthet'e wa:oõ an attempt at further progre
..;.* III this in'peetioll of Ihe 
tomh::: of the m O Il3c;;tery, th()
e of the relig-i()u
 naturally shoul(1 have pre('f'(lpul'l>. 
I et u!' ohsPr\'f' a few of tlw 1Il0
t ('urillu,,; &Ill/I \"f'II{,l'ahle :I
 Wf> pm
..;, Bllt pre we 
take a stl'P in 3dvance, it is imp()

iblc to resi:.;( the 
olf'lIm imprrssion which 
eonIPS o\'er the mind on approachillg tht->lU, 
Luther, arri\'ing on the evp of Palm Sunday at Erfurth, descended at thp con- 
vent of the Augustius, where, a few 
'ear8 befc))'c, he ha(1 takt-'n the habit. It wa." . 
nig-htfall; a little woodPII cro
!'; o\'('r the tomh of a brother whom he had known, 
allli whn dpparted sweptl.\' to the Lord, struck hi.. attention aud trouhle(l 
his :"1)111. He W3:'; him,plf no Illn
f'1' thp pOOl' fr'Î:II' tra\'f'lIing on foot and bf'gging 
his hr
a,L His power eC)lIall,.d tll:lt IIf Charlt>
 y" amI an n1l'1l hall their t-')'es on 
him, That morning, Oil hi, mart'll, Iu> had sung the f.1.m()l1
 wal' hymn which 
IIeyn p compares to thp 
e: 3nll the emperor wa:; about tll resist him, 
 11f" s:lid in hi.. imperial rf'
('I'ipt, " thol11!h at th
 peril of his own hlood, of hi
dignity, an.1 of the fortll1w of the empil'e." TIlf' triml1ph:mt inlJovator W3S re- 
callt'd to him
f'lf f.n' :In in
tant hy s(>piwY' thp tOlllh of a f:tithful brother, He 
. 0 
l}ointed it out to Doctor .Jona
: "Sf'e, thel'e he re:-ts; and 1-:" he could not 
fini..h, After a little while he rt>tm'I1{'(1 to it, and sat down on the stone, where h{' 
remained more than an hottl" :1IId till Àm:-dorf wa... ohliged to remind him that 
the ('onvpnt-bell had tolled thf> hour for 
Ieep, t \Ypll might the heart, in whieh 
su('h tempest
till gathf'rillg, ha\'f> wt'pt at the image of that quiet grave. 
Let liS now approach and mark f'3C" singly. 
In the abbey of Clail'\"aux, Dom 
I:H.telH:> saw the tomhs of St. Bernal'<l, ofSt. 
::\Ialachy, and of !-ome hol)' mart)"r." whkh \\'pre bt'hinc1 the great alear. In a 
('rypt near the cemetery of thE' 3bhots were ranged thf> hOlies of the monks who 
were contemporary with St. Bernard, and who 3re reveretl a
 f'aints, In thp ab- 
bey of 81. Germain-df>s-Près, thp names of many monkf' of happy nwmory were 
Imnde<1 down in ancient in
, tllOn
h nIl tl'3(,(, of their aptiolls had been 
lost. Rllt here we 1If'('(1 not P:111SI", Thesp gr;\Yt.s al"e all too old now to J'emem- 
Iwr the 
1)rrIlW \\ hich consi<Y'Il(>d it
 ehar,r e to e:II,h, Some tombs of monks con- 

vey If'
sons of humilit)" a... ill the epitaph (If St. B1'IIno-- 

.. Doctor eram, præco Christi, vir notus in orbe ; 
Desuper illud erat, gratia, non meritum. "t 

Others attest in a l'emar1mhlf> malineI' the \'irtue!': of their tenants. Such W3S 
that of ,John 'Val1ei
, an English FI'3llcic;;('all, ('ommonly c:tll('d Arbor \'itæ, on 
'iccol1nt of the fruit:-: , of erudition fur spiritual nOl1ri
hm('nt whi('h lw produced. 

* Gerv Tilb, Otis Imperialil\, xc, 
* Pet. Smorus de Vita Ca\ thus. i. 3, 5, 

t Audio, Vie de Lut.her, 


M 0 H F ð CAT II 0 L I 
 I: 0 R, 

lIt' die') at Pari.::, 
, with the words, "I am goillg to my country." \ IIrl 
on hi... 
f'})tJldlrt', in tllc ('(}n\'t'nr of dIP 'Iillor..:, tlwr() wa..: a træ'sl,,,lptllrHI in :11- 
lu..ion to IIi.. name. * :::)l1ch also was tltat of Johll Ballin, the historian, 311d mOllk 
of the ahh('\" of ('Iairmarai
 , "hi"ll \\a.., al the cnd of the cloistl'I' Iwar tile inl:lpl' 
, b 
of tilt' HI( 

,.cI \'"ïl'
in; f()!. his ('I'itaph ('(}nsi
ted of a pi(.ture of tilt. flag-elJalion 
of Chri.... ha\'illi! 011 dIP ridlt 0"" lady of SOITOW":, and Oil tlU' It-ft Iti... own por- 
trait, with t!lat of hl1' patron Sf. .rohll,t OI'c!('I'i(, \'"Irali:oo :-'t't'm.. to Ihink thai th(' 
' ('an'cd ilml
t.s un somc t(tllth..: h(':-,p(.ak the s;llwlilY of thoSt. tllf'Y ..C'prf.....l.llt ; 
f(}r, speaking of tilt' .lbhf'Y of 
t. ('tlncri, in \\ hi(,1t 1-10 mOllk!'i 1I:1f1 ('lIltivatt (I tl1,' 
. Lo..d's vilH.'ya..d, hilt whidl, havillg- h"f'n 1'a\'3g-t'C1 Ly I1a..tillg", 1'l'(':lIllf' a r(.tn'a. 
fill' a trih(' of lHur,lf'roll'" rohl}('I'!o'. who t(H,k pO....f'
..ioll of thr I'o(.k on wlaidl it 1.:111 
:-otood : hI.' 
lYS, " Ih.. 
tol)(, lolllh.. pl:WH) ill :lI1d ahout tlt(' ('hlll"(,11 ('\'iclf'ntly aft,..I, 
to tho:'c who vil'\it tl1('l11. wltat 1"t'''Pf'(.t is (hit' to tlH.' l11ollk
 wllO tlu.r.. rt'I'IISC."t 
Un thE' tomb of 
t. BOnaVf'lItll..a, ill thl.> COllvcnt of the )1 ino..s, at Lyoll:o" wt'rt' 
th veJ"bc:5- 

II lilt> bominum plau!oou
t'quiclq\lluu excitus inani ; 

..d curs lU"jore K(.tU
, Itlt'1illnuIIle Verbal\d 
Pee'lule cOII:-ilb, ill:-ani pru'('onis \ul
Despicit, et vari08 uillt) a, Cl 
a"lr hounres." 

On the dl'ath of thi
 g'rf'ar cln('tuJ", which till..1 tlw whole cllllr('h with J!rif't
till' pOpC' hy )(-'tlt'rs I't l'OIlII11Plllh.t! all pn.lah'" arul'sr
 tltroug-hout the \\(}1 hi 
that l,:,,'h öhoultl ..:illg a mas.. f(.II' Iti:-, ...oul. Tht' whole l'it)' of 1.,.\"(111", wllf'rt' he 
dic() attt'ru)in, r Ihe ('ollllC'i) a:.:",i
tt.d at hi!<\ (}h
 with t('ar..., Tilt' ('alnllli......, 
, ::>' "I 
011 nrrivillg' Ilf'rt" thn'w his hody iuto r)w _\ rar; Lut tit' 11<':1(1 atul olllf'r (lpl;.II'Ilt'cI 
pa..t:, were prl'
prn'Cl frllm f:lllillg illfo hal\(l
(}IIl(' of tl1t...(' 
we may ft ad tilt' who)p lai
l()ry flf a c'loi:-,tral lift', a..; in the cpitaph uf .John ..1'- 
Authon, COl11po!'(,() h
' .Toilll Bc)tJ('het:- 

.. Di't I\n
 avant que mourut ce bon pere. 
Austere ,ie il tint cn nwnsslt're, 
En mesprisant plLr mervt'illf'uX desdailli! 
Les gene; du munde t:t tout honneur lUoDdain," 

II f' 
I('pt on no 
\)ft couch :- 

., Tousjours e8toit Ie premier à matines. 
Cumhlt'll qu'il fust noble (Ie
 deux cnustcz 
11 nt' \'ouloit ne (' nc \'c'nelÌc, 
En &;1I11l1llIt. it vivoit tout sculet, 
De ClIlIscit'lIC'c' t'stoil fort tlmorcuse," 

lIe departed, rCpt'a. in
 lIt:lu.'" fin" ,"'I""C:; :- 

.. r..e CUllh clnqel repnst' An".. IlL l',lme 
Prie7 à Dicu q
tc p:1r1lnn flu,t, i\.1 'amt', ". 

<< Wad(HUlL \n. )[in. iv. 

 Wlidding. iv. an 1

t Pic'riò. lli-:t. clt.
 \hh. dt' Wnlten et f\t' f'lnirm, f Litl, viii. 
. f:olljt.t. Bih'i..thpqm' l.'rn I ": "i.., . tom. XI. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


triking werp the tomhs and epitaph!i of thp gl'mt convertites in ahhey

r:lrk, for instalU'p, thi..; inseriptinn in dIP cloiSf(1I' of Cluny: "Hic requie:o'eit vir 
('plehrandæ n1f'U1ol'Ïæ, lIIa
nll!-'(luP !'t>CI1Ii cllntf>mptor, Hu!!o, olim Dux Bl1I'gunòiæ, 
po..:tea s:\cerdo.; et mona.,IIU-, IlIIjn..; sanctæ p('('lf',iæ Clnnia('ensis. 
\nillla f>ju
quiescat in pace! Amen."* Dpepl
" intf're4illg wel'p a]
/J tho.:ie of PalllJel'
, such 
 that of .Antonio, .":1I1'n:ltlwd ppr"grinu
; of thp nohlf> f:.lmiJy of :\l:tnzonÏa, of 
Padua, who at length, afh'l' li\'iltg' IInknown fi)f 
nn1(' time in th(1 mOlla,..:t('r'y of 
St. )I:rl'Y dp Porcilia. in Padua, p:l
:-;('d th('nc(' to Christ. in 1261, who i..: c"mmf'lII- 
oratt.d Oil his sppul('hre in that ahbey as onp "qui omnia loc:l sancta \'isita\'it." 
The ma!!nificent tomb over the humhle Louis de Blois, on which Ire was styJp,l 
"the omament 3n(1 miraC'le of hi
 age,"-:md the sepulchre of St. Remy, ill the 
ahhey which hmrs his namp, round which wel'P I'eprpsented the twelvp peer
Fr:mce, as large a-; life, with their u:--ual 
)'mh()ls a
 in the ('Ol'on:ltion of the 
.French kings,--convey, moreover', a te:õ;timony to tIle virtue of the times them- 
:=; 'In-':-:, when sandity rect:'Î\".(1 "'111'11 hOllors, Allf/lher el:IS'" of the:-e :':f-'plliehrt:':", 
whieh (':In not be viewed witholll intell::)(' emtltion, atft'sts the leal'llin
 :ltJd rel1"WIi 
of dl')
P mllllk
, with whose writings wp an' no\\' 
II f:.lmiliar. TIHl
 we find dIP 
tomb of Richm'(1 of "t. Victor, on w!ai(.h the
c line:, were engraved, on Lra


.. )loritms, io!!enio. doC'lrimî c1arlls et arte, 
Pulvelen hic tc!!erk dllcte Hichardc. !;itu, 
Quem teIlus !!t'nuit (ælici :-;c(llica parlu. 
Tl' (ovet in grt-'miu Gallic:. tena s.uo. 
:Nil tihi Parca '('ro\. DIICllÏ1, quæ s.tamina parvo 
mvi rupit aCt-'l"h'l m'mu. 
Plurirna namque tlli s.upemllt mouimellia laooris, 
Qu:e tihi p
iot parirll: a decus, 
SegniOi ut ltmto scelera(u
 mOl's perit ædt:'';:, 
Sic propero nimis it 
u" pia fecra gradu." 

Ga..par JongeJinns, whpl) he visited Ci..t
'aux, S:l\\ the sepul('hre of the great al1d 
('plehratt-tl 1)1)('101' A1anlls, \\'lliclt was at tlae l(-ft side of the duislel', near tbe en- 
trance of the chlll'ch. Tht' epitaph was :I"; t

.. .\Ianllm hrf'vis horn, hrevi tllmulo sepelivit, 
Qui dllO, qui septt-'m. qui tnrum scibile scivit, 
Labentis sæcli contemI'ltic:: rehus f',!!t'ns fit. 
Infus conVer
re{!'ihns C'ommi
sus nlendis, 
Mille dllcpnt."no nOn:H!f'nO f1uofJne quarto 
Christo òevnfU<: morfnlf'!': ..xuit artus...t 

en Dom 
rart('np ,.i
it{'d that ahlwv. ",1.Pt'(' .\ l'In,,". }IP F-:1\'S, had left, as a ron- 
vèrtite, an imm('n
p fnnf', hp f.U1n.l a 'FrPH('h f'pitanh 011 his tomh, Jwarl
' to the 

ame efl'ect,t Ronnd thp "ppl1lt'hrp of Dlln S('otl1!';, in thp ('nnypnt of the FI'an('is- 
 at Colo
ne, the namps or fiftpen doctor;; ,,"pre Însf'ribpd in br3
";, amongst 

· Chronic. f'llinincens. 

t Xotit. Ahh. Orò. C'i!':tt>J'('. 

t V oyn!!f' Lit. i. 2U. 



wholll, \\ïlliam of \\'art' i... clP8ign:Ul"<.l, :1:-. 
i..ll'r (Jlli 11,,1 mil.. Varru, PneC'l'ptor 
::5eot i. * Tlae tt.
t imoll)' uf :-otlllll' Illtllla..tie tOlilOS ilia)" hl' eitt'c! also :IS at t t".1 i II
 mi l':lf'- 
uloll:-o fi,rt':-oi
llt. :'u('h i.. that of Didat'u" ßa,lalll, a 
[illur friar, ill tlH' ('Oll\"t'lit 
uf ,Majurit'a, ill :::)paill, oil whi('h is a rude ill:o.Criptioli rt'latillg hi, history: the 
ar and day uf his tlt'ath lwillg ..late(l, thc:-l' lill .. fullow:- 

Die hne et m
u" migravit prædictus. 
llllll'..e"t in puce, !;itque bem'dictus, AmeD 
Vivens sic I-cribit tI(. "nil. ccrtus m()rte : 
IDcertus de hora, gaud(.t morli.. mom; 
Tempus si I\tlttl\tur. !--'munn dil igente, 
Versus lUulahitur, vivo ('un1!aullcnte," 

In another chappl lic
 his hrothcr, (ìarsia:-; B:lIlalll, a man of holy life, on who
tomb \\e read,- 

" Is qui jacct, mortis dum no't'lt et horam t 

Th · sfopul('hr
 of the monk.., ab
in, :Irc uttpII madt> to ('OI1\'l'" c..tl1emll 1t'":-o:-'H15 to 
tht. li\'ill
. Such i:-o that of ,riIl('ram, a mOllk of Fbula, who flouri1-hed in the 
plen'mh L'CIl1Llr)', 011 \\hi('h \\ere tlU'

.. Fu1tlensi onachus Wilram tic ronte vocatus, 
Hic Iic
t ilUli
 PlC>lor ('ram poSJtU8, 

olJ1iuis l)ffiCIllIU ('unupft fictio l1lorum . 
Qui :-ibi nempc mulus. cui \'lIh'l t.,..:-e bonus 7 
Corre"c:i lihrlls, ne"lexi I11nrihu9 1110'" : 
JU!'Iti suppliciis cnn!ocills ips,' mihi . 
8ed quia ,leliqul, tlU Chti..\c tll\gdla cupivi, 
Te lamen hoc solum det milJi prupicium,"t 
Such a1;o was that tomb of POlice, abbot of Cluny, pretleccssor of Peter the 'T en- 
le, who \\':.8 I"t'prt 
t'lItf'(1 upon hi.. 
'pulchre in that :tuhey, lying with hic:: teet 
l1HI his llancl ('(It otl', lO !-i!!nif,y that II'> (lied l.
lIch too 
was the tomb of Fathc'r Lupu
, at Lou\'aill, OUl' of the 1II0..t celphratt.<J (Ioctor
that university; of ",hidl the epimpll, cOlllpo:-,(.d hy him:-oelf, was as follo\\t) :- 

"I-Iæn's peccat1, Datum filius iræ, 
Hic jaceo, di
 nomine reque Lupus, 
Jndignus, nOD reo 
t:Ò sHlo utlmine doctor. 
Verhis non factis me ducuisse fico. 
PerdocuÌ!N' olios, et non seipsum, 
Quicl jllvat? 0 mnndi film us, iDune, nihil I 
AgDts Deus, Patri
 doctrina, redemtio mUDJi, 
:\11111: tilli p'o
rr'ltum ('ommisprllrp rf'lIm. 
EI lulro et nwrelrix i!rati'l tun f('C'I\I\ submlrnnt. 
Grutin ppccntis flat, et ista m('i

The first linf' appe.'1N to ha\'p 1}ppn hOJ'rowp<] fmm thp ppitaph on th(' 

· WnrlrHn2, Iv. .. Ihirl. tom. iv. 12:ï7. 

 VO\'RC'P t1,. J)f'nx TIt'I'P(f i. 

('hnnn'lt. Hjc::torin Fn1rlpn(,. . pt. i 

.A G E ::, u F F \. 1 T H. 


of S1. Victor', which was engraveù on hm.....: upon hi" tomh in that ('Joister at !>ari.... 
Thi.., pl'rhap.., wa... the IIIO..t hl'an1Ïf..1 that clluld allY wiu:'re be founù: it was a! 
ft)lJuws :- 

.. Hæres peccati, natura ðlius iræ, 
i1iique reus nnscitur omnis homo, 
Unde jo.llpu-ùn hulUu!' cuju
 conceptio culpa, 
d pfCua, Ißbol" vila, Ilcc

se 1l1Ori. 
alus hominis. vllnus decor, omnia vana : 
r VnDll nihil v1\lIius Pf<t homine. 
Dum magis allurlh præ:-entis gloria vilæ, 
Præterit, immo fugit, non fugit, immo perit, 
Post homillcD\ _crmis, post vermcm fit ciuis, heu, heul 
Sic re.dit ad cinerem gloria nostra simul. 
Hic ego qui jaceo miser. et miscrabi1is A\dam, 
Unam, pro summo munere, p08CO prl'cem, 
Peccavi, fnteof, veoiam peto, parce fatenli: 
Parcc Pater, fratres par-cite, pßrce D

" These lines are a proof," Hays PasCJ.nipr, ,. that tlwre \\'pre hrave scholars at St. 
'Vlctor's at that time: et ('eltes j'oppo....e ce:,tp pièce J à tfln
, tant anciens 
qne moc1erne
, et nOI1
 POU\'OIl:; de cpt C:3Ch:rntillon jngel' que It'8 bOllnt's If'ttl't-'
toient lors à honnes en
f'iglws, Jogæ.., dans C(' 1l10na8f('re."* FinalJy, w(> may 
ohsen'e that the sepulchres of the monks offPIt attest the divine peace whidl they 
enjoYf'd in the cloi:,tel', alH) exppf'tec1 in the iiltltre life. Such W:1S that of brothpt 
John de Ponti
ara, in tile abhey of St, Gt-'rmain-des-Prè..:, " in qno," :IS thp ..pi.. 
t:lph attestpd, "scn-:u., erat, bonit:Js, pax, pt modemmen ;" and that of brother 
PetRI' de Xallgis, in tlw same moua:o"tel'.", who..;e pf'at'eful goodnes... was also com.. 
memorated.t On an ancient tomb in Rheims was this inscription:- 

.. Hie tegitur, cujus in factis gratia, cujus 
Pax in corde fuit, cujus in orp modus," 

The epitapn on Folrad, 3bhnt of 
t. Denis t containe,l thest' Jines :- 

.. Felix jIJ;\ hominum cst mors et pretiosa honorum 
Gloria quam sequitur, vita, salll
que quie!:.": 

The words on the tomh of Father f)nlt1enico, in the con\'ent of the Carmelit
Pau...ilypo,-" Dt' paradi..o all pal adi...\lUl tl':lI1
, 1522,"-were perhap... 
more ex!)res...ivt' in theil' silHpli{'it.,.,
 A lt1ong'st fhe tomb.... of tlH' monks we find 
al..,o uften those of grpat prel:Jw...:, who 
ouu:ht l'Ollllltllllilllt with them in the !!I'a\'e. 
Tim.; the archbi
 of RIH'irn..; wished tu he Imripd in the ahbl-'Y of 
t. Remy., 
In tl1p ahbey of Clain'all
. near the g'I'eat altar, \\"a.. the tomh of .Joln} de Blan- 
f'helHain, ar('hhi
hop of L
. who l'f'nOllIH'cd his :oee, to 1'f'til'(' to thi..; mOlla
In the north tran8"pt were the tomb:; of five holy hi,.;llCIp
, who from the sam{' 

* Rc('herchf'!: de la France, Liv. iii. c. 29. t D. Bonillart Hi
t. ele l'.\hh. ,Ie S. Ger. 
: .\p )larll')w. Y..t. 
('ripl. vi. 
 .\ntilJ. ", IIi,!, l'am!\;juiæ lip. Glæv. The
\ntjq. 11. ix... 


1\1 U H. Ese A T II 0 L I (' I: U It, 

pla(.t' pa",t.J to h('u\,('ll, (Twlt'r the choir of the ('11IIf('1. of tllf' ahh('y of 
t, J\fat- 
ahias, ut Tl'c\'e.., wa... a great ('r
'I)[, where Dom "al'h'np :-oa\\" tlIP tomh.. (If tlu' fir..! 
hops of Tre\"t

, \\ ho Wt'r' all :-ìainb. c. "" e cOllntf>tI," he ::a)":", " fimrtet'n of 
them. Tl1i" i.. pt'1 hap' the HlII:,t vent'rabl(. plal.t. in Trevl's." In thl" ahlH.'Y of 
F('('amp was the tlllllh of \Villialll t bi..hop IIf Bap'u
, on "hi('h \\l'!'t' tlu'"" wm'd.., 
in..crilH.',1 hy lIildt'hert: c. On the :-oi) day whi('h PI'('('t.tlt':-ì tile lIIouth of .\pl'il, 
his colll':-oe ended, his r('Compen:-of' COmlll('lu't'II." At tht' cloi:-otral gatt' of' 
I, 'faur- 
ice, at \.ngcrs, is the tomb and imagt' of el
cl'iu..;, who, from a poor ;:.cllOla..ti(', 
became a celebrated ma
ter, and finally bio;;hop of that Set. II" dk...1 ill 11-18. 
The following is the epitaph: 

"Hie jßcct Çlgerius teneri
 con!'uptu!I ab annis 
Liugua. mente. maim frucUlcurc Den. 
Hugus opu:> l1lulti
 prodl' mo Ut're, docere, 
Flentem sol"ri, Dlilium ve..tin'. SUpt., hum 
ere, ne qucm1luam læJt>rc. rcct:&, bcqUi. '.. 

But, leaving now the tomb... of reli
il)us men, let us 
t a hast)" glance at 
tLQSC of the ancient kin

 a1l(1 fi'udal prin 'C:5 who lie near thl'm; mallY of whom, 
as \\e ha\"e already oh 'n'l'ù, w('re lUo\'l't1 hy a trill' faith, while othpr
, no douht, 
"crt' a('tllattC.l ollly hy all una\'ailill
 ..t'lltillH'nt ot'rt'mor,.t' anll terwr, ill their dt'- 
r.ire to have burial hl'rl'. T twas 110 l'O 11 sill i ng- ,..p..dadt', though it mu:-.t have hel'n 
tit t'ply imt're..ting, to heholtlm.lIt
' tllmh.. of 
iall kilw-; in the abbc
',,; of 
::;t Cermain-d' -Prè."t alHI of ::;t. n 'llis. Tho
e traKic figul'\..x;,:'o h:ub.lrolls and 
h.rrible, which p3.::t:5 before liS in the p.l
.'.s IIf
t. (;rt'
lJry ofTour..;,-it wa:-ì ht'rt' tllat 
' n'sted. Uur proud X ormall kill
:-;, too, ami Pbntagenet.., who of tell ill 
live:-. dl''(J 
o ill of }>('uce, amI of tht'St' tilt. I.ardt':o-t, lllo..l iron, al1,1 irnp\aeahlt., 
who warft'{l again..t their OWII fàth"r:o, . 't'lIIcll S()ftl
IIt.'(1 at the memor)" of tilt' 
cloister, and to reco!!nizp their error \\ Ill'n they clio- ' their tomb, Till IU:Hl
1I'Illtls of Hellry 311d Richard, kings of Endalld, are fc'UIIÙ, 1I0t ill rt'
al ('hapcl:o- 
lIlull'r martial trophil's of ht'I"J.I(lic hla.wn, hut wilh that of Q.1Il'CII EIt'al1or, in thl
"'pllt where holy virgill8 only ('hallt 1'1111 lit I th"lII, in the (,llOir of tllt'ir l'hllrch of 
FOIltt.'\'rault. On the other halld, to find the tomb.; of th
 hewic and bcncfi- 
L'Cut princes who are gatherl'{l to tilt' kin
:, tlf tlHHlght,- 

.. 'Vho waged contention with their time's decay, 
And of_the past are all that cannot pass away," 

ßH'n had to "'pair likewi..(> to till' clllIITh,:.o. of tlw lIIonk...; it wa., th(>r(' that lh<,y 
foulld tlWfII: \lfn't'l, Edward th.. COli t('
sor. and :"'\1. Lllui..;, by Imrit d in Il1nn - 
t.el'i ", ('h:lrll''i 
rartel, that 
rt':1t illstl'lll1H'nt in tht' halUh
 of Almighty God to 
d,.fi'n,f tIlt' w('stern ('hurl.h, I;,,' huriN ill a tf)lllh of:daln..t<'r, in tilt. :Ihhp\" of
Dt'nis, by the 
ide of the high altar. lOlla, fonndt'tl on Druidi('al ruin!;,-Ions, 

, lIi.,t. rill\' Pari" ii. 



th' mothér of monks, the oracle of thp "est in tht> :-C\'CDI h and eighth (,t'utllril'S,- 
contain,.d the -epul{'hl'{:'
 of :;c\'ellt
' king:-. Likp \rh s, in Gaul, it mi
ht be 
'le() a" city ofdu,dead," Inl'islc:lllx \\"{'r'pfollnd thptomb-ofthefarlyduke:- 
of Burgundy: :,ixty prim'CI:) or" !aouse arc lUll'it,d thert', along \\ it!! lIIan)' 
bi-hop,.:, In thcabhey of LonJ!pout thl.rc were illterre,l ('oums ofSois..,olls; 
Lut their' tombs w,'re without epitaph-, Cxct'ptillg tho-;c of Raoul tIt. XI'slt', allll of 
his wife _\(1(',* III the mon:J.
ter)' of the Cro-s, at Uati-holl lay the early 
dllke...: of Au::stria, Hl're was the tomh of it
t. Leopold, duke of .-\ u.:- 
tri:l and Styria; aud al,.:.o that of Rigismund, king of HUllgary, ealled hy 
\lme tht' 
SdlOlUtln of HIIII
ary. On a cOlltron'r-;y ari
i\lg hetweell him alld his hrllthcl' 
re.:pec[ing the kingdo'll. he began to de...pisc tlw earth; and :'0, IInl.:nO\\n, eame 
to thi.: abbey, w}wre, f01' twenty-foul' years, he li\'ed in all p and :':l1t<'tity, 
a;; a lay-brother and swine-herd; but, in tilt' artide of death, he re\'eall'd his name 
an(l condition to the abhot. On hi... 
('count the abhey wa.; l'il'hly endO\\l'd by 
the kings of Hungary. Her(' li
 the hodip", of lIIany dukes and marquise,.:, with 
no other monument hut a 
quare stOIlP, l'OUlld which i.: ins('ribro thetIate oftheil' 
irhll'e. Thus on une we read, "15 en!. Novpmbris ohiit Leopllldus, dux 
Ba\'ariæ; 10 ('a1. Fehl'ual'ii obiit Erllestn
, mal'('hio Au"ti'iæ; Pridie ('al. SI'ptem- 
ori.. obiit Helll'iclls, dnxde 
Il'(lIico; 17 ('a1. )[aii ohiit Frederi('u,,:, dux .\lIslriæ," 
Hel'e are ourit'd also Alhert, marquis of Au,.:[ria; 
I'a, (luchess of 
.\n-tria, wife 
of H.'nry, duke of )It:',llj('o; Gt'rtl'l1tlt' of Bl'lm...wi('k, du{'h,.:.;:; of AI1:,tria and 8ty- 
ria; Rig:ll"tli.., landgra\pe of \Yalclt'r-dol'ff; and Otfnia, CUllllt(':3S of S(.haumbe"g ; 
wit h a lIJultil1ltle IIf G"I'm
lIt ullhJt-:5, t 
lit till' ahbey of St. Remy, at Rheim,.:, wpre the tOlub.:; !If Carlom:lIJ, brother 
of CJtarI(>m.I
lte, of Louis I"...,. an.l of Lothaire, at tllf' si')f' of the hi
lr altar; of 
Fredel'OllP, wife of Ch:lrl,'
illiple; of Ged)('rge, (laughter of Ihe EmperOl' 
Henry an.) wife of Loui
 IV., kill
 of Frarwe; of Rn!,!t'lioltle, first Cllllilt of 
Ruuey; of .\.ltlrade, tlallglltt'l' uf Loni., IV,; of Boston. hrorhèr of Kin!! Raoul, 
killed at tilt' sit'
e of St. QUI.min in 935; of Huglle
, son nf Count Rflg't' I' ; :In<1 
of GIUlit Burchard, an ElI
]i:,hman, who (lied there on hi
 rl'tlll'n from l{. 'me. 

ome of thpsp, in,lpp(l, ex('Îte no gr('at ('uri(J:,it
,; hut what:l de,'p hi...toric illtere,.:t 
must ha\'e IJPen awakelled ill the pilg-l'im's Im-a...t whl'n he h(.held ill the abhey 
t. Fal'..n,at 
Ieallx, tho tomhs of O
el':' alltl of Belluist, tW11 \If the most iHm;- 
tri()us cOLH,tiH.. of Ch
tl'lcmagne, who con...:et'ratPd th.'msph'es there 10 Gild :t and 
wlwn he wa:-: bhown in the abhe
' of St, 
Iichael de ('oxen, founded by Ch31']e
le-Chau\"e in that !'pot whi('h only th.' 10\'(' of tilt' CI'O:-'S could makp :'g,'eeable, 
ttle tomh ofSt. Pt.ter' erseo]e, do
t-' of '?"t.nice, which s[alltls in the {'boil', hi.. relies 
I)t-'ing in a wootlt'n shrine in all :llljoinillg ('happ] ; it heing to thi
 mOllastt'ry that 
he rdired! 'Yith what deep feeling must he have bpheld in the abbey of St. 

* Hist. de Soisso ns, ii. 1;>>3, 
t Ga:,par ,Jon
elinlls, SOlh, Ahh. Orll. (,ist
rc. pt'r Univers. A.b. Lib, iv, 11. 
: Voya
(' Lil. lit, Dt'u'\. nt"II, '27, 


M U It K =' C \ r 11 (.) L I L I; U H, 

ArlWIII, at 
rl't7, the tomb of J.,nlli..-dl
-] 'ehOllllairf>, am) ill till' 1lI0na..t('I'Y of bt. 
Alh:UJ, at )1a.\l'lU't., that of Fa..lrac)ulla. tht' wife (If(,l.:lrI(,llIa
lIe, of "hidl tIlt' 
('pital'h c'..n('](I<I,'(1 wilh Ih, worù:", "
piritll:' lIter' put rill', (I"æ tri..tia 1It..- 
cit ;n ami ill tht' abl)l'
' of EIII"ll'dplill, h('tè.,I"(, lilt. ,'hap ,I of 
t. .ruhll, the tlllllb.. 01 
tht' nUhlt.' "arriu.... ,,1m fdl in the battlc of 'lurg:llh'lI, \,h,'rt' tllP 
wi!":-; c),.featro 
ù'Upold oL\ lI
t ria, in \, "idl \, as a }w"pl'tual all ni \'t'r..a I"Y foIII ull't 1 ti)r 1 hl'i r :'1111 h? I'l'. 
P ";* :111(1 i II the ahbey of Fulcb, ('veil the tomh amI nt l'pitap" (If \\ï('t,linl1:-, 
inhard, \\ hu 113<1 bt.en o;Cllt thl're h}' hi.. 13t1u'r tn ..uuly Ulult r Raban 
\I:lIlr.t But it \\ould be long tn tell of tLl.''t.'. 110\\ naill'll tinw :o-11t)IJ]d \\{' re- 
(Jllire' ill the lIohl<' lliolla:o-h'ry of L'F..pilla, in PJa<'t'ntia, tilt,'I' of" hi(.11 \\.l
hllill b,\' all(' family of Dc' 
(,:4, and the dllll'('h hy rhat of \1I111r
lIt'rqIlP. hefcll'e 
the., 'pIII(,hl"c uf the grt'.at .John de ..\ttt'lIza, I"t'('apitll]ator of tilt. hi\, w).id. tIlt' 

palJial'c.Is name de L'1.-'i Patidas, and lx..forc tilt' tomb::. of till' Lurch
 (Ie \Y l'
.J, tll 
most lIohle family ill 
paill.: 01' in thc abbey of 
tlab Flori<.b, in whil'h ö() many 
prinCf-" ancl IlUhl,.,.. of "'rale::!! lay LlIl'iccl hef,.re th.. :"'f.'plllc'hrt'
J th:lt r, \"(':.)t>cl :J!oi 
milch history as the :mnal
of the t'ountry tlwnIH't'
('f\'pd ;i or ill 
It.lrn:-t ..\hhe
tè.I1II1,I,.d nhout y(>ar 636 by die piolls O
\\'al(lt kill
ol'tltUruhl'ia, "hid. 

t. David J!3\"C afterward.. to thf',('(.i:III:'. IwttH e the ""IH.I('hr
 of ::5r. David 
anll (If _\.lp
aml('r 11., king'!'\ of &'otl:Jnd ; of .Jamt.:" t'url of Doug):J
, \\ ho dil,<l 
in 13

; and of hi
 ,\ ife Euphemia, dau!!htcr of R..IJt>rt 
tna..t, kini! of Scot- 
Fl'olll tile tomhs of f.'unclf'l"s nlOlJP u histol"Y of lIohilit
, an() knighrhood 
might ha\'e ht.t'n \, ritb'lI, "0 p:X3et and ditJ'u..c WCI'C Ihe monk:" in cOIllIllt'nH,rating 
thl' \,irtu('.. of theil' bt'ncfaC'tûr'S. \\'rllt'll ..uC'1a lIIeu t'ompu I lIlt'ir OWII ('pitaph, 
it i:o- trllt" tlaat tilt' 
t."le \\':I
 ofwil two nlllC'h imhuP() \\ ill. tilt> IIlC1n:J
tie humility 
to I"C ncler t he t('
r i lllllny of III lI('h a vai I 3:- in Ilw lIIon:tsft'r.\' IIf t ÌI
in ad. 'It of Poland, wht'rl' near tilt' !!1'l'.lt doo.' of th.. ('hul"c'h, wa
 tla,' lomh of 
the ftmnder, 
 ichula.. ".olski de Podhayco, wit hunt allY other epitaph but th
following words COlllp04:('c) by him..df: 

· ('ommi.. a mt:n pnvesco, et ante te cruhe
co : 
Dum venf'ri!l judicRre. Domine, noli me condemnare " 

This nnble Pole haclll{'('n hrecJ with tlw :lrchc)IIL('.. of 
\.u..tria, alll) wa.. di-:tin..'cI for hi.. chivalrolls 
r:l('e". 1 n hi.. youth hc h:ul vit'it{'(1 Ut'rmany. Frallcl>, 
lallll, nntl It
ily, and \\a... .llt.,<'h:,l in the impt.rial ('ourt of l{uc:llliph I L A\f- 
t 'I' 
ixtf'ell )'c:ns h(' rt'llIrll' <1, filII uf Jt>aruiug and nil virhlt', to Poland. nrf'at were 
hi.. aIm!' 10 thp poor, aUtI hi.. mlillifiC't'll('p to tL
' ('hllreh... Daily Le hcarc) m ...., 
anc) reciu'Cl tlae ollit't' (If ollr bdy. lit' huilt allcJ ('11<)0\\"(..) two lIIolla
t(-'rie" of 
c'anons rt'þ:lllar, I)l'sicle.' tlais in wJ.ieh h(> lit.
... Bllt wllt'n the monks \HUt. the 

· Tschuldi Einsied. Chronik. 64. t -'chl\n, IIist Fulctcns. t Ib, Lib. vi. 5 

 lit Lilt. \ iii. 10, I Ih. viii. n. · .\IInnL ('amulctult-ns. 74. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T H. 


epitaph of 
u('h men, there were man)' detail.; given which might sen'e the }>m'- 
pO.;('S of hi
tory. In the anciellt ahh<,)' of r agn)", in the dioce:--e of Paris, wa.'S the 
tllmb of it...; great re,..tol'er, lIt'rbert, count of Champagne and Brie) in the time of 
King Robert, with this inst'ription,- 

"ExempJa. nlorllll1, procel"ull1 lux, norma bonorum, 
SoJumcn miseris, c
Gloria virtuti!l, Jaus fùmæ, forma salu tis," 

Thibauld the Great, the fclUl'th of this name, cOllnt of Champagne, who had 
Joa(led thi
 monastery with good::;, wa
o buried tllcre in :o'Cllemll :-tate, in 1152. 
)Ioreovcl', the tomhs of ft)UlH)er
 WPI'e often the only memorials of an('iellt Üun- 
ilies in existelwe : each mona4ery thus prevented fWltl pel'i
hing slime illu
name and memory. 
In the ahbey of Haute1'Ïve wa::; found the tllmb of i
 knightly f()Ululer, \Vil- 
liam, count ofGlana, wh(l!-e portrait was pointed uut tu me ill the hall, repl'tscnt- 
ing him clad in cornph.te 
teel. His :o'on, the first ahbot, lay buried near him, a
\V olfgallg LazÏlI"\ relatt's in his hook, De )Iigrationihu
 Gentium. Orderil' Yit- 
alis, speaking of the yeal' 1107, :õays that many great IOl'lls of England. Riehanl 
of Revier
, awl Rogel', 
lIr&raltled Bigod, died, and were burit'd in the con\'Hlh 
which they had f.lllUdt.(l on theil' own e::itates; the lattel' at Tetford, and the tor- 
mel' at :\Iontihourg, in .xormandy. * In the abbey of 
t. :\Iary, at LOIIg'ue\' i lIe, 
belonging- to the mllnks of Cluny, ill SOl'luandy, wa
 the tomh, he 
, of \ral- 
tel' Gifford, earl of ßnekingh
lm. with thi..; epitaph: .. He timndt'(i allll built tI,is 
dmreh in whieh he tlOW J't'sts. Thi
 powerful duke \\'as the munificellt frielld of 
his countl'y, mighty by hi... valor, illustriou..; hy hi:o' piety, and filII of re"peclful 
tenderness for monks."t In the abbey of Potiere, near that of .:\Iolê:5llle, Dom 

Iartene saw the tomh of it
 foundel', the celebrated Gerard dp Rou:õsillon, prince 
of Burgnndy, and of otiJer province,.., who dieù ill 890. But it wa...; not alollt' ill 
the mpacity of foullllers that the knighrly and feudal dead la)' buried here. OIl(' 
of tbe thret> ('enH:,tkrit'
 in the abbey of Clail'vaux was set apart for the noble stran- 
gers who happellecl to die in that house on their jOUl'lley ; and thi!o, provi
ioll may 
account fOl' many tombs which are found within monasteries, that 
eem only 
fraught with reminiscence:; of the chivalrous \\'OI,I(L In the ahhey of Clair-lieu, 
Dom :\rartelle oh:o'el'vP() the tomb of Xi..LlOlas de I.llxemhollrg, on which he read, 
-" Thp knight who lies under this stone lived in high renown."t 

.. En sens, en pace, en vertu consommê. " 

_ The monks had tim..: arolln,l them mallY tomb,.. of men of kuightly tàme, to 
whom, howe\-PI' they still luved to ascribe a pacific character, tilt' epitaphs aoound- 
 in rppetition..: of the .....Lllle nohl... soothill:! words_ " 
Iolllt pit(-,u:o'e et grand, 
courtois et plein d'ho/llIPur," as ontO l'f-':uls on rllf' tllmh of Raolll, duke of Lor- 
raine, in the abbey of Beaupré, llPar 
all(,Y, III m()nastf-'ril'sal
() we find the tomhs 

· Lib, xi. 

t Ib, 

 Hnck Gl'rbcrt und 
einj:lhrhllndert, 10-1. 


I 0 R E 
 CAT II U I I C I; U H, 

of grc.'ltt'st poet!i. R Illsard li..s ill tlll l priory of
t. Gusllla, Ileal' Tours, on th
:-0 ide oftbf' alt
lr : Ta
'o ill Ih
 ('Ull\'('ll( of :-St. Ullllfri o ; Dallk \\ Ith tht. Flalll"i
at Ua\', 1111:1. III filll, it w:,
 ofiu. \\ ithill rdi
illih hOI/..u; t!aat 1Il08t "hu ('ulti- 
\'ah'll a ta..I(' f
'I' ('udou:-. I'f :-p:lrd..:-. di"('o\"l'/" th(' tllmhs of IIIt'lI uf tlark m
,'iol/:' f:lm,', \\ ho 1'. I'haps, f
'r m:lny I'P:I"OII S, ('oliid nllt have h:ld "ul"ial t'I:-Ol'\\ 11('rt'. 
<:orueliu.. Agrippa \\u.. illtt'rl,...d ill tlu.' dilln.h of tht. I )olllillil'all", al (; I"Pl1obl.., U
"a.. in 
[elro" ...\hbp.'" 
Iicllac1 ocot, whom :-:olllt'l' ill t'oulitillg \\ ith Ih.. \\ iz- 
8n.6. fhe 8\\.'1)' ofthl'Ír:-otrollg 
t'lIiu..., \\ hich f.,I"t'saw thi", hopl', t'.l)ml'l'lk"i Illt II, ..tl1- 
 and learned, to OOt'y their la..t mallllatt', wÌlo :It burinl, rOl/ud tllt'il' 
8t.'cret ..lrt'lIgt h, t hl'OlIgec.l in I' m01l1 ni n
, nlt'..f' Wt"'t' I ht> tom 1,8 ahout 
whil'h wiltl lpg-ends wel'e so oft('n "UII1!', Ii!.... that rt...ppc,tillt! tilt' f,!:lu\'e IIf ""y I Vt....- 
t the poreh of St. Johll, \\ hic'h IH d to "l,('OIII t. clalllp IM,fè.m tilt, tlpath c.f a 
cardillal, and to emit \\ater, "'0 a.s to fluod th,' pl:Wt l , \\ Il('lIf.\"t'1" a c'hit.f 1'0111111' \\3.:3 
ahollt to die, 110\\t'\"('I', in gClIeral, it 1ll11'i1 he :lChno\\ IN.lg "I all \\t'rt' &1li('n
t'ul'h cemt'tt'rif':-;, :-:ave tilt' hol)' aud till' rood, \\ hose 
s Wf're'llftl wilh 
th,. tl'ar... or" 1I1t'1l; a... at the flllll'ral of LorcI Xicob".., marquis of F:-.t, in 13x
, ill 
the dllm.h of the 
I iltor Friar=-" at wllil'h lIIon' thalt :r tJ.ou:-.altcJ 1'('1':-011:- elul hc d 
tht'm..t.lvt'... ill bhwk throu
h \'t'lleratioll fin' his \.Îrtw.... * Tlu'

 \\"('1'<.' tilt' J!Iß\'t>:, 
whit'h 3hl'Iireci bllch importaltæ ill tilt' mid. )If' :.gc...., f'1'om tilt' opinion \\ hit,ll Ihen 
J, Ihat men ccmld strf'll1!tht'1l tlll'ir Iwarts alltl hincllt: thcir pH.t}' hy \'i..i.... 
inK them; .. c.)r it W:IS ft'Ir," a
I. Bern:lr.1 :-.:I
'''' to till' l....iK!Jt lempl:ars, .. that 
]e'-S clt'\,olioll is t'xpcrie'lC'ccl oftt'll wlt('rt' tilt' li\'i'
g ('IIII\'t'r:-.('(I, thall wht rt' Ihe 
dP3d rl'po:-e."t Ih'nl't' rhu
c' lon,
 pilgrilll:wt'... to "">t'C a tomb, Jike 11'.'11 of 
'()lIl1g ElUpf'ror U(ho, in the ,\"('301' 1 0 00, to GII ""f'lI. tll th(> g-rave of tht' fri'lid 
of hi:-, .\'outh, tilt' hol,\' \claIlM'rt of BllhC'lIIia; prog-rC':--
, markl,J \\ ith :.11('1. :1 b"l- 
t'mn charal'lt'r, unclertak,'n wilh :-'1I('h t'al'I!..:-,tIlP:-o:") awl 
Jt'mind('(llIt'S.., wllt'lI, at'- 
companit>tI by many Ilohle ROll1all
, he "ntcn'.) tilt' l'ity CII fi)ot, hart,-J.(':ul, d. :mcl 
with naked fC(.t; oDel .Igain lepeatell, \\ hCII, nfh'I' ('pJchralill
 Ea,t.t'r ill Ih.. I"un- 
\'('nt of QUttlJinbnrg, where his ói.,tcl' \cI(.lh(.id was ahl*',.., of \\ hum lIP tllol.. RII 
:,tlè\"tiug' a ]t'a\'t', }I(' pro('f ('tIt'll to .\ix-Ja-C'lraPf,]lI', \\"h(','(> hp t'allSl'd to 1)(> Upt'fI('(J 
thl' !:mvp of hiò pr('(lec'p:.;sor :lIul nIoclel, ('harlt'lIIag-ll('. rhll
 did the heroic 
dead in tbe 
lgCS of f.'lith fulfil tl1I' POf.'l':<t Wtll'tI.. : 

"__,,rc me'l Rf.rILin 
Within the minds or Illen, whu8l' lips shall blell 
Our mf'mnrJ ; Rntl whusc hnpl'!õI If,. I"rilt relain 
\Vbt'1J thc'st:' tli"sc,vf'rf'cl hllnf'
 :m' tlncld..n in II... plain, It 

.By the low \":m It f"(1 f'rail"
, throll!!h which our 1!'uicle alul \\'P ,1icl entf-'I' tllPs" 
dark p!'('('inds, I('t u.. now a"c'f'lId, hp first :m.J WI' f())Jo\\'in
tPpSt till 011 Ollr 
\'i,.\V tl1l' bf':lIItiflll !-la;nl.,J lighl
 of tltl' 
:lIJ(""ary dawn thl"Oll rh the bro:.ltl arch, 
Ihat, thcllc(' i:-<;mng-, Wt' may :wain behold th

· ChrnnlC'. F.
tl.D!tt' ap. "ural. xv, 

t F.xhort. Ord )lil. Temp, c. xl. 

A lì E 
 U F F A I T 11. 



O\V have we It>ft the churcb, aw] pUl'sued the I;:teps of our sage con- 
 d111'tOI' to th(' library and tllt' scllOla:,tic hall:" whel'e afler bl,ief 
p:l('f' we 
"1L' :-ha1l be presellted to the living, who in thi... vaSt !"allCltl:1ry inlat-'rit 
 peace, To the ('hllrehes from dlt' heg-innin
 were ('onfidt>d archives; 
1 f
)l' the holincs-; of the place se{'ured their prl's"rvation, .Ju
tiniall ac- 
l' cordingly presl'ribes that his law
houlù oe laid lip in the holy church 
with the 
acred thing,.; belonging to it. In !-!Tt>at ('hnr('hes th(' need f()J' a 
atü pla('e for Ihe purpo
e \\'a..; SOO!) felt; and. :It lca<..;t, in the fifth centllry, there 
was a place, as at 
1Il:t, St:)t apart with appropl'i:Hf' officf'r.-; of librarian or ('han('t:.lIor. 
Tlw fil':
t cl'rtain t>vidence of tire exi
tence of a l'hur('h lihrary, is in a If>ttp,' of 
8t, .Jeromp tll Palllmachiu.; in 394, Soon aftel'\\'anls St. Allgnsl ill :'pt-'aks of the 
library of hi
 ('hurch in Hippo,* III ROrllf', Pope ,AntRrn... in 23
 had made a 
colIf'etion of the hilly 
cri pturt:
; and mention of libral'ies is mac1e by Leo the 
Great, in his letter to the Emperor Leo. Hilal'Y gavp hooks to the ('hur('h of the 
Latentll. In the timp of 
t. Gre
01'Y the Great, it had al ready bpcorne the CIlS- 
tom for !'emote bishop:;, whencver they hall any diffil'ulty about a book, to 3pply 
to tÌle pOpPe SI1I'h !'equest... ('ame to Gregol'Y fmlll Gau) l'(.spt.cting the Gesta lre- 
nrei; wht'n hi... w()I'ds to the hi:-:hop ....Erherill... \\'pre, "De po Vl'ro quod p('ele..iæ 
ve,træ concedelltlnm ex alltiqua c()nsuetndím
."t Similar dem:llld
('a1l1(' fr'llll Alexandria respecting the martyrology of ElJ
l'bius, but he could not 
filill tllPil' hooks ill Rome. l\Iartin I. excu..(,d himself to the holy Amalld:ls, 
bishop of Ton
rt'8, a..; he ('oul(] not give him the d. :;irpd hook
, "lIam codi('cs 
jam exillallili bUIlt a nostra hihliothe(,fI, et 1111<1.. darenms ei. nllll:itl'nu
To the bi,hop of Samgo:-,s:l ]w sa
''', "that it is irnpos..ihlp to find the Lihri 'Inr- 
alilllll of St. GI'e
ory, out of t}w mnltilUde of hook!'." At the !'lxth general 
cOUllcil of COII
t;llltiIlOpl(3, ill 680, tIll' Roman (lp)mties apIwaJ'ed with many writ- 
... of the hol
' fathers, whi('h thp popp h:,ò 
iven to them. Paul III, \\"a... en- 
treatf'd b.\' Pepin to spnc] "0111(' G'"eek honk,. to thp ahhe,' of Sr, Dl'ni
, whi('h he 
f(mn(} all(} ...ent in 7.57, "'Ve have (ti1'pC'tp(1 to ,,"0111' ('xcel1pnpe wh
t books we 
could ñlld, fin :Intiphollalp 
n(I1'P;;p()nc;.t1e. thp g'l'ammal' of .Aristotlp, the hooks of 
Dionysin,:, gpometr'y, ()rthograph
", and g-mll1mar, all in thp Grt'ek tonguf'."t In 

* 01' II(>f('s. :\li QUlldonltlil'nm, (' P-.7. 

f E"i,t ix.:,O 

t C('n
i ('odex Carolin, i. 148, 

I -I) 

MOl{ E 
 CAT II (J L I (' I: U H, 

855, Lupu..:, abbot of FCI'rit'I'('s, \\ rott. to BI'l1t.tlicr I II. to ohtaill a 
rcat (plalltity 
of books, which I1t' prollli...t'(l, h,,\\"('\'('r, p"nl'tuall," t.. rc..(urc.* 
In dlc nlllml
tcl'ic.. 1'1'0111 tlat. fir,..t, W('I'e libr:!ri,;o,. TllU:i :51. AU
of an ahhey nl'al' Trt>vt'
. ,I COlllill
 to a e"l'laill h"I1"'> \\Ial'n' Ilwdt "0111(' of tll.\" 
:ocrvants, the poor in ...pil'it, in whlllll is tilt' kill):dlllll of Ilt'a,'en, tll('
' fOil lid there 
a manl1
cript, cuntaining Ih' lill' of .\nlhony."t St. Grt'gOl'Y tIlt' Gr{'at a1sn 
sp' aks of a hook ill tltt' mona:.öll'ry of Ihe holy Areh:lIIgcl in 
icilr.t In tilt' ..j
c,'ntllr)', the c1oisrt'rs were tlte 
1'('at "('Ì\oOi8 01 ...alll1","'ript
, ft)r St. BplI{'Ili('1 r('- 
<plil't'S tht' monk... to pl'al'ti..p ..;tlch art..; a... were analogoll" to tllt'ir :,t:lle,
fir:,t splelllli,1 ;nstalu'{' of a rich lIIollast.i(. lihl'al'
' wa
 that of tlte mOllasl,.ry of 
Squillact', the gifr ofCas..iodoI'llS, wlao had LeclI bOI"ll thl','t., an.1 wlan, arh'I' ('ol1f,<,t- 
ing a library at Rnl1le a.. :I ..tatp:o;mall, ('olltillll('(1 to ""..1I'('h c.)r lI1anl1
( ript... tn {'u- 
rich the coll,.(.tioll of hi.. IIwllk",1I fi.r whi,'h hc :uh,i",{'(1 tlu III to wl'itt' ollt mort" 
 ellllc:lvnrillg tit Ja(,ilitatp tlll'il' ta
k hy ('nI"
 hi... honk Dt Ortho- 
grnpltia, Frum tilt. . 'ventlt till th.. elt,\"t'llIh ('I'nt....)", IIlis ('''':llIIplt' W:.I:o- fi.lI()\\{'I1 
at Unbbiù, 'Iount-('as..ill o , KOII:mtuh, la Chills:., Pomp....a, Pi ra, mHI othcr 
Hl'lICllictinc ahht'Y
, GlIihf'11, of Xn)!('nt, ,..peaking uf the first (1j..<'lc" e.f 
Bruno, san
, u ('hoo..il1
 tit li,'c in till' IItmo..t po\'prt)", tlH')" n(','t'rtlH'h..... eollc.('t 
:1 lIl(lðt I'i('h lihl'ary,"** 
'\'"ol'dl)' books, hl)\\'c\'er, \\'('rt.' IIllll.Ia I H:'lrl('(.t t'd, t"('Pptilllr hy Ca-;.-;ioelol'll" at 
SquillaCt., G"l'bt'rt at Rubhio, IIi,>rllnYlllu
 at Pltmpl .'1, anll h)' a fi.\\, oll\('l-s. 
Tlte lihrarif s of (.haptel':o\ in e'ath,'dral
o \\ pn> t',rl'>. Tho..p of Y crolla an(l 
l\ldan in the ninth, anti that of Y'l'rc'(.lli in tilt' tl'lIth ('1'11 till')' , \\ere \'cry rich 
l'ollet.tion', In lIlolla"Il'..i,.
 it \\:I
 in rIll' tw,.lt'd. ('('ntllr)", aho\'p all, thar tilt' re- 
fOI'mpt! Bl'lll'eliNin ..., l.:"pcci:IIl)' the (,i
It'rc'iall", t'lIrid., d ('01l\'('nt, \\ ith 
. Yt'r tht:' zt'al of Iht> Thlian
. sa)" Bllllllt>, dill not ('(pm1 that of rile 
FrelJ<'h monk.., wlw..e mn
ilH \\ a... " Claustrum sillP, qu:tsi <'al;:l rum 
i ne 
armalllentario,"tt 01", a.. .J..}m of bali..lmr)' c;ays, " .A cloi:o-h.r wirhout hook!" i.. a 
('itadpl without arm
r n the thirtce..rh c ,ntll...\'. tlu> Dominicans and Fran('i:'"l'all
..,.d all thpir 
prcdf'ce-sol'" lit ztal fì'r "ritill
 and ("oll"l'tillg' !tool,. ; bur to\\ard:"l the enel of 
dIP ftllll'lf'eltth e't-'lItllf\'. tilt> floll1'i
hing IM>ri(w1 of the 
pil'itllal archivt-
 clrcw to 
 e'I....l', and Ihe iu,.t'ltlion Clfprintill!! di...ini.:lwtl th(' illlpl)rt:IIH,(' of lilt' IHCln:lI
Ii'.... nit> molt k=-- wCl'e t].'pl'i \"1'(1 oftpn of thC'i I' ('hoi('f'
t hook
. EV('1t 
\ 111- 
hl'osiu:, Tra\"t'r
I'i eXlu'c-:-S('" jO)" whl'I1E-""t'1' a lIIallu.;('I'ipt \\'a=-- 
i\"f'n to him which 
had bf,lon
t>(1 to :. nlona..t"I"Y. ami he m:ule no "('I'll pI,. ill ta k inf! from re.1 igiolls 
 the Look" of (Ieceas. II mOl1k.., Thom3
 Ph:i.Irn.. took from Bohhin a pilf> 
of tlt(\ mo
t impol'tant lI1alHl
t'1"ipL", whit'h had ol'igillal1y ('nnw fl't)lI1 Engl:1I1I1 ctl' 
1I'E-'1an,1 : 1 h('...(' Iw ("('mm'c.tI tl) Romp, wlH'I'p 
,mH' h:w(' h'f'll lately hrongt.1 to 

[uratnri Antiq. ",ii. 1 11 -.{3."i t f'onfe s. viii. 6. t Epist. viii l:i. 
n1. ,-., 
f ("Ip. fit' III!õlti' Divin. 
('ript. Pm.r. .- 1.1. c. viii. e, 15 
O. .. Dc Vita gun, i. 10. 
ft c;Rufrcd (',monic- Ep 
viii 'IT' 
hrrt'[w. Tht'.... .\ncc. t 

AGE:S U F F.\ I T II. 


light by the illustrious :\laï. The spqils \vitll whieh Poggiu:o' r(lturJlpd from :-;t. 
(;;,11 to Italy arc well kuown, Tht' 1U04 impqrtallt IlJallllsel'ipl
 with whi('h I h", 
Y atican had been eUl'idll'd from the fifteenth to thc &;'Vt.ntl'('llth eClltllril''', had all 
come out of monasterie:s: many of the book.. of 13obhio WE're rcmov('d to It,tlUt', 
Iilan, Xaples, ami Vit'llIIa, :\[ahillon to"k at lea..t Ollt' manuscript from 
it to Pads. A \VOl'&- fiut> awaitell tht':'I' ('ollt'('tion
 in Eliglan.! ; amI \\'11('1'(>\"t'r 
the 1I100IpI'U; pl'netrated. houks couid ha\'c 110 cham't', wilen "\'t'll till' fam- 
ou.. An
cn'illi:1II lihrar)", fil':-t eollected by .\lIgl'I'\'ille, hishop of I>urtwm, \\";1:0' 
destro\'ed with the t\\'o nohle lihrarlf''i of ("ohhalli. },i
hol' of 'Yillt'he
ter, am1 
that of Duk{' Hllmphrey. \f L'C\'er -ay-, that from )Ierwil College alone a cart 
.ul of lllallu:5cript:"Ò were cal'l'i(>,] oft' :111(1 thrown awa.y, Librarie- :IS oIl] 3S the 
:"en'uth Cl'ntlll'Y, like that of \V. crt.mouth, to whil,h the ahbot Iknedict hall 

)l"ol1ght O\'t>I' :"uC'h a (t'IaIll ity of h()ok
 "1'0111 Italy, then pprishell. 
Rut let II:'" "t'turn to happie,' tilll"
, :till] lIlark the prugre:,:3 of the muna
tic cul- 
Ien uf all t,la"cs \'lIl1u-iblltt'(I to DH'lH [hem, The m()nks, if Gerbert 
expr..qgt.;:, th"ir sentimellt5, applipd Ìt) the wo..k of colleetiug book:!, with a view 
tu the pt':t('P rp..;u1tillg frOII} 
tudy, Thi:, 1C':lrl)e.] monk of AIlI'ilJac, writillg' to 
EI'('ard, abhot of T,)II..
ays, .( that the I'all-l
 or his ulIIIl'rtaking 
ud, lahor in 
coJleetiug books in Italy, Germa.ny, anll BelgiulIl, wa-; his I'olitellipt f()r the b'each- 
(; of fttrtuue, which eOlltC'Ulpt wa:s the re..ult in him, not alone of lIatilre, but 
of 311 elahol'ah>(1 doctrine. 
IùreO\'er," he add..," ill lei...ure an,I occupatiou, we 
learn h.\' IIlpan.. of book", that of which we WPJ'C' igll()ram."* It wa" tu his 100,p 
of peaCl' that tllP monk of CroylanlI ascriht's the liherality of the Abhot Ri('bard, 
in the timC' of Richard III., to the libmry of that honse, which he enriehed lIot 
only with book:) that he purchased, but als", with many that were written with 
Lis own hanil.t Trithemiu"" who wa.; slll.h a great col1ector, speak!; of his own 
motive tllll..., ""Kllthing i", plea
anter, nothiHg- more Jeli
IH fu] than reallin
. I 
 without ...leep, ;-;lUdyin
 the Scriptures, and omittetl to take my 
meals in order to 
l\'e tilllP for l'l'a,lin
,-(luil'ql1id in IllIllHIo :;cihile e4, scire:-ern- 
per cupiebam."::: But it i... Ri,.hard of Bu..y, whl) above all l.evl'als what was in 
the mind of monks, whe" tht'Y appliell with :o'ueh Ililigt-'lll'e to D)1'm lihrari
..;, "In 
ays thi:-ò great ('hlll"('!. lIIan, "e\'C'I'Y O)w WilO :-opekt:th wi
dom findeth it. 
In thp"e, Cherllbilll ex({'n(l dlt'ir wings, :lIld t'xeite the intelligence of the students, 
aud they look from pole tu pole, and from the ri:-;in
 t l ) tIw :-oetting sun. In the:,e, 
the mo:,t high incomprehensible Gud is contained apprt.hen..;ihly anll allored. In 
tht'..e li(.
 opl'n the nature ofeelestial anlI terre..trial. awl illfpl'nal thing..;. In these 
arl' I"f'\'ealpd law", hy which all policie-- are I"nl(-'(l, tile offil'c::I of tht' celt\..;tial hier- 
a 1'(.) r:' .listinglli::;hed, and the tyrauni('
 of demons de.:el"ibed, Tn hook... I fiu.l the 
aù as if alivp : in book", J fc)rt:8ee the future, in books are mauif(,..;tC(1 the ]aW:5 
of peace. All things el
e fail with time. Saturn c('asE'S nut to d,,\'olll" his off- 

* Epist, 44. 

t Hist. Croyland, 

 Xepiachus ap. Ecc:l.rd. 11. 


)[ U It E 
 CAT II 0 L I (' I; 0 H., 

!"pl'lng; for oLli\'ion co\'el'eth the glory uf the \\orld. Bllt Gild hath luO\'ielc'el a 
n'Jlu't I)' for II
 ill book.., \\ it hour \\' h il'h all that \\ Ne e\'el' great WUlllcI h:\ \'c hl't>lI 
without a JUt 1ll1)1'Y. '1\)\\el':- tall to the t>artlt, triumphal eiti.. pl'rish, nur ('au nil)' 
kiJlg' or pope ('ollt
'r a lastiJlg pl'i\'ilc,re, IIJ1It. .. hy bC)ul
::,. FiJluIl.\', think \\ hat ('011- 
\'ellil'lIl'l' 01' learnin
 there i... ill bouk
 ; huw Cd...ily, huw seer .tl)', hu\\ 
', we 
may lay bar
 \\ ith()llt shame tv bûuk
 the pm'crt,\" of humall igIlOr:lnL'e, Th, ;o;t' .ire 
thc maste
 who ill
truct liS without 1',1(1:;, WitllOut allgt'r, alii I \\ it !tOllt mom')', I f you 
nppt'oach, they SIt'l'P I1llt ; if YOII interrogate tht'm, tilt,)' do lIot hi(lc tlll'm 'In.:-; if 
)'011 mi..takl', thc)' do lIot 111111'111111' ur hUlI'h. 0 book.., nilln . liheral and naaklllg 
lib 'ral, who gin
 to all. who ask allel emallcipateall\\ho:)c1"\" of lifi, 
\'1111 arp, and the river of nar.adise, with which the hllmall illtl.lIi
l'lIe'I' i... irrigate II 
amI made fruit fill. The contemplatioll of tmth i... IUOrt' pl'l't
"CL b)' Imol,;s, \\ hich do 
nol :o-lIm..'r the al't
 of the iutdli!!l'lIl'(' to l)l> inll'rrllptl'.J; Ihl'rcf
'1"e, bllok... "'m to 
be till' JUu
t imlllecliate iustruJUt'!ltS of :-öp('('lIbti\'e fè-lieity ; l'On ,(pll'lItl
', nt) pric'e 
ought tll It i ItlIl'r a malt from tlte purl'basc of hooks, all11, ull .U:C HlUt of the malic.' 
of the s,'ll,'!', ot' tlte uet'cl of waiting fi)r.a Illor(' Cou\"t.'nit'ut t imt'j fin' a, \\ i..(lolU is an 
inlinitt, tn':l..;ur(', the \'alm' of book
 is ineff:ahlt., allll tlll'I'I,filft. .Ari
totle, whol11 
_\ Vl.l'ro(,5 thilll
s \\'a.. gi\'en a
 a rule iu naturt' g:t\'t' ï:! 000 ...t -rcii for a f-w 
b.,ol.:", uf Spellsippu.... Till' lUullks, who are /')() \'l'lU'rahlc, arc ac 'ustomrJ. tll be "'0- 
licitllils in r('
arcl tll hook.., aud to Le lh'lig-htt'cl ill cllmpan
',:1!i with all ridll>
:lIul IIwnt'c it ib that \\c fillll in lUo..t mOl1a..tcrip.. ..\I('h'ndicl trl'.t..I1\"(-S of t.'ru- 
c1iti.,n, gi\'in
 a (le1p('tahl., IÏ!!ht to tl1,. l':1th of l:lit.
, () tim! c1t.,\",'lIt lahol' of 
thl>ir hauds ill \\'I'itilt
 hooks; how pl'l'lt'r;Lhle to all georgi(' care! U c1l'\'"Ut ...()lìl'i- 
tuelt>, 1..\' means of whit'" l1t-'itlwl' )lal't!m 1101" 'bl"
' ('all h' ('urruptl-'lL Trllly tbe 
lo\'p of hook., i.. the lo\'c of wi..clolU, ån.l 
L ..nsual m' avariciou-3 life caullt)t be 
('Olllbinro with it; Ther('f(u'e :;011)(' (\n

., NuJ1a lib. i.. 
rit apta manus ferru!!ine tincta, 
Xec nummltta 'IIlt'unt corcIa V8curt' 1ibri.. 
Nummipclc c\Jm HiJricn)i., tu-Ijut:unt ...irUlII esae : 
.\mbos cft-de mihi linn kuct una duoms," 

No one can f'r\Ye book') and mamlUon; fi)r thc r.,rmel' rp\'eal Und. Tnh)" an 
imagt> of filture bcatitudf' i, thp ('''nt''mplatioll of s,lt'l"t'tl Iptt(>rc:, ill whidl 011" tim", 
thl' f'l't'ator, at allothl'I', t}tp ('I'('atlll'(' i
,'en, awl fr..m a pl'rll(" turrcllt of c1e- 
"t f:.aith is drawn: how :ulluirahlf> i
 }lOWPI' of 1I01lks, whill' by tlwm wt." ht.- 
hol(1 Iht' uni\'l'I':-.t', alill a... if in :t ('t'atain mirror of (,h'rnit
" tht, thill
" \\ hi('h an' 
not a.. if thcy w're! \r e :t '('"wl lHountain!'. we di\'p into ahy...-rs, \\'f' :-Otl(' ('rc'at- 
Ul't.,.. of all' kind..., wp <<Ii..1 illgni:,h till> propP! tip.. of PaI.thly h'l(lip=", awl Wt' l'\'t'U 
:, to ('omtpmplalP Ilio.." th:lt an' ht
l\'('nl.\'. Le., thll
 hy hook:-; we attain to 
t liD 1"('\\ :ud of1waI it IId(', wit ill' Wt' an' so; Yf>t on I y tl"'cl \'elll'l'''' j()nrnl')'ilI
 towarùs it."* 
On promotion to gn'at (li
nilif . in the FL.ttc, monk
d to makc Jouatiou

... Philobibliou, 15. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


of books to the houses they left. Thu:3 Simon Lan!:ham, abbot of St. ,\than s, 
when he wcut out of Englar)(l, Icft the f)wnks hool"" t" the \'alll(,' of .t
30, It 
"a,;; thc plc:blll'c tlw)" (ll'ri\'cll fr"l11 pur('h:l
iug book.. fiJI' their lihr.lri('
, that 1'f'I1- 
dCI cd Paris.;o dc1ightful to th
 Ill(lIlks awl uthl'l' t.(.cJ{,..ia....i('.; of tl)(' micldl<' age:i 
\\ ho vi"itecl it. "0 LIt,-:,pd God of god:-i in SicHl:' 
('Iaim", I:iehard of flur}', 
" \\"IJ3t a fllloll of pleasure rejuice::; our heart Wh('lIc\'I'r we ar'c at lihpl"ty to \,isit 
that paradi
p of the world, Pari:-:, wlu're day!' :tI\\ay" :-t'pm to u.. too few :lIltl 
short, through the imnH'u-it}' of our lo\'('! TI}('rc ar(' liltrarif'.; morp r('dolent of 
dclight than all the shop
 of aromatic... ; th('rc an' till' flowcrill
 nwa<1ows of all 
volumes that can be fiHlUlI where. TllI'rc indt' .d, UI,tyif)
 0111' Pllr:-,c--trings 
and opening our trm
lIrc5, we di
pcr....c monc," wi! h a joy fill hcart, and ransom 
with dirt hooks that are beyond all pric('. But Iu how good and pleasant a 
thing it is to gather togcther into one, the arm:; of t,l"ril':11 warfarc, that there 
may be a 
upply of them fc'l' us to u
e in the wars ag-:lilJ
t Ilcreti('s, if e\'er they 
should ri:-c up against us !"* 
Thc hou,.:e-diarieci of ahbeys are \'er
' particula in noticing donations to the 
lihrary. Thll:3 in the annal
 of CorLy, in 
axoIJY, we reall "This yt:>:Il' 1094, 
John dc .:\Ialltrop gave to the library a foJ io book in _\rabic, brollght from 
PalUlOnia. III 1097, .:\Ial'('hwartu... maùe a law that f'v('ry J1o\'ice on the day of 
his profc:,sion, !'hould gin' a useful and nlluahle book to tile library. lIe dcsircd 
al..,o that e\'ery i'uperior of a moua...tery :,ubject to our:" :o-llOul(1 collcd a cllrouiclp 
of his honse, and send it to him tl) be a ruclIlol'ial for future ages" In 121,=5,' Rummel' of St. .-\.nsgariu5 gave us a manual, in which all his holy 
labors in the nurth are hriefly and stud iously noft-d, according to years and day
In 1379. Joachim de Bl'a:lllblirg ga\'e to the library variou..:. Arahic a11<l He- 
brew huok:.:, which ha(1 been formerly taken in war iu Hung.try." 
Laymen also co-operated, St. Louis ll.ft his hook:'Ò to be c1i\'idl'(1 between the 
Fl' and Duminican order..... .:\Ialate:'Òta Xovel1o of Rilllini built alld filr- 
ni:;hell a noble libr:u'y in the Franciscan conyent of ('f' Henry 111., arch- 
duke of Bavaria, ga\'e a noble library to the :Ibl>e," of Tagf'rn:;:ce, where he spent 
man)' hOllrs of de\'out metlitation,t The f:pirit of private coìlector:-; was hardly 
known. In evcry town in Italy, ÎI1<let'd, a
 G(,I'h('rt ob...en'c:,;, hook
 in aLlIll- 
dance were to be fouml! Fre(ler'Îc II, f, Irm('J all cX('f.lIent 1ihrary.
 a, did in 
the fì)(lrteenth century Rnhcrt, king of Sicil
'. TllP erll-alle... p,'obahly caused a 
numher of Greek hooks to be brouf'ht tû Ital
'.11 CollJ(.('jo ";:'alllí.:.tto, Pdrareh, 
XiceolC) Xiccoli, and Thoma" of 8:11'7:1113, afu'rw:ml- P"pc Xidlllla:-, 'T. were all 
emiupnt instruments in collecting and ('ollatin!! ('Ia"ieal mauuscripts; hut still 
e men were f3r remOYl.<1 fmf() -epking to ha\'e pri\'aTC lihr:lrie.... Pt.trarch 
wished to spll hi
 in ordpr to erect a chapel of the BI
;;cd Vir-gin," Xic- 

., Id. ('. R. t J I\t'ck. G811erie der Klö
ter DdJt'CI. h nds. t Tirah, iii, 3, 1. 
{3 Petri ,1(> Yin. Li,b. iii. Ep. 67, I Hecren GCSCIJ. dt's Slud, der Klass, Lilt, t, 1. 

 Epl!;t. 34. 


I U H. E:S V A T II 0 L 1 V I; 0 H, 

 IiLrar)' at FI'Jrellce was pla< ill a mOIla.:;t'l')" ; allù al..o iu thc f.,1l0\\ ing 
age, the I'iiulic libr:lrie.. f.JlIlllled uy private pcr
vlIs \\"erl
 ai wa)":; atlachcd eitilt'l' 
to a Illoua!--tcr)' 01' to a ('hurch. One llIay I'all
c hl're all im;t:lllt to all mire the 
wi"itlOIll of thl'''C IIll'n in thi
 I'l':--pt'et. " h is natllral," ..ays Blulllc, " tll:lt 
the propt'rty of cOlllllluuities :o-llOuld emlul'e ItllIgl'r than \\ hat imli\"idual!', Illay 
ha\'t! accumulated fùr tllClII::)ch,c.... I kllow of no lihrar
' whil,L ha hl'clI t.t pt to- 
gt..ther in the han,l.; of cl prÏ\'ate family f.Jl' Itll1!!t'r tltall 
OU year:,. The)' are l.i- 
tllt'r di!-'pt'r:.;cd or trall...ft'l'I'ed to a f.HllIùatioll. Thl'rcf.,I'C it \\ ould be uH,le.., to 
\\ nte a histOl')' of prinLte libraries."* 
,rlmt an atfl"dillgclIlllllll'1H on thi:-, st:lh'mt'nt lllilrlJt L(, fUl'lIi
h('() h
' till' It 11('1' 
of Jolm Frand.., Pieu..; of :\Iiwnduìu. on the tll'ath of hi
Johll Picll", to 
t the Larml'1ite, ill \\ hiuh, :lftcr oL Pl'\'llIg that his tleath is JI
 admirable 3!=ò 
hi... lift" 
illce hc dcpartt't) filII of holill(''':- :I lit 1 charilY, lIP :HIli..., ., It I::, not ) ('t 
kllown \\ hat ii to Ul' tl0111' \\ illl hi:-ö I,it.h lihrary. I hopl', hO\\l'\'l'r, that I ilia)' 
bc aul.. to co)Jed alld arran,!.{l' all thl' fr:I
llIcllt:, all') pal't i('lc..; ot' hib \Hit ing. A la
tll.lJal'Îuus hopt>'S anti vain tlt'..irc':i! ] l
clll'lt) lUau)' cllt'..ts full of 'rap:-, nor did 
I find :111)' thill
 \\ hidl eould bc brol1!!lat into light on i
 own f{'('t. () if,you Lad 

('t.'11 \\ hat th ngs hI' It:Hl C')lIl'(.in'(l, \\ hat Ill' had Ilndl'l"tal"t'n. YOII \\cHllt) !'(':lrl',.]Y 
h:t\'c ueen al,l(' (0 n,('min fI'ollI U':II',. III 1.1111 r('\'i\'{'() all tht' phil"
(ll'hl'rs :111(1 
i:III:';, :111 tlal' allciem:-. :lIItl modcms, if not ('},,tl, at Il',1:-'1, if -,"Oil \\ ill L(>. 
lic\'c a di..ciple who lo\'et.l him, cqu:lllCtL )).) you :Ilul thl
e \\ hC) are uudcr JOu 
puur ()(It praycrs to Ciu'i..t f.,r tali..; fri(,llllJ,\' 111:111. "t 
\\11:1t i
 to hc dOlll' with h;:. liLrar.\'? 
Ul'h i
 tIll' :-:1(1 fJt1c..tion now 3t {'\'cry 
K'imlar'=, lIt'alh, whil'h tile wi
er mell of tla.. lIIid,1!l' :11!l'
em'lal touk t aI',' to 
ohviatt', by colll't.,tin,r hook... for ahh('yJoi ratlH'1' than for thl'llIsl'In':" )Iuraturi 
t l"('aÍi 011 the Ii hf".u'it's of I he mOIl:l:,tt'ril''', an.1 
i \'C., 
1I11ll' ('atal O
l(("" of Looks left 
to tlWffi hy lßc)lIks.t The lihrary uf Fultla, \\ lIil'h peri
hl'11 in tIlt' thirty ycaTs' 
"aI', datctl fWIll the Carlo\'illgian::,. Down to the h<'g'inllill
 of tlu' :tt \'('II(('cllth 
('('lltUI')' its coll..t.ti'Hl of m:wu..;cript;o; was prCt'iflih. Twdn' mOllk:- had 3h\:I)':" 
h('('n "l'n
t:lIltly ('mplo,\'(>(1 in writill
 out hook.. (.,r il.
 Tlai..; \":I,.t library, tllc ad. 
miration of th,' It:lli:m philoi'oplacr:i of th,. tif(t'
ntll l'entury, \\":1:-. di\'i(ltd iuto 
fc)rty-cight cla';:i('-;. Dome fragml'nH of its (':ltalc)
11(' in thp tinw of ('h:lrlel1la
('xi.,t: th(' hook.. were then ('hidl
' lin'.. of tll{' holy f:.ltltcr..; a1l() mlln:l
tit. 1'1111':",11 
The libral"
' of Corhy in G p l'IIl:II1Y, \\"a.. al..o illllllf'II-=P, Thi
 \\"3'" pllllukr,.d ill t}l(' 
\\:11'''; of tilt. :"i
h't'nth ('pntlll')', awl tl'all,fPITP,1 to that of" olfi'llhüf(('I--.'. Tile 
' ofG('mhlolll'
) rit'h ill thl' hi
tnl"i(':l1 :l1Itifl'lilil'S of Bpldllllt, \\a... nwrl
titan 700 \"e:ll":.; olt) at its 13tt> di..pNSioll, fll t}\p ahhcy of 
t, G:III, in thl' ('i
(-entlll'Y, tht'rl' wcrt' t)ti1J hut fl'w hook:.;, TIIP :lhh"t Got?h'l"t \\fu, tll(' fil
t to ('11- 
brge the ('olJcctioli. The ahbot
 l;rimalù and II:.lltmot cnriehq) it with thl'ir 

... Rlumf', Iter Itn1icum, i t r.pi
1. Lih i. .. Anriq. III,lire, J)i..... xliii. 

 Zil'1!l'Ihnuer, Hisl. Lit. de I'Orrl. 
 BpI!. I 4R:
 Rrowt'r, A nr iquil ,It'.. Fu t.len"t'
, 4,:;, 
I ::-;ehannat. lIist. Fl1hleusi
, P, i. · 11,' 'ren, l;c,-('h. d. Cln!'l!'l. Lit. i. 162, 

A (j E ::; u F F A I T II. 


private collections. The furmer ga\"(' tlae Epistll';:) of St. Paul, :\Iissal", allJ Gu:'!- 
}lcb, lIolUilie=--, \Y ork..; uf the F:.uher..;, Li\"e
 of the 
3int:s, a book un a;;tronorny, 
:lUother 011 ml:dicille, a Virgil, a Chroni('a JlIlii Cæ...:aris, Dt: Vita Caroli Imper- 
atoris, Dc Bonitate Hludo\'ici I Illperatori:o-, De Hegiblls 
Il'ro\"iugorum, and Epi:;- 
tob AIl'xallllri de Situ Indiæ. It i:'! I!ot to hc wouùered at, tbat the books in 
thi...; abbey were fOllnd by Puggiu::ì ami CillCiu:'! coneealed amI m'g 1 ectel I in the 
tower, whell we consider the deploraLle 
tate to which it had been reduced [ul'some 
timc predon:,; b\" the enemies of the lWIIJ ks, al1l1 hy the barLarous lay noblec:: \\ ho 
had de;;troy('d the:lt1('iellt disci plil1e. * FUI' a:-: Trithemiu'" rt'mark!', whenevel' 
there \\'a5 decay of diseÏpline, the library, like e\"ery thing, was neglected, as in 
the abbey of St. )Iartill, at Spal1heim, till the year 1459, t wheu it again deser\'(
the epithet of ßibliothpcam illam sulemnem.t "
hen the reformers carne to St. 
Gall, man)" pre('iou:,; rnallu..:cripts :Illd record5 were seen carried out hy children 
through the street..:, Some were taken from them by the magistrate:, and laid up 
ill the count'iI-house. In olle clle:--t were fuund more than 600 brief but \'ery old 
charters. There \\"M also a census of the nohles and plebebn.; in the time of Louis- 
le-Débonllail'e. Some of these manuscripts came into tbe hand..: ofGoldast, otherd 
into tho"':!e of
 In the book.., of the archives ofSt. Gall there are notices 
of the place from which t'acll carne. TIm:; in manu
cl'ipts of the ninth century 
we read, c. Hæe a cænohio S. Dionysi venit expositio;" again, c. l=--tud, de viti- 
UII.; a p:datio Aqui
grani venit;" again, ".Ado Episcop. 'Yienen
is reliquias S. 
Dcsiderii cum actibu3 eju:o; \.itæ misit ad S. GallnlU." The library of Lobes, of 
which, the ahbt)t:-; wel'e great promoters of learning, wa
 also very grt'at and pre- 
CIOUS. Trithemill": increasel} the library of his abbey, enriching it with m:myand 
most rare ::\ISS. on parchment and paper. During the twenty years when he u:ö;ed 
to vÏ..:it different abbe
'5 of his order in \"ariou.., provinces, he was able to examine 
all their libraries, anù where\
er he found a duplicate copy of a book which he 
had not, he procurell it either b\" purchasE' or promise of another in its stead. "It 
happened .,ft
n." he says, c, in different monasteries ami orders, that I founl} many 
volumes of a:-:tronom}", mu...ic, mathematics, philosophy poes)", omtor)', hi
medicine, awl art, which the good fathers either did not under
tand, or, h'aring 
they might he Jill occasion of \"iobting their holy rule, asked me to take away for 
myself, an,} to 
i\'e them other
 printed, whid} thf'Y more wanted. So in the 
('our...:e of twenty Yf>ar
 J ha\"e bronght to this abhey about 2000 Yolume
. I have 
11l'n or h(.'ard in all Gprman.\' of 
uch a mre and wOJlllerful collection a::: this 
hel'am p , ('ontaining !'nch a numner', not alone of common books, hut of rare, hid- 
den, !'ef'ret, wonclprfnl book
11Ph 3S arE' scarcely to be found any where el..e." 
The manll..:('ri})t
 from thi... mnn3
tel'\" with tho..:e of the ahhev of I.lor
ch which 
. . , , 
were a]so precious, were r
moved to the 'T atÍpan ill. the time of Pope Gregory 

* IJdefons Von Au:. 'ii, 

 In Notis ap Vadiaui Farrag. iii, 

t Tritbem. 

pist. ii, 3. 


)1 UHF S C.\ T II U L I (' I 
 0 I

X,,"., "hI n the lihrary of ITeidelbcrg was PI' "el1teù to the Ho]y S e hy 
ilian, (luke of n
1\'aria, in the 
.ear 16
In Fr-J.Il('c the mona:-terie... Wpl'(' \'('ry ri('h i II books, St('placn P:IS<!U i('r ('.IUIl"t 
BIlf1ìe:cl1tly C
JH'l"'" hi, :Idmiration of tht'm. "ThOlwh l11u('h," he "a
's, " hat; 
h('('n lust through the ]en,rth of year..; amI the mi
r.)rlunc.-; of our til1H', one ma

;1ther out of the libratics of thp mtlna
terit::;, plu,ipurs heaux hrill... ùUllt I'"n 
pcut (,IllLd]ir Ie public."* "I cannot omit melltiollin
," :-ays Paradil1, f, tllat at 
St. .Johll's in Lyon..; there are certain \"('1')' anc'cnt hooks writtt'll on the ha..... of 
trl'(,:O;, of which one i:-; le
ible anti contain..; a <'Ol11l11l'l1t:Lr)' on the [>:-'Illll:o.; but the 
other, which is unbound and torll, id written in oM ehalacb'rs, which, to ('ol1f(. 
illlple truth, cannot be r
'ad, though the It:tt,.I'S arc fine amI clt ar. To many 
who are not skillcù in slJ(,h matters, tlaey Sl't'm to he Greek ll'ttl'r:" hut t]H')' arc 
Latin characters, of which the fi)rl11 only i!oò unlike our:;; 
o tlmt, ho\\ e\"t'f cleyer 
. a man may he, he WOliltl find it hard to J'( ad a page in a \\ L'Ck. Tllt'::ie 3rt', in 
'('t, the works of St. ..\vitu.., ar('hhi,..
op of Y'îenne. &mc thinl" that th"y are 
\\ itt 
n on linen, others that it is on jnnk of the 
i]e, other's that it j" on ]ittlp 
 of wooll 
I\l('(1 to!!pther. It is irnpo.....ihle to divine (.x:u,tly what th(.)' arc, 
('(.rtainl). tIlt')' are n
ncrable alllJ worthy of h(.ing I'rc'l'l'\.et], through -re\'erCIU" for 
antiquity."t The lihr:J.I')" of the ahl)('y ofCllln
" h...fore the Prow,tant-; pilla!!cù 
and hurnt it in th" :-.ixteenth Ct.'lItur,", was tlt'pnll(l Olll' of the wonù('rs of tltp \\ orld, 
and in filet it equ'llletl that of tht> emp\'rOI'S 21t COIl,tantinoplc 
 fhe litt.rary 
trca:,url''' ill the ah})('y" of "'\t. n('my at RIH'irn..:. of :-:'t, BI'I)('tli('t on t IH' Loirp, of 
=-'1. \'"ldor an.l 
t. Gl'rrnain at Pari
, :lIltl or 
t. Dt'llis aftcl' it
 discipline had b en 
reformL'tl by SUI"t'I', were a!..,o immel1sc. 
The mo.,t important mallu,cl'Îp1s of the Pl,t:lvi:m Lihrary, co1J('Cted h
' Paul 
Petau, and aftrrwards Pllf('lmsed by \T 0" iu" front his :-011 A It'}..andl'r, fill' 41),000 
, ",hi,'h form.. the k('rncl of the pr('''cnt Alpx:lll(lrine Library in the'Tatican, 
t':UJle in 1,)62 out of the p]lI1Hlt>I'cd ahhcy of 
t. Bt'llOit-sur-Ic-Loire, from ,\ hieh 
BOIIg-ars a]...o t'nri('h('d hi... coHce! ion, TIlt' lihrary of::5t. Yil'tor was full of I hp 
m(\..t rare and e
ct'l1ellt Looks. Fn,(pH'ntly th · oritril1al m:l1Iuscript" of tll(' gr('at 
nH'n \\ 110 had rend('ret.1 p.lrtit.ular ahbe).s illn,trious were prt.s 'n"('(l ill them. 
 in Gcmbloux Dum 
Iart('np that uftlte chronicle of 
iw.hert, thL letters 
of Guibert, amI :",0111(' work" ofSt. lhtherins. In the twelfth "ntur
' thp lihrary 
of the ahht'y of 5t. :Meclanl at Soi,,,,,,n,, \Va..; eelt.hratl'.1 ; an(l Ylucent (If Bmuvais 

pcaks with raptu1'l' of tlla. ofSt. .:\Tartin at Tonr..:. H. 'specting the lihrari('o; ill 
the Italian aLlx' ) 's we filld abundant detail.. in the interesting \\ork of Blul11e. 
, . 
The library of the _\n
lI.;tini:m hermit.. at Pa(lna Wa5 ('eI!'hrat
l; writcrb of the 
mitltlle 3gC"; 
p(,3k of it with adllliratiou.
 'buy of the manll...cript-i had hpen 
\\ ritten there, though Tom:1sini found that many were lust or ùamaged, the Paris 

· Rl'cherche!l de la France, iil. tg, 
: r.f'1 \'ai
C', Yie tl' .\hh, iìhrd, v. 

t Rist. de Lyon!!, lIv. Ii. 

 Comment. ba\ onarolæ de lø.utlibus PatavU. 



theologians aUli other professurs who u--t.'<l to proeL'Cd from thi:; mona....tcry, havillg 
probably taken a great part away with thëUl. The library ofSt. Juhn in Y'cr- 
tiara, at Padua, \Va.; perhap:; the richest in that city. The Dominic-an library of 
S:i John anJ Palll at Yenice, i-; describe,I by Toma
ini alld 
lolltf:lIlçon. llcre 
was a Thuc-y,liJc., of tile tt,nth cPlHury, anJ wurk..; })y GuilIcllJlu:", Past1"(
who fl'OIll beinb a Turk became a monk of that hOIl:o-C, 3mI enri('hed it \\ itll lIJallY 
orielltal manuscripts. In Bohbio, of which the }ihrar')' wa.... cplebratcd alréady ill 
fabillon found a Sacramelltariulll Gallicaullm of the ....evt,uth century. 
Gcrbert, whu wa
 abbot here ill 972, left part of hi:o; trpasul'e..; 011 lea\"ÏlIg it. 
Duugal brought here forty volume;:. In all tÌlt'l"C were 700 voluInt>:; of mo,..t :m- 
cient manu....cript..:, a tr
a....UI.e which the ri,.hest li1muT ill our times wou}(l envy. 
Here was a l1larthyrology of thp ninth cClltllry; also the Libel'S. Columbani of 
the tenth. On another ancient bu,)k were the
e lilles- 

.. Sancte Columba, lihi Scouo tuus iDcola Dungal 
Tradiùit huuc librum, quo fratrum corùa b
Qui legis ergo, Deus pretium sit muneris, ora," 

Here wa,q also a vast collection of hooks on agriculture and on the Jaws and 
division of gL'Ound. The library of La Claill""a. between Susa and Turin, was 
f:unou8 in the eleventh century, when Geral(lus, its librarian, was a most leamed 
man.* At the fire in 899, which destl'Oyed the renowlwd ahbey of Xonalltola, a 
great part of the hooks were preserve(l. Alr(-'ady in 1279 there was a catalogue 
made of its prÍ\'ilegps, which bpgan upon Pap
\.nother rieh catalogue 
W3-; made in 1632 by command of Cardinal 
\..ntl)lIio B3rberini. In the (-'l",vellth 
century a catalogue existe(l of its manuscripts.manyoi' whh'h Traver:òarÍ foun,l 
most consumed I>yage. In the seventeenth centllr
', ulld('r the Ihrbel'i"i m04 
of the..;e weæ remov(,d to the library of the S. Cro('e of J(-'ru
alern at Home, .At 
Camal(loli the archive.., were in the lo)\'er mona4er
' at Fontehuollo ; till' library 
\Vas in the uppel' at thp hermita
e. one l1lilp higher up the mountain, wllPre li,'",d 
the clebratc,I Amhro....ius Tr8.versariu..:, who adde,l greatly to this colle(.tioll. The 
French remove,1 hoth to the town of Bibbipna; but the autographs of Ambro- 
siu:o: are foulld in the Cam:ulo}{'sc convpnt of St. 
{i(.hael at ,r cnicf-', Thp Ci,.;t('r(.ian 
convpnt of S, 
faria 'Iaddal(-'na at Florence haa a great lihmr,\" IHlleh l'nriehe,1 
by the celehratell FerdinalHlo Ughelli, a monk of the hUII!-'c, who i..; F-aid to have 
[0111)(1 a trea,,;ul'e hel'e, which he expellded in dw pllr('ha...;e of bl)ok
. The Dom- 
inican lihral'y ufS, 'Iaria Novplla vied with that of the .Frallci
cal\s uflhe :Santa 
Cropp. Iu die ahhe)' of Pompl).....:1 wa..; one of thl' 1l10:,t lwantifnllihr:lrips ill Italy. 
The olde..;t h istOl'\' of th is collect ion i
 a catal()'Y'ue wri tten ill the l'Ie'"Pllth cen tnrv. 
 authur uames the ahhot lIiel'OnynlU
, hi,.; predece.:sor. a.... th.. flml1(lt
r, Dy 
 ordpl', a lIIonk fmm thl' d,-s'l't, by name and example nOl1nS, :,kiIJed in all 
ans, emp1o)'etl himself in c()lJectin
 hooks. wht'ther bf>autifully written or other- 

* )Iabil1. .\cta. \'.. 2. 


 0 H. E 
 CAT II 0 1. I C I; 0 It, 

WI"C ; fur the sai(1 abbot res"h'ccl to han' tla(,IU all l'(:written, so :1
 to fi)rm one 
body ofa library. Xo ('hurl'h, lie) city; not cven Home, ('oul<l<,'olltl'm) with P,IIIl- 
l in the (juantity of it..; hol)' Look:;. All tilt' old of Ha\'culI:l were 
) l'ieh in l'olleetion:o' of diploma..:, man)" of which \\Pl"(' tin papyrn:;. IJUl \\e 
han' lIot tillll' t I pnr..ul' th('''l' in'jllirie,.; fitr; a {('w mllrc nl)li('('
 ami \\l' Iran' done. 
IHmt all Enrnpe c'l'I"hratc() w:.ts the library of the grc'at \ 
lllon:I:o;tNY of St. 
a\'it)nr at ', whieh containl'tl ll1:mll..cript antOtrraph.. of 
allll(,st all thl' (;r
k Father:o:.* In Spain celcbrate,1 \\PI"(' tllf' librariu; oftlw3b- 
's of ..\In'lda IH.'.Lr LO
roUII, of St, Benedict of t\ahag'lln, of :--\t. Palll at Ðar- 
cl'lolla, of:--:l. \"IIlI'('nt at lh"iedo; allll in Portll
al at tlut or' .\1<,"},.H;:I., 
11I0st l'lIriollS \\"t're tlu' librarit.:; ill the lllona..terit.s of till' i..lalld.. of 1Iw .A,'{,hipt.l- 
o, as at 
\ndrll:o', Palm"..., ;,imll.Nsbll:-;, alld al:o;o ill later tim :; Iho...e Oil :\Ioullt 

\tho.., \\ hi('h only dat' (r,H11 the ninth am) tenth ('l'mud ''', of which the bl'st aC- 
COllllt is gin'ß h
' .Johll ('lImmenu
, and ill Villols's Prul"goml'113 to 1I0mer.t 
The in<';('I'ipti"n iu the library 
larul'('eIlian:t .1t 1-"'1 o 1'(' lIe'-, " Puhlir:c et ruax- 
imL' p:lIIpt'l'um utilitati;' may :<-('I'\'e tO
lIdic'atc the rull' ob..c.'1'\'e,1 in tIle ahht'y.. of 
thc lIli,ldlt. a
""" where such coll,'dions werc origillully f()rllle,1 to henefit the poor. 
H.ieh:ml ell' Bur)" expr('..' .,1 but a general cl.sire "hen he wrote 115 folluw
.. 'IO\'C'd by Him who alol)(' 
rantt th ami pt'rfC' a good will tv men, I dili- 
gcml}' in<juincl "hat among all the unlet's of pid
" \\0111,1 mo..t plea..e tIlt' \1- 
mighl)", ,11111 1I10:-t profit tite ('hul'ch militant, Then hl,forc th(' ('
'C of our mim} 
thert' came a flock of c1lO...t'n ",'holal's, ur mthl'r of the l.l(.'(.t, in whom (;0..1 the 

\rtifict'r, aIhl Sature hi., halllllllaiclt.u, hall pl:lI1tt'd thc rout
 of thc best mallDPrs 
icllce.., but whom pt'llury :"u oppr, . '(1 that the)" wefC (lril.'(l up, l)t"('au..c 
l' fruitful 
'l'(l.:, in l'OIl
I'(IIlPnCe of want, were watered \\ ith no (Iew in the UII- 
culti\'ah'c1 :o:oil uf )'lIllth ; :,u tllat tlwir \"irtlle la)" hi(lclt'll and Imrit,(1. 1::)0 till' ('rol) 
\\ itherec.l away, Ulul the l'orn (Iegt'ncrat d into tarl':O:; 
1Il,1 tl",y who miJ.ðlt have 
grown up into 
troug colurull
 of the Church, hy the l':lpa"ity of a ..ubtIc genius, 
Wl'rt ohli
l-d to relloum'c :-tudics. TIllie; they are repell, J \"iolcllily from the I)(>C- 
íarc.',lll ('up or" philo:"oph
', fi)r which till')' tÌ1ir
t Ùle more from ha\.illl! ta..ted it; 
3ml beillg lll'pri\'t el of 1Iw writing.. al1l1 hc'lp..; nt'Ct.
s:tI'}' fill' (,olltt'mplatioll, a<; if 
through a kind of apo:o;la...y, th , ')' rt'tllrn for the f'ake of Im'a,I to nlt'('hanieal al't
to tbe 1085 of the Chu.I"(,h :uul th . ,S('.ultlalof thl' wholp ('lc'rg.y, ::;0 muthcr Church 
('annot hring fOl1h o;lIn
, hilt throng-h "ant of thl' ft.w al1l1 little things with which 
natllrt' i.. c'unt 'lit' cl, shp lo...e... pupil.; that wouM aft(>rwal'cls 113\"C l)('c'omc dlamp- 
ions uf the f..1ith. \Ia...! how ...uddt'nly the 
11Il i... l'('lip"l'll in the hri.rht ...\nrora, 
and tile plant.t"\ mal It, to mo\'e rt'tro
lIul the :-t:1r
 to fall. \\llat "all a piou!"' man 
behold more d"plomhlc? 'Viaat ('an mort' ('xl'itt> hi.. c.ompa....ion"? \\llat (':111 more 
ro..ily (lis..o1\-c into "arm drop.. a cnng.'all'd heart? Therefore..' we ('ol1..i,ler((llaow 
IUnd1 it wou}() profit the Cllri..tian rl'pnblic to Ll'ar assi..talll'C to the poor, mul 

 ICU, ii. 1001. 

t Hecrcn. GL,.,'h. d. CL.,-. Lit, 

AGE::; () F F.\ I T II 


nUUl'ish :-tudellt-:, lIot with the deI:gllt..: of:5a1"dauapall1
, or the I'i('h".. of Cræ,u..:, 
uut with sl'lwla-;[ic mediucrity. How m:lIl)' llave \\'0 
\..t'n COl1'piCIIOIl:O; Ly 110 Ius- 
tI'c or birth allll I1U herL'tlitary :>lIcce:-siuu, but ouly a.....i:-tul by tht' piety uf good 
men, who have d('
Cl'\'ell apo...tolic chair
, in wh;ch tht.y ha\"e serve,l tilt' filithflll, 

l'!'h'tl the prowl, and prucured the I.hert)' of the CI11I1"<.'I1? Thert'refc,rc the re- 
sult of om' IllcditatioJl was pit)' tOl' thi:oi ub:icilre racc of !lien, \\ hu might relldcr 
sueh :o.t'l'\,iC'c tu the Chllrch, and a re..:olutioll to as=--ist lhem, not only \\ itla m -ans 
of :oiuhsi...tence, hut with bouk,; tOl' their stmlit's; and to this cnll our intl-ntioll 
e\'er watched hef
 0111' Lord, Truly thi:5 extal ic love so moved U
, that re- 
noullcing all othCl' earthy thing''': we applied ollr,('1 \'()S to colJect hooks."* 
The libraries of thc monks were in a stript :-èJlSe al,o puhlic 1il,rarif's; for 
they were open to everyone. That in tilt' ('on\.t'nt of St. FnlJ}(:i:o:, at Padua, \\'as 
open during six hours every day in S!1Il11llt'r. mill fh,c in wimer. Bllt )l'lItfim- 
ÇOll ('umplailH'd that the Bcnedietine lihr;ll'y in St. Giorgin )Iaggiore was not suf- 
ficiently acce.....ible. That of the n 'lledidillP' at O..!ealls was op('n to the public 
three day..: in the week.t Before the great revulution there were ill Pl.lris lIine- 
teell lihrarie,.; con:-talltly open to 
tL}(lel1ts, whereas the lIumber at pre
ellt does not 
d pi
ht, all of whieh are clo:ic(l duriug :;ix months of the year. Dom 
on \'i
itillg the :tbbey of St. .Jc"11l de..: \Tignes, at 
, remarked that all the 
books in the library wel'e 
till chailled.
 They were, lHOreO\'el', protecthl by 
sentence of excommunicatioll a!!ainst all II ilapidators ; yet in certain ('a'e
 the books 
Illight be horrowed for lifè;
 though LllpllS. abbot of Fener:-, wOlll\l hardly have 
('ol1..;('nted to thi=-- measllre, jlld
il1g frpll) what he sa,\':-; in a letter to IIillc11lar. 
cc The cOlUment of Bt:de," he !'ay
, "on the apostle, from the works of A IIgllstill, 
I f
ar to 
el}(1 to yon, becall:"e the book i:" 
n large that it ('al1ll<lt be ('ollceale(l in 
the breast, nor can it be well contained ill a s:wk, :md the bpallty of the codex is 
sHeh, that if it wel'e to f:.lll into the halld... of the wicke<l, it 11li
ht be lpst bOlh for 
you alld me."1/ The twenty-two \"olumes whil'h John, abhot of Cluny, left to 
that abb('\y were chailH'(l to the w
I11. Similarly thp books whil'h ûcÍ-:l\'iallus 
'" . 
Præconiu..:, of tIlt, m'ller of 
Iinor..:, archhi...hop of Palel'luo, phwed ill the 1mB of 
hi..: pa1aC'e, ill onll'r that per,.Oll": who callie to tr:lI1:;;act Im;;;int':-'s might 1I0t pass any 
monH'nt.. ill idlenes..; while waiting fin.tht>il' tl1l'lI, wel'e chaine(1 to th(' \\alls.' 
In h:tly on(' still 
ees the chain..; attadlell to book..: ill the librarit>
and )falate,.tian:l. 
But though we:u'il1g fetter=--, they wel'e Hot impri
ol1('(l. Book:", though HOW 
\1lwhaine<1, are lIot always 
o accP:":,,ible a..: tlw." were wht'n the mOllks were their 
ket'per:". \\
hpn I was at .Alllien
, the lil)(':ari:1II t01tl me that Iw h:ul to 
thàt <lay in the markt't, all\l thf>r<>fim' eOllld 1I0t open the C3
 of the precions 
books which hall ('0111(' from the abbey of Corby. I could not refrain frolll ex- 

* Ric. de Buri Phi1obiblion, Prolog. 
t Uihliolhè(flU' lIi,.t. des .\ut. de 1a Con
. Òt> Sf, )[:1111', 22, 

 lIi4. lIe 
"'''ls. ii 1'!8. I Lupi Ep''''1. 7li. 

t V OJ' age Lit. 
.- S:dlia S:lcr:l. i. 


M U R E 
 CAT II U L I () I j U H, 

IU'{'s..illg to him my rcgret that tllt'" trl'a..url:i \\ prc 1I0t :-.tilJ in th.. h:llu1t) of 
monks at Curby, though 1 :J1ould tlll'U IiIl\OC had to rille two Il'agw'., to Ii) 'l' dll'lll. 
Truly I mi
ht h:lve addul, it would have b 'cn heth'I' to hn\'c h:ul to 8p{.ak to a 
Hl.IIt.....lit't int" t hall to a COI1l-filCtor, or to the gl1u:ldit'I' \\ hum \\ e filut at tIlt' door 
of thc Boluuon librar,'. at 
III the lUi,hlle ages there \\a..; more libt'lt)' of n('(,lSi to lJOuk:i" \\11l'1I Jk-sar. 
ion opened hi
 librar)' uf 
[ark's dUII',",I, Ll' Oil!)' f{)(,IJ:ld the )"('1110\':11 ofhook.. 
beyond thc city, amI ordl'rt'd that \\ hOCvel' \\:t::s cntl'U::itc\1 \\ ith a Lool
 \\ itllin tllc 
hould (1ouhle it.. value. '\ntouio Agu..tin took a mallll..cript out 
of till' 'Iarziall:l library iuto 
rpndo1a':o. hou:",l'. .\ noillt"I' '\ a!-l !-cnt to him O
lt of 
tht, public library in }."'IOI'l'Il('c.* \\"'IIl'U in home 1ll0Ila..;tl'ril'S tL(' ctl
.{'t... of It'lIù- 
ing books Wl're [01111.1 t:o e\'il 'that thc clJstom wa.s pruhibití't1, tlIt:' ('ouncil of Paris, 
in 121
, ('omplainetI ()f the aLbots \\ ho refused to Ipl1(1 hook.., aud {OI hac1l' tht'lII 
to pll.J
e tltl''S ill futllre to :-òlH,h rl'fl1:",aL-, "qllum ('I 'IIlmtKlarl' ill1t'r prao,,<,ipna 
e opt'1"U ('omp"tctllr."t , 
Blume, aftl'r complaiuing of tlte ill m:.1IIagclIll'nt anti tlifficilltit,
L'd to 

tnlllgl'r::i in the ('apitu:ar'i
y:-, that iu lllona:",tl'l'ics in tL country he 31- 
\\ays met with tLe IIIO,t obliging rCl.:l'ption. 
 can he mOl'C afft'l.:tiollate titan the teran::, with wlti{'h lIlonk.. of tlu.' mid- 
dle :I
(,=-, ill\.ire"r
 tt) th.,iJ' l'bJ',lril'
. I..upu:-" abbot uf Ft'rl't...
, ill th,. tlioc(':-.e 
(If ben.;, write.-, to the abbot A\lti..igus, in tIle tliul"(''''c of Y urk, :-ayill
, that a:; e\"ery 
:) its like, So he tlesirt's to be unit"l \\ ith him ill hit lul:-Lip amI :-a('1 '<.) 
prayer..;, 011 a(.t'Olilit of their com mOil swdit s of wi,ùoltI.
 .\ III 1 the I, Ut'r of \\ï- 
baltl, ..1hhot of nl"W Corh,., to tlte ardlhi..hop of Brelllt'li ill 1151, i
 l'lIoug-h to ('x- 
citl' the .'11\')" of lItallY of our cOlltt'IIl:)orari,.
, .. It wa:-. gratifying to u..;' hl' ..:I)'=-, 
" that )"()U \"isitt....1 0111' hrethrl-u allll {'IIIlSIII, tl Ull'm : but I \\ i..h YOII would r, tllrll 
amI fl'l1laili 101lgel'; anù, a.s you pl'OlIIis- d, that ).011 \\ uultl turn O\'{-r all,l sc..ll"l,h 
IIOt :llo11e the \"oluru
 of UUI' s},ch.t.
, bllt :al..o th.. ,eh('(,. 1 wish Ihat \\ e lIIay 
havt. this (I('li
ht togethcl', in lwa('e, anti qlli(,t, aud lei:-III'('; f.'r wlwt 
pill .... in lif('."
 Tht':-,e old \Hilt'f:-. a('{'on1illgl
. are (',.ntiullally olt
, that 
they ha\'(' 
C"U and ft'ad certaill books in ccrtain 
olelllu 1llona:--lt'ri,s, oft.('11 in tli - 
tallt lalld... 
\\"e filltl that the mo,t tlelicate atto-utioll wa", illf'ul('at,-tl by the monk..; from 
' time ill lilt' u.;e of hook:,. The. rule of
t" Pachomius t'lItf'r.. into mauy (1<>- 
tails rt'
 their di-;trih..tion 31ul ('la..
ifi(':lti()1I ill tl... lihr:lr)' autI the c:u'(" to 
he takell of rlU'lII; [cJlo ill'l:lll('f', ill not leavill
 theUl OPt'1I \\ heu :w)" oUt. It.-fl hi..: 
cell. The Coutumier ofCîlcaux, spealiillg of th. illler\'al.. of
tutl.", 83.y
, " Ifit 
he 11('('( :,':l"
" 16) 
o :m}' where, I('t tllf' P(,I"::'OIl to \\ hom it W)lS clltmst('(1 pla,"e it 
hack in tht' dr:I\\"{'r, or if he wish to leave it on hi:-- s 'at, let lum male a t;igll to the 

* Ant, .\ug'. Opp, t. vii. p, 18':;, 
t Lnpi Epb.1. !xii. 

t Annnit's de Phil. rhrct. tom. xviii. 4.jO. 

II\IIt'nl'. Yt t 
t'ript ii. 4.



brother :;ittillg ncarC:;l him to gnarl1 it."* The rule ofbt. I
idore require:'} iliat the 
hould be rt::tul'llt.d every e\'d1ÍII
. The regulatiolls of the library of the 
aLLey of S:. Yictor, at .:\!ar,.eillt':;, :ire onlained t'xprt's
ly, a... the sl:.llute of .:\Iaill- 
, ill 1198, statc
, with a view to extirpate the ka:--t ruot of diH
cu:--ion which 
lllight interrupt the uuit\, auù peace ::,u ll(..'Ce
sary ill all pI act's, but:-u mucb more 
inidispensable where the luve of CbTl
t caU!'b many per::ions to dwell together un- 
der oue ruof. t 
In respect to the care of book!' III the midllle ages, we may ft))'m :-olUe iùea 
of the prevailing manners from !'l.ading the cUl'ions instructions of Richard de 
Bury. "Xot aloue do we :,elTe GoJ," he 
J':-, "Ly preparing volumes of IH.'W 
hook.., but also by pre:-erving :md treating with great care thc,:;e we have alrea(ly. 
Truly after the \"estmenb and ves:-öeI.. dt'lliæted to our Lord's body, 
acred books 
desel've to be treat{'(l with most reverellce by derks. In shutting and opeuing 
volume.; they 
bould ob
t'n'e a mature Dlo<le:,ty, not too ha
tily loo:-ing the clasps, 
nor failing to shut them when they have fiuished reading; fur it is far more im- 
portant to pre:;en.e a Look than a shoe. The race of sch()lar
 rt'quires to be bridled 
with the rules of elder's; for some act with petillanec and prt'snmptlOn, judging 
of thing..; as if thf:')' had expenence when tht'.)' are void of it. Yon will :,ee one 
youth lazily reclining ov
r Ilis studies, anù in the wiuter St:ason, when suffering 
from a sorry rheum, permitting drojJ:; from his nose to fall upon the page. 1 wil:;h 
that sllch a schular, in5teaJ of a book, may ha\'e to :,it O\'er leather with a shoe- 
maker'. IIp ha
 a Hail, too, like a giant's, with which he marks the margin ot 
the pa.;:;age
 that plea
e him. He has, hcside
J innumerable 
tl'aws, which he 
put::; between the h'ave.5 to help hi:.-; memory: these accumulate 80 as to swell the 
juuctlU'es of the bind:ng, and there the,}' are forgotten, amI left to rot. He scruples 
not to eat fruit aUlI chebe O\'er the open book, and to pa
5 the plate di'-solutely 
over it, and, because he ha.; no Lag provided fOl" alms, he COllilllit:-, the fragmput
to the b )ok. ""hat more sball I add? Leamng uu his two elbow:" he rl'8t..; upon 
it, invite..; sleep, and douùles down tile corner
 of the leaves! to their no :,mall 
detriment. Then when the 
howers are pas:-C<"I, and the flowers have appeared 
in OUl' land, thi.; 
ch\)lal', whom we describe, rathel' a neglector than an inspector 
of books, 
tuff::j his book with the first YÎolets and ru
cs he can find, amI turll
the IE>ave..; with hl)t hand::;, never thinking for a month to ('Io
e the hook, fo:() that 
in.;ects penetrate and e:lt into it, and at b
t it i
o di4endE>d than one cannot 
it, ThC're :1fe impl1d..ut .,'onth.. who wiII {'yen make lettf'rs in hooks; 
o that 
wherever there i:o; a hroad marg-1II ."(HI will find a mou
llphahet. or some- 
ing frivolous that o<X'urrf'd to their ima.[dnation, which imnwdiatt'lv their uu- 
('hastenell pf'n pr{';;t1nle , l to 1mt down. Ther"{' ar{' some thie\'('
 also who cut out 
Jea,.es or letter;:., which kind of 
:1cI'ÌIE>ge ou!!ht to he prohihitRd tinder anathe- 
. An honest scholar will :11\\":1.":-' wash hi
 hanò:; bet 11'(> taking up a book after 

· .\.p. 
rartcnc, .\.ntiq. 'Innac!," nit. Lih. i. {'. 7 

t .\p. 'hrtene, Vet. Script. i. p. 1020, 


[ 0 J: F S C.\ T II u I.. I l' I; 0 H, 

<limIer, :1Iu] n crying {'hild !'IHmlt1 ne\"l'r hI' "'uflt>l'e\1 to allmil'c tllC ('apitül IcUc.-r:i 
of oooli,., It'..t his \\"l.t fingl'r:, should pl.llntt. tilt' par('hlllellt; fcll' he 10udll'S \\ hat- 
(,'\'1'1" h" looks al. 
[ol'eo\"l'r, laÏ<:
, \\ ho halldll' a 1,0111" tlll"llt d IIpsil)c do\\ II, as if 
properl)' din.l'tl'c.I, are altog(,ther unworthy of hadng C1I1IJ1I1Uni1l1) with LI'ok
, III 
fillC, all lIC'gligence in 1 C' r,lrtl to books is t'
l'hHIt.d by th., l'
alllpl ' of our 
ayiour ; 
for \\ hl'1l hl:' ha I reall from th(' book whil,h \\..s.S (lei i\"t.
rl'd tl) him, \\ c rc..'111 that he 
(IiI] lIot return it to the millister until he hall doo::C'1 it a:""ain with Ii is lllO"'t sacrt.'tl 
; from \\ hich Stll<1l'l1t.. ought to talie ('
aml'll' nen'r to cOlilmit the lea..t 
l'nce with regard to book
. "* 
Thi..; minute attention to the pn'''l'I'\'stioll of book.. !'elolll r , d not Illlft.l
y to '-uch 
mf'n :IS Ridlanl de Bury, \\ho u..ed to Lr,athc Look
, likl' Cato, whom ('icl.rode- 
j.: 'rih(:- 
 in thc Ii Lrar)' of Lueullll", not so much I"t'mlillg a., inhaling tlll'lll: 
i hclum'i libri:-; videhatllr;"t hut a:... I . to allmC'mher..; of cvery religiou..; 
eomlllllllity \\ hicli hall ll1ailltained it..; di"l'iplint'. III tile Illanll
cripls e
by direction of Rcgimhert, lihrarian at l{idl('uau, undcl' th('.\ hbot., \r aId, IIcit, 
Erlha1d, :lUlI RudLclm, certain lint's 3i.c gl'nerally inscrteù, \\ hidl, after stating 
that he had procun...J thl.:" · hooks f..H' th, use of the hrdhrt'n, cOIlc1mlc tlm::i : 

· Adjnr
\t cuncto
 Domini per amabi1c nomen, 
Hoc ut Dullus opu
 cuillualll CODCl'SSC.rit e\.tra ; 
Ni plÍus iIle lid"1Il lJelleri!, vel dcnilluc pignuli 
Doncc ad lilts redcs quæ :u'('epit salva rl.'mÏltat, 
Dulcb amice gr:L\cm snihendi attemlc laborcm : 
Tolle, aperl, Rcita, ne lædas, claude, repone, .. 

II ugo of Si. Yictor oh&'-r\.f...., that thc rCi'in (If thp ('Pilar-woOl] i<;; useful to pre- 

rvl' Look=--; fur tlr:lt, wh(,11 ullointld with it, IU'ith('l' in..t\(.'t... nor 
'gc (':.lll elln- 
SIII11C them.t TIU' billllillg (If hook, fi,rlH('I) HIIC oecllpation of the Ilwnk.., to 
whid. 1I1uch impol'tanc' W:I:; athu'!.etl. Althol1
h Imntillg hall l)f'ell illlel'(1ictcù 
to all C<'c1e:--ia:--tiL"S, h
' the coulIl'i]" of \gtlt. in .')t)(j, Epllll in .:}] 7, and of POllt ,.\11- 
dt'nwr in 127G,-whil'h prohibition had IH'l'lI l'
h IIlltd l."pn...."'ly to monks ill the 
timc of Charlf.mague, and e\'en to thc K n i
ht- Temph.. ...,-y,.t, 1111\1..1' that CII1- 
perot', lib(,l'ty wa:-: gi\'clI to tll(' l110nks ofbt. Bl'ltill at bt. Oll1pr, allll of
t. neld.., 
to hunt in th('ir wood:" in orlh'I' to pro('ure ..kill" f
,r bil1l1illg tlll'ir ho()li:',
(;coffl'oy, count of Anjml, f(uHlllinlr a Ben,'clil'tilU' hOI):-c a
 '-'ainte.., in 1017) 
(r:l\'C to it the tf'lIth of the ù(f'r on orne land
 ill the J..I,... uf 01, 1'1111, to s\lpply 
cover.. flu' their hook:--. 
.\t the ahb('\, of Pfdrer
 :IS el"ewhere it wa'" tilt' (,\I..tom ill time of war to con- 
, , , 
cca} the lihrary alii] the dlllrl'h trl':I:,\l)re \\ ith ";\1(.h ('an', that only few pel'c:un
kne\V tLe place. ThE' cO(J
t'(1 \lE'n('(' \\":1:', tit:! t, 011 tlH'i I' dt'at h, tlif 
 · '\'a111:1 hIp t 11 ing:-' 
"ere 011('11 lo..t. \ccordillvh' ill the t('nth ('entun o , ullder _\Lbot ClricL,-and 
l::: J' 0 

· Phi1ohibllon. c. 17. t Dc. Fillihu!!, Iii, 
t ßu,Co 11.. S, \ïct. In
titut. !t(onasllc. I.ih. iii. c. 5(;. 

 Cbron. )[on8:-1. 
. Ikrt. 1. ix. liP. 'Iartl'tlf' Thl" .\n. r. ill. 

AGE:::; 0 F F A I T II. 


ügaill in 11.j5, under abbot Ih'nr)',-lo
t trl'aSllr(
 of thi,.; kind \\"('1'(' (l1J('xp(>('tedly 
discovered. Ou tilt' }a..t u('(':.\:.;illll the c:U(I\,ellt came into l'us....t'-:-;illl1 of tell siln\r 
chalice..;, with ve..tml'I1r:,; awl a rich liorar)', eOlitaining,-be:-i,le..; 
Ii:--.,als, ('}Iora} 
, anll works uf the huly fillhl'rs .\.ugustin, J,'mme, Gregory, l
idorc, R,d(', 
alltl .\.lcuill,-a \'a:,t collt'ctiun ofclas..i('al authors:: " V'irgil, .J\I\'cllal awl PI r,ius in 
ulle volume; Statiu:" Terence, 
en ill..; 011 the Bu('uli('
, 1..IIc311, ()ratill
, Raillst, 
Setluliu.:;, two bllu!,;:s uf .\rator, Cato atHI .\ vialllls; \\P alt:u, OllH'rus. Fulg, ntius, 
anJ the Trojan history, Donatu.., Thel\('ritu..:. Topic..: of TlIlIy, tlw PI':edic:lIlH'IIÍ:l 
uf .\.ristutle, two books of Porphyry, a book of Geom.Ary ; and the Cantica Can- 
ti('()l'UIU, metrically aud TeutonicaIJy (>omposed."* It is remarkable that Richard> Bury, when enumerating the injnrie
 ca(l5(><1 to libraries by W31'b, citf'
 only in- 
stances from heathen tÍrue.:;. No douht, the 1l1OIIa
, in Christian :.t
C5, pre- 
served them from :.tIlY wide destruction. Suffet' thf'Y did, howe\'er, at times. 3S 
in the abbey of 
t."ator de 
 -ttllllo, at FJol'euce, which contailled an imml'nse 
library, fml1l the ruins of which the celehrate,l 
rcc1i('æan collections were 
formed Ul' illerea:.;{'(l. .C I reml'mbel'," says Ga,..pal' JOllgl'lIinu
, "that, when 
li\'ing in that hutl
e, I u
ed tu wom1er, on sel'Íllg how many \'0111111('8 were cov- 
ered \\ ith mild, and tl)rn and defaced; but an olel monk toll) me what he hac1 
heard fmID the ancient fathers. that it was FlorclItine soldiers who had cau:,ed 
that de..truetion: for, being placel1 in ambush in thp m'11H1:,tery, :m(}1':lllying forth 
to I'epel the ellerny fl'OIn the walls, tlley hat! 8careel
' proeceded beyond the ditch, 
when the 8110structllre fililc,d ; aud tlleh' being a great COUfU:'lOlI, in order to f:.tcil- 
itate the return of those who were wIthout, and who wol1111 otherwise have Let'D 
slain in the trench, they took a quantity of books and made a bridge acrOES with 
them, on which they passed back,"t 
But now we come tl> the place where so many of these yolllmes were written. 
On enteriug the Scriptorinm, in the abhey of Fulc1a, you read this inscription :- 

U Hic sedeant SRcræ scribentes famina legis 
Nec non sanctorum dicta sacrala patrum 
Bic intHserere caveant sua frivols verbis, 
Frivola, ncc propter errct et ipsa manus. 
quc sibi quærant studiose libellos 
Tramite quo recto penna volantis eat. 
Est labor egrcgfu8 sacros jam 
cfJberc 1ibros. 
.Nec merce<1e sua scriptor et ipse caret. "f 

An anC'ient manu
cript in the libmry of Einsiedelin descrthes St. Gregory writ- 
ing hi::; dialogue:") with Pt:'trll
, on tile deed, of holy nH'n in Italy in 
the monastery which hpal':-' his name at Rome, to whieh he u
('d to retire froIn tIle 
burden of r he pOlltifical offi,'e. Tl1e
e arc the Ii ne..; :- 

· I1defons von An:. i. 294. 
t Scbannat. Hi..t.. Fuldens.i.::, i. 

otit. .\bb. Ord, Cisterc. Lib. vii. 38. 


M u It F 
 CAT II 0 L I l' I; 0 RJ 

8anctorum ",cnerunda colton sedet online 
J}I' lIIæ legi!t 'Iystica dicta doccns. 
Dos intl'r rc
idcug Ag.'petus jure øaccnlo8 
Codicibu.. pulchrum c()udiòit al te locum, 
Gratia par cunctis. øanctu
 labor omnibus UOU8, 
Dissona \crba quitlcm, .d tßmeo una fides:. 

St. Gregory of Tour=-- rE'latl.:;, that L..ohl:lr,lus t Iw It..elu
e \\ a-l fn'quently O<'<'upieJ 
in tllU.. \\ riting out hooks; and ðulpitiu.; 
f'vl'I'U'" ""a)':-" tllat, in tIlt" grcatl'I' IUflllas- 
wry of 
ral'tin, no 3rt \\'3:; ('ul1ivah'(l bllt tl1:1t of writing, to wldeh tlu.' )'ollngl'f 
w('re tlt'\'otpcl, whil(' tht'ir l'Mpr..; hall h.isllrp t f ) pmy. Thi.;, a.. 
r;1bililln oh- 

(,T\'c 1", \\;1... th.. bb Ir of tile Ht.Ht.djl.tillt':-', whn rims tran
lIIitt, d dw tl'C3.SUrt':oJ 
ofantil}l1ity to ollr tiuH'.t 'flu> Abhot Freù..ri('k of Hir'I'hall, \\hom Trith. miu.; 

'lf.':i the hu 111 hle:,t of mell, h
.l his p1a('(> uncI 
(.;,t :tllltlnfrtllf.' \\Ii((.rsiu tIlt> 
tol'illm oftlaat abhp
', in nothing taking 311)' cli:itillditln to Ilim
C'riptol'illm of lIlona
h'l'i('s u
I'(1 tl) ht> Jihl'rally ('ndu\\('(l. Tlms tu that of 
Sf. Edllll'lIIlshurv wa... :1 ....j
n('(l tht' I H'ofit:, llf t\\ 0 mill.. ; to that of EI ) ', th
- - . 
emit' of two chur('hl's; to that of 
t. Swilhin at \\
ilH'IIl''r, du' tithe..; of u valu- 
able fe<'t"f
.. Thp art of tl'ihin
I'I'ipt... floul'i
hf(1 till about a celltury 
IM"fore the di.:{'(}\'ery of printin!!. II. ('I"PH RiY
, that hy fiu the gl"l'a
t number 
of corrllption:- in our manu..(.rip'" are to 1)'. a
(,l'Ibl'(l to th(' n..digcllcc of" ritcrs 
 that interval; ami that tilt' ('af' practi('(.>cl in thE' t..nth 3ml f..HlrÌ('('uth ('('n- 
turi('!' in trnus<'rihing i
 c\.idl'nt at the fir:-t glall(....,
 Gf'l'hel t, iu hi'i hi,tClr)' of 
e Black j:4'(lr('Rt, 
':", that, if tlwrp \\a
t., the h, alltifnl writing of 
the t(,lIth Cf'lItury, hy JUt'an..; of whieh :-0 many valuable mOlHllllt'ut.. han. l>t:f.'n 
tr:t1tslllitt{'(1 to u.;, ought tl) ('un\'illct' us that it \\a..; nut a h:1rhat'otls agt'. "Books 
\\t>re th('n 
o lx'3tI1ifll11y paillte',1 ami t'mhf.'lI:
IH'(1 witll ('mhlelll
 anù miniature.., 
that tlH' wlwlt' "'C.'elllc'(l to b> tilt' pru 1uee, Bot of human, hut of ang(>]iC', hand... 
Thp fervor of ahbot.; in that tpnth ('entury, in f'mploying writ('r!" tft Iu'p:-l'rve 
valuable book., h
' multiplying ('Opil'''' (".m J)('\'('r he 
uf1i('iently prai:-c'(1. Tang- 
mar, in hi
 life of 
t, BCI'n\\ard, hi
hop of IIild\'
hpim, fo,a
's, that he 
, nllt alom' in tlw mona..;.tpri..!', 1m\. in div('r.. place8, h)' mean
whi('h IIC' ('ollpc.t. d a eopiolls lihrary of hl)ol,.... Loth of divines an,l phil<< sophc'r:'l. 
In f:. .t, the art of \\'ritinl
 np\'t'l' attaiuc'(l to 1"ltI'h p"rþ.(.tiou as in the ninth ami 
tt'nth ccntllric ; an(1 all antiquarian...; will admit that th. fctrm-nwrt' or Ic.;' t lc- 
g:mt-of cllar-dctl'l::' in tIlt> mauu
cripb of clift'rC'lIt a!!<<,
 pl:H'I:O; ht'6..,p OUl' eye.; the 
f'tatf.' of th
 . ..ieIH"('-! at that limp, :U'e'orclillg' :I... it wa..; more or )"';-1 flollri..hing,"11 
1'h(' :-:lnW p:trC'hnwnt W;I
ollH'tir11l''';' twi(.{' or thri( · wriU('n upon; but if in 
this\\ay many m:tIIlI
 oftllC}fiftil. si
th, and !'1'\'Pllth C'pnturip'J werede:-troyro J 
it is !-ome <<'X('use that thp monk.. who did '-0 onl
' fi)lIowed thp (,x:ul1plp of the 
, "hu ha(1 ah\a
's obc:efvpd thi!'; t'u.;tom ; allCi that from the' time \\hen 

· AnnaUum Cama1rluleoqinm, Lib. ii. 70. 

 (;('..('h. d
 elll"'. Lit. im )littdlllter, i. 37

t Præf in i. 
æc. 9. : Chronic, llirs8ug. 
I !list. :\igræ Silvff', i, 16

AGE S 0 F F A I T H. 


mcn b{'gall to write Looks, with a öeparatioll Letweeu the word..., it was thought 
fair, bd-;,re the art of inve=-tigating iluti'luity wa., :I(hallc:etJ, to put a
ide, nit nut 
fit for u:-:e, the Romish .:\h'rovil1
iall ami S('otti:--h \\ ritillgl', ill which all tbe \\ orùs 
werc jClilleù tllgpthcr, amI to make thel0 serve fì)r bome other \\ ol.k. 
,y riling books was tlIe main pmplo}'JIlcllt of the IllOUkS of St. Gall in the ninth 
anù tenth centu1'ie
, to collate wbieh thl'Y Lrought mallu
cripls frum Italy anli 
France j amI this was the ol
l'ct of most of theil' epi...:tolal'y corn':;polllience. flaey 
. wrote only on pa1'cbmeut, whit'h, uut of the hiùes of wilJ bl'ast:" they mauufac- 
tured with such skill, that it is oftpu whitel' and thiuncl' than th,. finc
t pust paper. 
In the bt'ginning of the nillth ceutur)' their writing \\a::; oL:-curel1 b)' lUany ßIer- 
ovillgian and Lllngobardi:-h :,ign-;; out from 820 thi
 cur:;ive writing wa, gen- 
erallr !aid aside fOl' the Carlovingian Itlllllan characters. The great alltiql1arian
l\IaLillon, Baluze, Ba:-;nage, CalnH't, and Gerbert, found few manl1
cript"Ì to equal 
in beauty tho:;e of St. GalL They were thp work of man}' hand:-ì. Some made 
the parchmell t, others drew the I inc.;, others wrote the books, others put in the gold 
anù the initial letters, others painted them, others cumpared the text with 
the original, which work was geDcrally ùone by uight in the 8criptorin(ll be- 
tween matins and lauds j and the last hand.; were employcli in bin(liug them within 
thick boards, cralllpoo with iron, !, or ivory. The oe",t awl Jl)lI
t eminent 
writers of this time were Sintralll, .Fulkard, \rolfkoz, Gotzbert, Bernwick, AI- 
fart, Thiothard, Rifinc, \Yikral1l, St. .:Kotker, Bllr
\.lhril'h, E
.dllff,* 'Vrit- 
ing was leal"lled by the verse, every where known, containing m
arly all the let- 
ter::; of the alphabet, 

.. Adnexique Glohum Zepbyriqlle KanDa secnbant," 

The labor wa
 great, nnt! Eadbert ('omplain..; of it, s.tying-. 'c Qui nescit 
non plltat es:-:e bborcm, tre:; enim digiti scribunt, totlllH ('orpus lahorat."t Thev 
sought al...:o to write without ink, and to ('n!!ra'"e the J.'tters on the parchment with 
a st,de, of whil'h exam pIps are f(nmd in the manuscript..; of 8t, GalL::: "
abhot of St. Gall, affirming 
ays, c, :Ken'r, while 1 have 
1 h in 
the:o:e three fill
('rs j" f(n' he was all admirahle writer, adds I:atp('rt\1..:,
 h All thp 
Cisalpine wOl'hl," 
aYR EckelmrtI," 311mirl'''; the fing-ers of 0111' 
ilHralll, who \\Tote 
out the Go:o;pl'l which we pns..;;e:-:s, I t is a-tllni
hing how line lIlall could wrire 
o ro'my books, 
ince we find works hy him in most pla('t.
 of this killgdom. 
His writing' W:l
 most rlpliC'ate, yet yon wiJI rarely find that he had to f'rase one 
word in a pag-e through an
' n
take."11 .A book of dw Go:"pf.l
, in 
old Il'ttpr
by- him, stil1 exist
, Almo"it every monastery in Germany could b03:,t of having 
som() book written b
' hi.;; hand. 

* Cartæ TraditioDum, et Catalogu!I )listorum S, Galli, 8ec. 9. t Cod. 
lSS, 243, 
t Ilrlefofls \'on AI'x, 
 Ratpert. de OrigiDe ::;, Galli, ap, Goldast. U
r, AHem. i. 
I Dc Cl\sibllS S, Galli, np. icl. 


)1 0 I 
 Ese A T II 0 L I V I; 0 H, 

In the malluSt-ript:, of thc ahbe)' of Tagerlls,'(', ill Jbva1Ía, tll(' names of mOllks 
who couitl \\ rite awl illuminate hest are rccOI'tINI. Tim.; we read that ElJÎn
matI,. a b
Ultiflll ('op)' of Plin)"s Xatural lIititory, with figul"l;-, of tilt> auimals,* 
J:Ulll'''; th I FlorelitilH'. a 1101.\' ulOnk of 'to )Iary of tIlt' 
\ IIgel:-- at Florelicll, wlw 
d ietl at all alh':lIIct'tl a)!,c in 1 ;1!'JJ, \\ as ceIl:brated for hi
 .. kill ill \\fiting th I dlol al 
hook.... To him that hOl1
e oWl'tI tWt'lIty of the tilH':,t th:lt tlte \\odd t'\ lIe 
\\rott otlll'r:" \\hidl arc {.)ulld in Horne, alul ill tIll' dlUrl'hC:3 uf St. 'lielml awl 
t. )Iatthia.; in ''''lnicl.,t An oM chronicler of the mOlla,tery of 
t. Riqlli(lr 
ÙC:' 'l,iLt's that pious ('ommlwity :1... similarly l.mploY{'i1 ill tile tim{' of Hobert, king 
of Franct". "Book", of great &;ielll'l', l'}'l'ellcllt ptarls," he sa)"!", cc arc no\\ rc...torell ; 
while others are \\ rittt.'n out for the fil':-t tillle."
Studellt... of 
t. Gall. who h3d maùe some prog
 in the aTh lineandi, were 
always l'mployed ill writing' out book!o'. \rhen EcI"phard f.lllnd allY hoys slow to 
study, he made them apply to \uitillg : hut tlll'l"l,1 \\as a di
tinction iliad,>; for '\c 
reaù, "If thc \\ork be to wrih ' the . o
pel, or a )1 i:,
al, let men ofa pl'rf
ct :t rc 
"rite it "ith all diligence anc.I att
 The I ri...h llIonk
 .. cm to have 
hrought "ith tht'lll illto Germany thc Illoùe of \\ ritin
 un "ax tablct:--; WI', in the 
manu:,cripts of bt. Gall \\ l' I'l'ad of pl1
iJanls Scotl ,rum; that i:" of tlw I ri...h, a:-, 
is e
prC" I)' statl.a in the ..\lart)'roIog)' of:X utl
('r. The lIotA ' , of tilt' .. old mal1U- 
script.::, arc curious. Tll1l
 on one Wt ' read, " .Alltl.riora :l')!r
 ,unt correcta ;" on 
anothel', \\ hich had oeen ùisfi
urul by the tl'an:--erihel', " Diab..lus fecit tam sanc- 
lm l'pi,tolam \,itio 
('riptori.; depravari. "II The ('opit'rs fOIlIl<1 their ta...k laLor- 
IoU:-t. On o :-a
';"o, u t;il'ut :l'g-rotus cl,.,idt'1111 :-'ïnitatt'm, ita th.,idl'rat ;"ot'riptor lilwlll 
libri" anothel' \\ rilt'l:I in oltl Gt'llilall. "\r riUt'n with grC'at trtluhlt';" anotllcl', 
" Libro :-altat ,c'riptor Pi tit' læto:'.. 
otk('r writt:-, of Ilim
t.lf, ., Xt'- 
f:.1'i puta\'i,;"oi ilb en'
llIata BiLIiothl'cæ fi. Ga)]i, ('ui Dt i t!mtia multa a{'('umu- 
lavi. :,('rihere 1l,
li;:eIHIo dlfralubverilll."** One i,.; ama7N.I at the Ia;)or of their 
ll:lnds in this work. Dom Etit'lIllOt, \\ 1.0 tra\'l'lIl>t) 
o mth.1a to "'l'arch tilt' lil,mr- 
 of difll'rl'nt ahLll
'I:I, "Totl' Ollt in till' :-.pace of ('1,'\"('" year., forty-fiv,' \'Ollll))('Þ 
in folio, cOlluinilw the I"(l:o.ult of hi..; I"t'sc"ar('hf'.;, tt TIa" anOIl)'1110U., monk of Hal- 
J,h..n !-ay
, " that, hf',ilIf'" being- oC(llIpil,() i.. tlln ta,k of in,tl'llt'tio11, he wrotc "it!. 
hi... 0\\ 11 hallcl not only hook
 of hi.. own compo...ition, hut al,n t \Hnty 1\[i
tlm'l' hooks of tlie Go:--pel" two with the Epi",tlp
 3lul (;II:--pds, anù four hook!' of 

Iat in,. ";::t 
Ihrclnin, who li\'t.(1 in a J'('lUott' (It'll of the martyr batllrnilllls, huilt h)" the 
hl( "":" (1 \\r3Ildr('
i;"oilll:i at FOIIl:tnl'lle, \\ rote \\ ith Iii" own I,ami four volumes of 
the l':,'ang-t'li,t..; in Homan It.tll'r,,; ont' volume of 
t. Paul'...
; thrpc \"01- 
11m"... of 
a(,l':lJnent:lria; one of rf',rclings from th(\ GO'lwl, ; on(' ('ontaining' fiwty 
homilie..-, of Pope (;I'flg-()r
' ; a hook of \rithmetic. with It.t(c'rs concerniu(r Ih" 

· J.U'ck Galleri.. cler Kln..I' r ()t'ut<:rhlllnd", :. t .\nn:\l (':LmaM. Lih, lvii, t Lih, iv, 
f ('"pit. C.trnli 'I. 7,"!I. I ('0/1. 6. ... Cnd. :X. lOW. .. In ('Ot1 14 p.331 
tt Ihhliot,III,
.d('1nC()ni!. ,h.
(aur. 1: .\)'. 
(,h. Yel. An:\.h-,,\,l1

AGE:; () F 11' A I T II. 


J>aschaltimc; one volume, containing from the d..venth to tlH' eighteenth hook 
of St. Augustin, D. Civitatc Dl'i ; one of ,... cnerable Bc,l(',-" De Xatnri
3C tcmporihlls;" onc of a P"altel', with the .Amhrosian IIymn..:; OIH' of the li\"cs 
of St. 'raIlC.Jr'egi:,ile, 
\nsbt'rt, and St. ".. olfrann ; om- \'OIIlIlW ofQlle.;tiol1
 of St. 
\n:;hert tq SiwinlllU, red liSP ; and one 
\l1tiphol1arillm.* :\Iallfll
 Lapi, a Flo- 
rentille lllonk of Camalduli, \\ hile li\'ing nine ycars ill the'rt, ancllllorc than 
furly-six in the Illona..;{ery of bt. '1:Itt hia
 de :\Inriano, read alld wrote out more 
than 1000 manu..;eript:;; the list of \\ Lich, illduding the m04 exeellcnt word.; of 
the middle a 6 ('8, Hhows that he could make a good ehoice of authol,:-:,t Gerhard 
of :\lonle-Sereno, though having a defect in his sight, wrote out !;ix ::\Ii<;.,;als, one 
!>lpll:lrium, one Lectionarium, four Gra(ll1als, one AntiphonariulII, two hook:-: of 
Homilies, two Pa.ssionals, four books of 
I()r:J.I.;, allllt,,"o )Iatutinals.
ious is the number of books which Trithemiu:o; 8:\\'S he ha,; written durincr the 
, 0 
twenty-three years of his heing ahbot at bpanl'eim.
Again, to remark the 
pirit with whi('h the monks pursuf'd thesc labors. l"el 
us hear a monk of the abbey of 
r()rigni: ")Iay Gild reward all constructors, 
enlargers and protect!)r,.: of this place, and ha \"e mercy on them; on me also, 
Teulfus, who have written these thiIlg
, and who know not whether I have done 
it any scn'ice, excepting that I h:,1\'e, to the bf':,t of my power, cOlTceted and :lC- 
centuated the whole Bible from Gene-is to the la:,t Epistle of Paul; St..A ugu
froIll hi..; hook, De Trillitatc Dei, till that of Jollll, tlae )lol"a1::; of Grt>gol'.'", alHI 
othtr works-who for a long time was precentor, and aftl'rwar(I..; attempted to be 
prior; but to gm.el'n as was required, partly through ignorance, partly through 
negligf'nce, partly through infil'lliity, not of body but of manuel'S, I ('ould not, 
You who read thi..;, I hesee('h, hy Ill(> sweet name of my Lord JesllS Clu'ist, to 
say, with all theafft.ction you ('an, '0 God, merciful Ly natul"e, whosllOwe:,t mt'I'ey 
alHI h:l
t pity upon a11, 
how Illt'r<,y. I pray, to Teulfus, unwurlhy of thy lliPrcy.' 
But if you 
hut your bowel
 against me, and turn a (leaf ear to my prayer, you 
in, both against God, who is charity, and against me."11 
In the 
ilence of their cell:; the:,f' men rejoiced in the thought that they could, 
by the laboL' of their pC1I5, pl'eac11 to thf' humal1 racc. " lIappy intent ion." cricö 
Ca:-osioùorus to his nwnk", alluding to tho
e who tral1:,cribed the ancicnt books, 
"praii:::ll--worthy a:s-iduity, by the hand to pn.ach to men, by the fing't'rs to open 
the lips, ill silellce to gi\'e 
ah'ation to men, antI with a pen to fight again,.;! the 
ulllawful sugge
tilln... of the (1f>\'il; fur batan recei\,('!::o a5 many wounds as tllP 
'\'l'iter puts .IoWIi \\'01\ls of the LOl.d. R(':",tin
 ill the olle place he gops, by 
means of the di..:selllillal ion of hi..: \\"ork , thl'OIwh different l )rovince..;. his labor i:; 
_ 0'. 
read in holy places; the people learn from it how they may be converted froUl au 

· Chronic, Fontanellense, ap, Dachcr. 8picilcg, iii. 
t Chronic, Monti" 
I Chl'ODicou )huriniacen
e UJ) 1)uclw,,1\l', 111m. lV, 

t Annal. Camnldulens, 67, 


I 0 It Ese A r II 0 L I l' I; () l

\\ ill to s('r\'(\ God with a elc.'an hcart." l\.t('l', the Vl'llf'r.1Lle aLhot of Cluny, 

peaks in the 
a.U1t' ma.llm'r to lì islehl'rt 11)(' r(.dll'(', 
III 3 malll1scl'il'tof :::;t. '\U 6 "Stil on the P'allll:--, hy the lUdnk R:,uIlllf, in the 
ahbl'Y of 
t. \'"'a.l-;t at \rr:L
, arc.' \'f'I':--(', )"t.lating w"at \\a' tlu' h"J)p oftll<' \\ ritt.!, i 
for he 
, that a,":" man)'; woul.1 be CH'
i\'t'n him, a, he h:ul WI ittcn \\ ord.. in 
that hook, '* "I n .. \ I"Il('sl)('rg, a mOlla:,t.ry of Præmoll..t ré, as I hi al"(l from a. 
pri · 't of that ("Hlgrf'gatÏon," ...ay:, ('
 ':-,3.1' of IIic'Ìt'rim<:h, "tlU'1 (> \\"a... a rcrtain 
"riÞ'r, n:lIl1l'd Rieharù, 3n En
hm:lll, W"(I
 tomb \\ a' olu'I1Ct) t\\'f'nty 
aftl'I' Ill' ha.Ilain in it, wlu'u hi., ri
ht ban,) wa..; fl)(llltl wholf' all(I flexibJp, 30; if Cllt 
oftïi'lIlll a livc bod
", whilt. 3011 tht> re:;l \\ a:, in a,lu
. It \\a.:, a hand cver direct '(I 
by ('harity. It i, still prc'cr\'etl in tlwt hOll";l..t 
Having alnmh in thc third book gonc O\'cr mueh of this grounc.l, I pa,:, \.111 
now a!o. rapidl)" I aR ean; but it i, impo"ihJe to vi.;it mona..;tt'rie" and omit aH 
Ill' ntion of :-:on)(' of the IHo:--t rl'lIl:lrkahlp ft atlll"'" in tlwir hi,tor,y. 
TIH' fir,t in
titlltors of tIlt' mOlla'ti,' lift' \\t're pion men, \\ ho mad · more 3C- 
count of :--alll'lity than oflmrning. ")[ouadms lion dU('t'utl', .... ù plangcnti
officium, " aI'e the \\Ol'(ls of 
t. Jt'I"OU1P, ac.1 n ptt c.1 by thr I't'ian order fiH" it.. 
motto. fo grip\'(', nut to hReh, \\fu) tllt,il' uflÌl't'. This m3(1" t;t. \ugu!:!tin e
in al1l1gion to bt. .\ IIthon)', that thp tl11ll':lrnp,I l'i:--) up aml take' ht'a\'cn hy furel', 
\\ilih. \\e \\ ith our It'
 are :--inking to J>l rc.lition,
 't. .\uth"n
' ha<1no old mira- 
tiou 1'01' learned mcn, and he lI' '(1 to :-a
' that a 'Ol1uc.l l11illtl wa; more alll'Ïcnt 
than all thc \\ i';llom of lert(,ls. _\ cf'rtaiu philo'opher, expre'silll!' sllrpri,c IIOW 
h COli I, I per,ist in th
 mon:lstie life \\ ithuut the ( ion of Look..;, he r('plil'(I, 
"X at lire is my book; fo'r in all p:lrt:-i of tilt' cf(.;uion I !" tlu' ol"a('lp..; of GO(1." 
Thl) 1)l' rillnin r of tilc book of:,1. G r('(fOI'Y of Tour:i, n. Yll t u t iim, el )[iracu 1 is, 
how with what minJ thl" ."s withdrew from the :,ttllIy of profane Jiter- 
a.tur(', though it i:s trUt. this huly man e\'illcf'..; hi
 aN}naillÌ:lnce \\ ith h, athcII Ji[er- 
at 111'(' in th,. very word
 \\ ith which he t1lC,laN:oò hi
 :--cllc:pof it
 \':l1lity. .\ II throlwh 
th... Ugf'
 "f filith 1111'11 malle lUore 3('('OIl11t of pil.ty thall of l('al'llill
&e{,ol'dinfJ' to 
tIlt' \\ ol'll
, U B tt,'r is an hum bIt' ru
t ic w ho 
r\', S (;Oll than a proud ph ilusopher 
who nc:-rlect:i him..clf, while cOllsi,lt ring thc ('0111 .. of tile h, a\'ellS i" amI 
o 31:;0 

t. nilal'
. "a
, " 
Il-ditati:> legis non solum in ycrhis legelHli f.:-t, ......1 in opf're ct 
IIl>ar the words of monks mo..t dt-'\'ot( c.l to e1a,
il'al I, arnill!!. "ThlJ:,C 
ho lh'e 
ill, and \\ i..h to SIH ak \\ ('II, amI dp:--pi:--c filllhy 131WII:I r. ratht r than corrupt m311- 
Il, r:-õ, arc.' tlll1
tnlt'h'tl." f.ays LIIPIl:-', ahhol of ]-'('rr( 1'..: "Ornlli
 labor homini'3 
ill ore ejll:--, l't IIl1ima iIlill!' non replt.hitllr :,. "for it i
ju,t that h(> who attribut('.s 
th · fir:-t pb('f> to 1t'3rnin("', and not to ball<;tity, :,hou1c.1 be l'
cln<ll'll in a destructive 
fast frolD the refpction of wis(lom."1i 

· 'Mßrtene, Voyage, LIb. 64. t ll1u
t. 'fir, xii. 
I Lupi Epi:<l. xxxv, 

 Confe",,,. viii. S. 

 In P",al i. 



"Though you aRk fur the hooks of Tully, yet I know that you are a Chris- 
tian, 1I0t a Ciceronian; for you 0111)' pa..;s into foreign ('amps as a 
o writes, 
in 1150, the superior of an aLbC'y in lflldt':-;heim to ,ribald, ahbot of 
P\\ Cor- 
b)', \\ ho replic;:i to him: "You judge l l rightly of U.": the di:--hcs of Cicf'ro we do 
not :--ef\'e among the first, or to the chief table; hut when rpplC'ni-hc , l with better 
food, we partake of them as of the !'iwect Illl'at:i whi('h werc :-,cr\'l'\l for the dcc;- 
l\Iahillon shows the error of some in the last e('ntllry, who supposed that mo- 
na:-;tel'it.,s were institutetl fOI' th
e of cultintting human -(.iC'nce: for they 
who t:'nteretl them generally countet} sciences along with the otlwr sc('ubl' things 
whieh they abalHlonetl fOl' the lo\"e of Christ. * But, at tlw !'aml' time, he proves 
with what fu).SidlliIY, a
 \\,pH as humility, Htudie:;; we!'e recommended within clois- 
ters, undel' the influence of religion. t 
ma the Schob:--tic had more hooks than anyone el:,e in A lexalldria, alld he 
ed willinoh' to lend them to 311\' ol1e who aslif.d him; and you bRW nothin g 
b . . 
with him but books ami benches, a bed and a table; .. and WhCD('VCl' I went to 
see him," 
ays Sophnmin
, " I u
ed to find him either reaùing or writing."
In the time of Charlemagne there were opened lIIan)' fichools fur the Greek. 
" Do not wondl.r," "ays a monk, " that the Ahhot Hermann should ha\'e carried 
a Greek Testament always with him; for this learlletl and religious prim' was 
skilled in the Greek tongue, whit'll he ha<ll,>arn..d in the Caroline College at Os- 
uabllrg; for in that foundation all the elergy \\"('l'e skille(l in both Greek and La- 
tin."9 LOllg beftH'e, 8t, Cæ:-iariu-; o

 .\ rle
 uS{'tl to ('elt>brate the Divine worship 
in Greek 3'-; well as in Latin. 'I'h<> killg, Charle:-:, wi...hC(1 to make Compiegne a 
seeond Con
bntillople, and gave it the name of J{apÅÓ7toÅl
, alltl to a new 
:fi)unded abbey in Burgundy he gave the ))all)e of .Alpha. This Græcomania 
show..; that the language wa., much cuhiv:lted then. In the tenth century, at St. 

I:lIti31 of Limoge:" it was the custom on Ea:,ter-day to 
ing the Gloria, Sanetus, 
alld .\gnu:-i Dei, in Greek. At Auriol: near 
Iarseille, there \\'a:-, a company of 
Gl'eek monks. In 1167, \\TiBiam, who fmm a ph"si('ian hall become:1 monk, 
brought Greek hooks to Par-is from Con..talltinoph',11 which !!reatly t:'xcitf.d the in.. 
tercst of the learned. }>hilip AU!!I1Stl1s fclllnde(l a Colle
illm Con
11m fcu' young Greeks; and tht:' Domini('an allll F"anl'isC'3,n ol'dpl'
 appliøl witp. 
t'n('e to tllf-' 
tn<ly, The first who m1,.e a tl':ms1ation fl'Om the Grf-'ek 
of Ari:o;totle's 
Io1'31s wa
 Rohf'rt, hi!'hop of 

i,}(>oln, in the thirt('(.nth f'pntnry, 
At this time lllany eminent Grpl'ian
 flonri..;l1!,d: :1;;; ,y,Jlimn of '[orbpka, Thom8$ 
Call.tiprallt:UJII", HPlll'Y of Brabant, Bartholomew of :\Ie..silla, Engenil1s Ammir. 
, and .James of V t:'uicp. 

· Tract_ de Studiis 
Ionast, pt. f. c, i. t Ib, ii. t Pmtum Spiritl1ale, c, 17

 Chronic, Cænobii Virgin, Ottber!!, ap. Pau1inl Her. et, Antiq. German. Syntag, 
I Chronic. de 8. Denis, ad ann. 1167. 
,. Staudcnmaicr Johan Scot us und die Weissenschaften Seiner Zeit. 

1 g.} 

l U 1.. 
::) C..\ T 11 0 l. I V 1; U R, 

I 3m :I\\"n"(' Illat Sonw mndt'rn writ('r
 :trc of opiniol) that t})(, mnnkh, h
' pre- 
lDtl ('"1ti\'
lI)('i..nt 1. arnin
, only I't'tanlell \\ tlwy tt'1"m the 
progr{' of,the human min(1. <.'apdigllc :-aYð that toeir lilt'raUlre I'l'pl't,
:-.('d tilt' 
nen'{', :'t.) Fr"Ilt..'h ami so national, of the truuhadollrs.* But it Illa.\' Lc 8 Cll1(.
tiOIl to 
he rl'fl'I'1't II to otlH.'r,.., wlll'thl'l' the in..talllaJH'ous dc\"clopmcllt of their 1Ìrbt thoug-ht:i, 
howe\'t'r Frl'llch or ('ISt,\\ 11I're natiollal, i
 al\\'3)'s a ItllXlc (If :tch.
 the iIlÍt.I- 
ligen<'e of mcn. Ellryma.chll';, indt'lIl, is very 3.11xious, like nHl
t of HOlllcrl:; he- 
rocs. to cxpr
\'l'r CtJrn' uppl'rmo4, 

ICEK). vrE J.ll v, II V7J6rijpES, 
õ(þp' Û'7Crù nr IU (JVJIÒÇ I vi 6r,,(Jl66r la).Eún,t 

But pel' hap.; it was quilt,' a.. \\"l'Il that the Ill.,nk.., i"I"ha,1 of (')1('oura
ing fliP 
barharian!'l arollnd them to UUt'l' in ve"
 \\ hatc\'t')" thl'il' minds fir..;t m1\t tI on tht'lll 
to &lY, illvit<.'tl them to their ..dlOOI... where thl'Y Il'arllt'd to h,'ar a little before 
t he)' l"(prt'
...t'(l them
t.1 \.('S. 
In tIIP"'" i..obted Illona:-'tl'rit.... of tl"" lIli<l(llt, a
, Sf) wiltl ill tllt'ir situation ftnl1 
oll.'ll1n in their :-tl'll(.tul'e, were foul1(1 IIlt'n of pwfcmncl It':,ruing, a
 \\"('11 a
the heart uf citie:;, who \\en
 knO\\Il to tlll'ir COlllt'mpomric' 3::; li1;hts both for di- 
vine .lDd human 
tudies: a.
 of ::;t. Yidor i'i d . "'rihtJ- 

. . Est lux ætprna Thornæ coUata Priori 
Qui m
ruit mart} r juris amure mori,"t 

The l.ady rnonk
 tli,l 1101. Ilistlaill the .uwicllt 1(',Irning', fttr we knoW' that the 
mi:-sionaril's of St. Un'gory brought a 1I0mt'1' \\ ith tllt.'m to EIIJ!'inlltl. and Bahan 
?Iaur i:-. l'ornmt'lIloratcd a.. laaving fir:-,j Lrutwht (jn'el
 litenuurl' to the lil.rlllal.....
In the ninth and tenth ('cnturil's the monk:-, of St. Gall cuuld ulI(]en;lantl, ft'aJ, 
ami \\ rite thc German, Latin, and Greek tongncs; they \\ t=re !"killed as orators, 
, ph}"siciall
, f'xpounders of the ""at'red 
'ripturp, in :111 hi..tor)', :mrl 
in ('Ia...
iral ) iterature. Tho"C moc;t ver.;pJ in Greek \\ el't' tt'rJlwtl tIlt. (; rt't'
 BI'OI hpl" . 
-fl atrp
 EIIl'llici. The prof(,';;
 h('ltl an t' l'Orrt''''I)()IUIIIl(,(, \\ ith the txmrt 
anll thc Ip,Irn('(1 m"n ofth(' agt'. :md \\('Ire ofh'n raIl('d to I)('CUP
' {Ii..tant, ..... Thp 
monk... ofSt Gall W{,I'e :m101Ig' the fir..t to fi)rm the Gt'rm31l into a writknl:m
for it \\
\.. not till Ih(' ninth æntnrv that it ('ouM bp wriu('In, Part of th(' rult' (If 
St. ßenf'did, with tht> Paf('r noo:t
r, Cn,do, RIlII Con fi leOl'. tJ':msbtt'C:I into G(>r- 
man, Wf'n' th('l fi
t examplM, an,1 thpqp W('Irf' writt('n in tlU' (;rec.k and RUll C 
alpharn..t of tht> Latin rh:tr:\('tpr
, H.'IPert, on" of ttH'C;:<' in thf' ninth (,(,Iltnry, com- 

1 in G('rmnn a nornlar Iwmn in honor of
t. (jail. Tn Fnw('<' Ol,tlcri(' Vit- 
ali... particularh. n()ti('
 thp monkc;: of R
 R.CJ (Jp\.()ting thpm
pl\"Ps to the sllldy u 
, ct Rllril 71'alc1it1 t1.P\' ..h()w," hn 0:"1\"'::, "in (''{t('lnrling thp F3crNI rn
 nnd in ....cfnl t1is"oursf>, that nlmo
t a1\ sc(>1Ilt-'d to he philo
, while tho

· niqt c1r Phil. Au!!ust. Ii. 190. t xviii 351. 

 F Corm'Hi )(0",,('11. ß,t'vl!\r. FlIM"n!;(' 1Ij,.tnrknm. 

* ßu1æUB Blst, Unlv. par. it. 

AGE S OFF A I T 11. 


who were illiterate, called Hll...tics, might leal'lI 
I'amUlar from them." But nIl 
r house:-; contailH'd Blen of ClIlilH'lIt ll'al'llillg down to till' lah,'!ott timu;, 
wilt 11 the BCllcdi(.tine order gan> to tbe n'puLlic of Icttt'r
h'n:lrd, )Iabillon, 

Iolltfallçon, tI' Acheri, Gallois, D 'Jfan, 
ut't, Bulteau, Gerberon, Gc....\.rcs, 
Lami, GarBler, ROll,sd, amI Huinart. TIlt> )Iendimnt orders prodw'(...J al!-'u luen 
of mo.;t pr.,fc);ItuI erudition. .Jos!'ph 
('aliger writing to l:-aac Ca-allbull td,s Ilim 
e:tl'l'h in the king's lihral')' fOl' 
ume lll/h..l::j of a Dominican fl'iar Oil tilt> Al(.o- 
rail, \\hieh will grcatly aô,i
t his :o-tudie
, and without which he will filld ob;:,cur- 
ities 1 hat will Le inexplicable. The Engli:--h Frallci
cans were e
pl'eiall) le.tI Df d 
to\\ard:-: the clul of the thirtePlllh ('cntury. Then :--holle H,o(lulph Colplmr!!, ROher 
Bat'oll, IIplll'Y \Vill"t, Thllllla:-1 Docl\.ing of Korfolk, Richard HufllS, .Adam .Ip 
l\Iari:,co, \Villiam of ".are, John \ralIci,.;, John of LOlldou,-who followt'd ltog('r 
Bacon to PariH, aud, having lwen seut Ly him to Rome, was retained there by 
Pope IlIuocent ,-Roht'rt Crus ius, and Ri('h:Jrll ,M iddleton, the la,t of whom is 
commpnlOrated with f(mrteen other chit'f doctors of his order on the tomb of Dun 
ScolllS at Cologne.* 
Though \\e hefore visitt'd the f'cltools of the middle ages, we caliliot refuse to 
take another glance at tlaem, },eing IIOW within the very walls where the greatest 
were c::stabli,hed ; and from the Iibmry amI scriptorium we are uatnrally directed 
to the 
,.holastic IIalls, so appropriately placet1 witlaill the a:o'ylums of pr>aCf', a-; the 
vcry woreI SdlOla...;tic indicate:-:, for it imp1ie
 It'isul'e from cXlernal material things 
to Lp frt'e to study as to adore God. The!-"e f(n'('sts and valleys through w hieh 
\\'l' have lately penetrated mig-ht ha\'e been dcsiguatet1 in the middle age,.; as the 
studious walks :md shade...;, the !oichool..; of 8:lg
. ] n the tl'nth century, \\ hen St. 
ang retired to Eill:-:iedelin, that slliitary monastery \\ a:-. emuosomed in a 
va:-:t fiwe,t, amI yet crowds of pupils came there to it..; schools from an the nt'i
ing pro\'illel':O:. In ever')' abbey there wa..; a pl'Off'

ol' of theolo
y and of philo..;o- 
pity, How 
trauge it sounùs now to Iwar of a Dom Badier profes:o'ing philo;,o- 
phy at t;t. Dl'uis, amI of a Dom Lopin teaching philosuphy on 
I()unt 8t. l\Iich- 
m.1 in 
ormany, places in OUl' ear:; unly assuciated with the thoughts of barraek!-" 
and s[a
 pi i"one}':o:, who have no other idpa of philo:-iophy lwsidps tlll'r('\'olt of 
the intdligcn('e a
ainst God. The monasteries were schools of tllf'olo1!Y: philll''';o- 
phy, of languagcs, of writing, of art, and of law; for there too flll'U " :,penl their 
youth in Bowing gown, studying their Ulpian." In the time of Charlemagne 
letters .1S W(.Il:ls ,heology were taught in cluistt'r... behlre numerous di:-:ciples; 
and in citil'S 4t1diotls youths Wf'['e permittt'd to assi:-t at the leclUl'e
 without be- 
iug inhabitants of the monast(,I'
. DO\\ n to the 
('vent('elll h <'el1tury the Illonks 
pel'lÙittt'd laics to :ltb'wl the schol:a:-òtic (,Ia.,s.'=" of tllt'ir lIovicp:-:,t and these were 
 far advanced in a
p; t'r 01).' result of the mona:-,tic influenee W'a
convince men that, ao; Clement Al('xalldren
ays, ., no time could be UlJ:--C3.Son- 

· Wa.dJing, .\.110, Jli'norum, iv, v, vi. 

t Jlontt'il, Hist. des François, viii. 544. 


" 0 R F seA T II 0 1. I C I: () H, 

ablf' whcn it wa
 a qu('stion of giving IH'ulth to the 80ul, that it couM nc\ cr be 
ton !-oon or tU'1 talP tl) philo
ophiz(', a... it c(luM ncver he too 
oon or too l.lte to 
b(' h:lpp
' : that hoth 
 amI old mu,t philCl!'ophizc i that tht' old ßl3)' grmv 
'youug a
aill through the good thill
s which ('tlIIW to them from gra('c, al\(l tllat 
'tHIIl\r may be at the I-ame time both ,young aUtl old t hrotwh collfidclI('(' ill the 
ture."* · 
The ßllcicnt pulpits of phiIo..ophy ('xi:;ted in France till the rcvolution. Evcry 
IUmla:--td'y lUalltaill
onw I('arn(.tl nWIl to 
ive publi(' in...trudiou ; "al\(l it is 
worth) of relllarh.," 
ay:o. COllrillgiu... ,
 tim' in t!w :--ixth, ..t'\Fcuth, alltl cighth ('cn- 
, thl'Oughout the whole we...tcrll dmrl'h, thcl e wao; no olle cli,tillJ,:'ui8Ilt d by 
his \\ riting'S who hatl not hl"t..n{>(l ill a mona:;t4,'r.'" ."t \.11 historian of Ir - 
131Hl Ob:--CI'\'CS, " tbat the rapi.lity with which thc 
'h()III' of tile m"'riE'
from ßsh( 
 aftpr Iwing hurnt by tbp nortlamell, alltl n slIundp,l afn'sh wit h 
thp \'oiL'e of ilb: ru('tion, S(.
'ms lum,lly Il":i thall m:u'\'t.lh'II:-.. Unly a few mOllth", 
aftt'r a dt"lwrat. illroac1 of 1>ant.... illto .\rmagh, \\e aw toltl of n )"outla of ro)"al 
blood rt'pairiu
 to it... :--dlools for tlu,"cllmplt-tiou of his etJue:ltion." III En
after thc coming of.llt' Xom:lw", e,'ery lUolla.;!ery h:ul a Pllhlic ..(-hool; alii I wllere 
fund, ('wlld lIot inuUt diatl'I.\' lw found, harn.. wt>rt' hirt>tl 
Ir tlae pnrpCl:--t', wll('re 
tilt' ft':u.her.. gratllitou,I.\ attclldt.(l. Th..... ill tltt' tillll o f.Jot1'red, ahl,ot ofCro)"lalld, 
.fiHlr lIIoliks from Cott.uh:aru 1I
'(1 to walk to Camhrid
e to gi,"c 
ratnitou:-. Ics.'onc;, 
 da)" on Latin litt.raturc, another (\II ...\ristoll- :1('f'f\nlillg tll Ih
 ('omlO('nt... of 
Porphyrya1lt1 \..\'('rl"O(
, another on Hhctoric, from (jj('pl"O :lIltl Qllilltilian, an- 
olll('r on HI(' 
 :nul thc hol,\' I:ltl...r
. Paris OW"" it
 (.\.tell:--ioll on the 
1I0rt h bauk of tilt' ::;".int' to the :'(,11001 t.f the ahh,.y of St. German l' A uxcrrois,"h \Hl.... ('clcbratttl in all e_lI'ly agt>. Tht' school CVPII in th. nuns' conn.nt of 
Chi lit' m'ar Pari:" in the t im
 of tilt' 
It'ro\"in!!Ïan..., was r""urtl.>ù to bJ' crowd..; of 
both !'t'x,.... to hear the 
 'riptnl1l1 II'('tur(', of St. TIp!"1 ilia, TIt(' :mlor for ..tndy in 
tIlt' mitldlt' age... \\ a... nOI left withont ablll1t1ant 1II('an... to ('arl y it iuto dIed, In- 

tnl(.liun wa:-; witlcl.'" difiil:-Ctl, alld the idl'a of('clu"t'rting it inlo a monop"l)" D!'V('r 
clltpl'l.d into the imagill:ltion of thc monkb. "This 
far, 961," :-a).s the allnals 
of Corb
' in 
axony, " the sclaool in the IWW ('hureh flollri,I...<1':l:-- if contcnding 
\\itla our
. Thll" the m"tl}('r 111\"(':-; the (1ang-ht 'I', alul tlu- dau!!hkr hODOIS the 
lIIotlH'r,":t I n tIle neighhorhood of .:,t. Gal1 tllt're wpre 
hool... ft,ulltlCiI by the 
('ounts of llIPt'r...c1I\\ iI, whidl the mOllk.; of ('ollr
" fa\"orp(l, :1:- tllt-'
" did en'r)" use- 
fnl institution is hut it wa... in ('onscqnf'IJ('(' of tlIP tf'lIdt.IU'
" ,\ hidl sdlOols ofthis 
kind lIatur.III
' indicah.d, tllat Pupe \ll'
all(lel' II 1. wrotc to all tIlt' French hi:--h- 
op" ('har
im! thcm to f(u,hi(1 t he m:t
t..r, to rpc.i ,'e lI)Onf'
', h le..;t !'('it>IU'p ...hollM 
""eIn to bE' f xpo...(>(1 for 
al... whi('h ollgllt to he offi'I'f'tl to t'Vt'r) onp gratis""11 
On the other hand. there was a ('CI.taill rat'. of wandering .scholars lying out in 

· Stromat, iv, 9. 
S l1(h.row;, VOlt .\rx. 

t De Aotiquitatibus Ac.ulemicis. 
 Ap. Lfoibnltz Script.. Bruns. iiI. 
lAp 'brlcne, Vd. Script, ii. 8.)3, 

AGE S 0 F F A I T H. 


the fiplds, who used to h('g from muua...tcl'it>s with ill.."I<'/lO>, ngain...t whom it wa::l 
solUctil.m:s uecp:o'' 10 pa:",
 dccrcc::" us in the council of 
.tlzL)IIrg in 1 
, alld 
also in I-t.3f3. * .All 8lUdicj in the monasteric.; )'ieldc,l to the labor of in
tion. Al>holl, tilt' 1110llk of thp ninth ('elltllr)', wlto \\ fote the poem nn the :--it'ge 
of Pari.., b.'gs iudulge/lce for tbe faults ill it, which he h;,:; not had time to corrCI.t, 
II ob schl)laruill plllralitatt'I11." 
Of thc f
..cility afforded to the poor of tducating theil' bOilS by tilt' schools of 
the monks, th
 history of Pope B
'J\'c.::;tcr II. fllrnishétl a rucllwrahlc t'xamplc. 
Born in the m'Hllltains of Auvcl'gnc of pOOl' part>lIt:-:, the hrell11"t'n of the mO/lastcry 
of the holy Geraltlll:ò; at Am'illac took the de:-,timtc Iatl undel' tht-ir pl"Ott'(.tion. 
The .Ahbot Gerald, tlw "dlOlastic Raimulld, tbe ll10llks BCl'llhard, 
\ira}'(l, and 
all the rr'st, 
ho\\,pd him a fatht-r's love; but<'ially IInder tlw in...tructiun of 
Raillllltlli were his extraonIiuary taleuts dt'\'(.ltlped, \.ftel' :--uIDe time the breth- 
ren, with IH'aiseworthy disn'gard of all sdfi...h i/ltt'I'PS!
,.nt him to tra\'el, in or- 
der tÌlat he might find fre...h food for his gPlliuo..:, ami \' otlu'r ,..('h"ols, lIt' first 
visitcll all tlw cplebratetl ah}u>ys of Frallce; in (.ael1 of wI. i<'h he formed fl'iend:--hips, 
whi('h provt'li the consolation of his future life; Sl) that, wlwn 
uLscqnelltly he 
p:\.;sed into Spaill and Italy, he wa
 unit{-'Il in illtilllaey with _\daìbel'o of RheilU
el' of Lllttil'h, Ecbert of Tren>
, F..c<'3rd, ahbot uf bt. Julian at Tour..., Å(Json 
Ioutiel'-on- Del', Constantine, schol:lstic at Flem'y, a lid with many OIh('r noble 
and It'al'llPtl mon k:--, t 
ßt>.;ides Ihe greater tlwre were It-s-er 
('h(lo]:-: ad},illiuU' t.very mOlta
tt'ry hn' the 
childrell of lhe neigh horhootL Ht'll('e tllP old chronieler of St. Riqnier, after 
stating that hoys are l'dncated there, a(ld:-:, " The Ìl'easur
::I of wisdom ar
on all ,.;idps ; the country is renùered illustrious, awl evel')' where, and by all men, 
Centnla i-; called happy."! 
" ..\fcer the pe..tilpnce in 1348 Ihere wa... !'ueh a scarcity of mell." !'ays :1 chrolli- 
de of Soiswn
, {( that no one could be found ill tilE' small tOWl}..; to teach littlC' ('hil- 
(lren to r{>ad," Thel'efore, foulldatiolls were made hy John Dumont fill' 
schqlar:-; to one or other of the fi \"e ulliver:"litie
 The dpcay of sdlOols, alld the 
c<ln.;eqllent want of instnlCtion amoll
 the people, }>I'eviou... to the grpat outbreak 
of lwrp..;y in the time of Lmhel", eXplained the cIcsolatiou whi('b en..;lll'{I in some 
, as St. Vil1l'ent Fprrel" de:Jri,\' pointed out; and, in fa<,t, wh
rt' educa- 
tion was mo4 extended, a... in 
paill amI Iraly, during thp fiftepllth antI 
celltllric'5, the:-e errors were 1I0t ablt, to pent'tmte or take root.1I 
It wonld ()I' long to tell of the great mllna
ti(' ",chool... which diffuSM 
u('h light 
thm_ughout EllI'olw dlll'illg' t}l(' midd Ie a
f>,... In tl)(' tellth ('f.ntnry thp mo
t c-ele- 
hrateù were LohhC'
, wlw)'p Hathf'r, and GOI'C'UIII, w}wrp .John ''''Plldiere... taught, 
, Pl'UIll, St. 
[al.tin at Tour:" 
t. G
rllJaiJ) at Pal'i:", FuJda, Hirschfeld, 

· Germ'\nia Sacra, ii. 331. t Hod., 61. 
I 'Innteil nist. des Frant;'oið, viii. ,"í64, 

t Lib. iv. 

 Hist. de Soissons, ii. 211, 


I 0 H Ese \ T II 0 J.. I C I: 0 R, 

J.'lpnry, I...uxeuil. 'r. nonifiu.t. at 1:..111('. 
-in(). In that a
e fllllll'Ï/...hl'cI 
t1w lIIona:-til' N..hll()l
 ofSt. liad, l{eil'lIcnau, ElIIsiedclill, Pett'rìin tr t'lI, CluIIY, 
and allloug the ll1oulit'lin... of _\ uVt'rgliC the cloi..ter of A IIrllla . at the cnd of the 
ninth C'ClltUI'Y, fOUlIC1{'d h)' thc holy Gf'raldu.;,-
t. rïlll'Cnt at Toul, 
t. Ft'lix nllcI 
VIt'mt'llS :.t 
It'tz, amI :'-It. I:"mi 3t Itllt'ims,* (,('I"hI'3t('c1 al!-o Wt.1"(' th(' llHtlla..tic 
tidl.Jol... of St. ...\.ILan in :\f:1yence, wheJ'e the monks fheod .de,l. :111<1 Di('fm:ll' (I'Jllr- 
i:.;hecl; of Ilir:-('hall, where "'tIHIit'Cl ...\ruu1f
 ...\.dall""l't, amI 'If'gilll":lCl 1"llf)\\'IIf'd 
through all Gl.rman)' ; of CurLy, ill 
', \\ hcn' the "'cllola..tic' \\ 
h tht, l't.lclnaft.J 
\\ïu ic.hi lid ; amI of thc ahbey c,f Sl. :\Iaxirnin at Treve...., \\ ItÏ(.h prodtl('('d at the 
:-:tIllC tint(' nmn.\' mo!-ot ('lIIillPfl( IllPn. 
lpf):-tll's ull,I mart
o u!!ain, on tIIt'V.m- 
111.", th:lt of 
t. Dla/.f' in tilt' Blac,k Forc
t, f(Hlwll'cI in !)(;() hy H('
inht'rt, a nohl('- 
man of tIll' ('ollrt \\:1=-- ; a'i \\U... also Brannau, wllt'rc the IlOly \u..;- 
tril h('gall his apu:,toJi(' l'OUI'St'. 
At 'Iontf:mçnn, on tlw bortlers of Lorraiue, there were, In 9] -I, 1('3.rned mOllks, 
who l.a<<1 fJt d from Fndaml, awl a f, 111011" -,('hool. \t s, ill llo\'. rgne, the 
Abhot I)l1r:III(]I1'" <It "C1"\'C'c1 imnwrtality hy his \Hiting:4 nn tlt('()log-
' an. 1 hi-tory. 
,\t tl.e c101"l' of tile ft'nth (,{,l1tllry \\t'rc ftHllu),..I tl.e ahhf'Ys ofSt. Pllc'r ill Bi!-olll- 
Jnm, in the dioce ' of Girou:I ; .s,. )lary, ill Taxo, il1 the di()(.(,
. (If Hrg-c 1; 3ud 
Ii('hael at CU
Il, in the PyrCllt'l''i; wl.iC'h ('ontaiuld most eminent s('ltools 
nncIel' thE' :lLbots POlltil1s, Cì''tl, :uuIlìu3riuu..; tù th(: Ia..t of which camp 
Pt h'r (T r:-t'Oli, thc clo!t' of ''''<<'nil'l', \\ ith f. ipncl.. Gr:uIl'uig-o, 
l:Hlro:if'lIi, :mc) 
B IIII:m]tl, tlU' :-;lIb-t>il'1f'1l! f01llHh'r of C:ul1al.Ioli, :Iwl tlu' o]c1 I.ermil 
In tlw thil tt'Clith :1I1l1 It.Ulrtl't'l1th c 'ntllri".. the 
rl'3t s 'hooI: ot tllP Fr:ulC,iól:an:l 
amI Dominic:lI1:-: <II PW ml1ltitlldc's to' ('onn'nts. 
.lore than' 700 fr al s a.t a 
time, from e\"pry part of Chri:-:tcildolll, h:lve h<,,>;'n ]\.110\\'11 tu r( :0;1)1'1 to tlw Fmn- 
ci:.wan ('011 \"ent i II Pari
 fin' till' :0.:\ ke of :-.tl1t 1 y -f TIIP 
l'l101a"ti(' hall... ill t hi... ('on- 
Vt'lll w('rc parti('II];lI'Iy grand. The g-rpatl r :-('llOoh, \\ (fl' not ('xc'et'cI.',1 hy :my 
ntht'r, in thL ITl1ivt.r:-it),. TIlt',\" w( re 
 fl'f,t lon
 a11(1 f(u,ty-:-ix broad, 
\\ith ..I.'\'ell great wimlo\\l'. Therc Wt're two ]e<'tlll'l'
 UII thlO]Og.\', "pc'lI]n- 
tivt' ane! interrog-ati\,t>, ('very moming, amI tWIJ C\'CI"." :tfrcl'lloolI, 011 tllf' Hilly &rip- 
tm'N', Dail)", from ftJur to fh'c in the CV('lIing', tile fathers II-LÙ to di
pure (In 
the...p h'C.tnrt',.:, allY Ollt' that dlO-e all:-\\'t'ring- ami cli
plltillJ! 3J.."'3.ill..t tlwlII. 22
)'Ollflls \\prp ('(IlIc:It(.d in the :,pmill:lry, whi('h ('ont:liu('(l an t']pg-ant h:al1, ill \\ hi('h 
h\o o( tht' 
'()lIn!!:er Im.thren rppe.lh.d p:utb of the divillc ()ffic'c c\'cr)' night; bllt 
Oil f('sti\'als all \\.t'r
 l"t'f!uirpc1 to ht' pl"f'
 'lit ill th, chllrch at th' 
amc timp. B.'l'e 
\\ f'rE:' fimr :-('hoo]-&; nlH' fi,r {!ramn1:lr, allother fi'r I'1lploric, another fnl" ]()
ic, amI 
tllp ftmrth for tl.(' ma-tf'I' of the 
ellt{'nl'e... 311d th.. ph)'..if'''' nf ..\. ri...lotJ(',
TIIII", 1'('-1(1('1', aftpr :t IOllg illt"I'\':a1 hel'f' \\ f' fin/I olll....,.h.l 
 .lg:ailt r:li
illC' nilI' halldi 
in admiratioll of thc 1l1l'rí' II:III)('S of th.. III III;I-til' 
,.hllol... of tilt.' mi,]dle 3

· Hock, Gerht'rt und 
inj IhrhUlidert, 33. 
t Duda,..lIc. ,\nti<<plih-
 de, ViiiI'''' de'e. 

t Ihid. 54, 

 'VacMin!!, .\n. 1234, 



:tin, I u:,k, what must it laa\'e b
en to have ellterlù that uf the aLb.'Y of St. 
Yi('wr at Paris, wh('n it cOllt.ill<,<1 slll'li Illaster
 :IS IIl1go, Atlam, and tlw h\o 
]{il'hal'lls? How deep I)' illterc,tin:! l'Vell IIOW is it to (he ffionaS!et\' of Rt. 
J)ominic at:Xapl
:'), one of tliose gn'at ...('hooI..; whose ma..;[er.:oö pu...:o-e:-s ...1 :-uel1 an eJII- 
pil'e! St. TllOrHasof .-\quin compo,<,,'d 11l'1'
 lllallY of his wo1'l.:s, ami here het:.1Ught 
thpology dnrillg filtl'l'n months, ...\t a later timp King A Iphou<.:o I, of Arragon 
lI:-c(1 of[('ll to ('om.... hcre on laol":-ocback, to w;...i:,t at the l,'cml"l's of the profe'8ol'
The trac('s of St. Thon13'" meet yon at every step, .Y" 0\1 Sl'C hi:-: smalll'ell, 1I0W a 
chapel, hi..; cla-;
, aud the rcmains of his dlair, Of the great nll'n who pl'csidCtI 
over the sehoul of 
t. Gall, in r(>g
ml to poet I')', U1lbic, and painting, r ...hall have 
occasion to :-:peak hpl"l'after. In l,'arnin
, they h
ld the fir!;t pla('t'. ,rhen Eekc- 
har(1 I r. eut('rClI the cOllllt'il of 
layeJ)('e, six hi
llOps ro:,e lip to salute him as 
their oltl lIla
(l'r in the !-'dlOol of this :1Lh(')',* 
h the ninth, tl'nth, aUlI ele\'cuth entllries, all the mastf'rs Wl're great men. 
Tht' Em perol' OlilO 1. wonltl do nothing' without the ad vice of Zekehard 1. ::5isÌ!--'r's 
hOIl of tilt' recluse Ha,'hiltl. lIe was the most leafJwd allll Jllagnanimolls man of 
his :Ig('. awl the mo
t pitiful to the poor. lIe left hdlilld him a tIt-scription of the 
hCl'oic dl'l'd-; of 'raltcr, whid. Eckdlarl1 IV". afterwards copied out in a more 
eumpll.te form, an(l :-tylt'<.l " Lytlius Char
." In pnr:,uancc of a vow, he 
had Le
uu to write al...o a life of St. \Yiborad, Eckehartl II. Palatinu'\ W3S a 
statt'ly an,1 1I10st Bohle pel':-úD: "ncmini unquam nPJw,lieti ('II('ullu..; deeeutill..; 
('d(,I'at." lIe made 110 di4in<'tion betwet'll tht, )lol,Ìe :llltl oth"I' ",tndents, Lut 
employed (ho
e of lea:oòt talent more in writing, painting, :1llÙ gi I (I. ng. He knew 
how to write down ill :,Lort han,l the :-,uh4ancc of ev
ry thing that W3.-.; 
aia, a
suon a::; it \Va:; utten-d. lIe wa:; snhst'quently C:llled to the t'onrt of Otho I., alld 
appointed over tlIl' imperial chapel. Two di
"ourse..:, whic.It hp had taken down 
in ,-;hort hand, :-till cxi:",t, which E,'kehard IV. has ills('rt<.,d in his chl'Onic1e. 
EckeI.ard I \..., comp,,:-pd an emblcm to expr(>..:s each of tht> art" \\ ith it; attrÏ- 
. Kotkt>r, thl' physician, W:t..; Hlaternal unde of the ahhot Xutl
ar : he w:to) 
skille(1 in mcJit'ine above all other men of his a
p, amI \\",1:; hdtl in great respect 
at tilt' ('()1Il't hfOth\) 1. Curion:; proofs of his di"'cernlllent are l'(wol'<h--'d. So stri('t 
a dis,'ipliuarian wa..: he in the cloi
tel', that Ilf
 was !'lIrnamelt " Piperi:i granum." 
111 oltl agl' he lo:"t his :--ig-ht. The veneration of his cOlltpmporaries is \\"l.ll ex- 
:-:e<l in the lIoti{'c of hi:-õ (lcat!.: "Obiit Xotkpri bpnig-ni

imi do{'toris et nwd- 
i,'i."t Xtltkel' Lal)('o, or the c. thil'," was {'ollsitleretl the n}()
t Iearrwd man 
of hi
 time, as well a., dIP 1I10...t bl'nign,+ IIp wa., a prtlfcmnd thf'ohglan, astroJ}- 
('r, :11)(1 mathemati,'ian, dpcply \'t'rsCtI in the Greek awl Latin :11111 G('rman 
ue..:. He a(,(plin_',l from his ctllltemporaril's imJll('nsl' applall
l' hy hi..: worl,:
tlH' German ton!!lH', :11l,1 hi..: 11:1111(' will ht> fOl' ever tlp:!r 
lIId vt-'lIerahlc ro all who 
study tilt-' old German Iit"ratl1rt'. HI' fOI'III('<1 JUany ll'aI'UP,l llwn ; anti amollg

* De Casibu5 S. GaUi. .lp, Guhlùst, ii. 

 Cllrunic. lIepidanni ad an. 10


I 0 n E =' ( , A T II 0 LIe 1; 0 l

thcm Ed..chard I'...,. a cla-sic31 alilhor of tilt' middlc :Wt..... On hi

commamk.d that the iHdi
houhl lIa\"t' a diullcr in his pw-cm't>, that hc mig\lt 
use his (')"t'8 fOI' tilt. la..t timc in b ,ping the plta..urc which tlw)" l't.(,t.i\'t <1. This 
' was gralltl' 1 to him. I1lt')' tlillclt hdl)f"(..' his hl'(L all(l Ilf' ('
pirt'(l :lIl1id-t tlae 
u'S awl lalllclltatioHs of the 1'001'. 11"" diell in tl1t' Hc\'t'ntv-:o-i> )'l':lr of hi:-: :.
ill to:!:!, of the pl3
lIC whil'h the army had hrought Ollt of ltalJ. His (Ii:o-('iplt>, 
Eckch31'l1 IY, concllldf'
 his .!ccuuut of him with tÌlt . > \\Olt..L;:- 

II lIic finis e..t bornini.. Pllc;t impari.. enulilinnis, 
lIullc mcrito tlchunt, 
imlli. qui dl'imle call.bunt:'. 

Of his G('rman w()rl,:
 tllt'rt' I't'lIlaili his tra'lsJatlol1 of thf' P-alms. of Ari
H )('ti'f";, .:\lartiaHlIs Capt'lla, :11111 a :-holt In' IIi..." Oil Illusit':II ill...trllllwllt..., His 
lations of Joh amI of 
t. nrt'
"r'y'Þ '[omts an' Io...t. ()n tilt' -UII\(, (1ay with 
him (lICíl, of the pIa
IIP, three otlwr pmf.'...:-:IJI'S: Itlldp<'I't, \lInn, mltl EI'imhf'rt, 
who WCl'e all pla('(>t1 in ont' gran>. Eckdl:lId IV. \\'1:-, alsil a J!1{'at prllfi('i('nt ill 
tilt' German, Latin,3I)(1 (hepk .Oll
t"..;, pmfimudly \"{>t
('(1 in llt'ath"11 anti Chris- 
ti:lIl antiqllitie..;. IIp pllhli:--h. d tllf' chl'oInid,. of hi.. hon...t', frolll tht. tillle of fll{' .Ah- 
hot &lllIl1lOn to that of 11111110: a work of hi
h \'alut>, not "nl
' f
,r th" hi...lory of 
Germany, but ft,r that of aU Enropp. ni
"'('('und \\ol'k I'" tlu'l.'t>lt.hrated 1l13I1n"(,l"ipt, 
" Lihel' llenedictionmu,"t or th(' poplr,\' of th,' m
"...tnri(:o. amI tllP r..
ti\'a)"', \\ illl 
painting..., and COllt:lillillg })t lit dietioll'" ii"", (Jim'rent It('(':l
. 11(' (li('(1 ill 1070. 
The L:ltin ton
n(' was so thorotl,rhl
' tall
ht III tlw 
('ho ,I of this ahhey, that, 
in the rcading-..; whi('h wcn' alwa'y
 lIIade at tahit., no !;mlt wa
 (.\"(>1' observable. 
('('ptinf" the :-Illallel' bll)'
, 110 
tmh'lIt l'\'f
r dart.(1 tl) ;;;pt.ak ill an
' olhcr ton
but Latin. 
o \\ here elSE', in all (yprm:II1
', did one write !-tll'h good Latin: ami 
t':i were written hCl'e at once in Lat i n, a nd not, :1'" (,
sP\\' IIt'n', t r:l11sJat{'(I in- 
to it from tilt' Gpl"mall,t In g-t."lwra1, th" IIwthocl of instrn('lioll in tilt' mona....h.r- 
it':i of tl1(' middle agp..; W:IS ..0 !'tH'('t.
...r.IJ. ti.'lt .John of Sali:.lull'\' s:.l
.:i, that (.ver). 
one, who is lIot ah:-ìllhu.tIy ddj(,jent in lIatllr:li ahilitil's, ('all It.arn to wrile amI 
:-peak Latin lwrf.'(,tly in one Yt>ar,
 Th(> profp...:o-ors IJf
l. Gall p
 pbinHI f'ipprn, 
(lllil1tili:m, ''''irgil, Lllt'an, Fla(,(,I1
, antI 
t3Iill:-;; awl 
a\'p th,.il' I"'C'hotan; to n'a(] 

t, Livy, Tr()
ro, Fl'OlItil1l1
, ",)Iinll"', Vurr", .TII""n.&I, T.-I't'11I'(', P('I'Sill", ami 

 'phodt:"l' The 
t'(.t.... for Ilwir pnetry Wt'rt' 
t'l\('r;,l\y takt'n out of the Rihlf', 
01' Chllrph hi:-tOl'
', 1t'
. alii I pit'(.t.... fOI' fi.o;ti\'al-,. TIlt't!t.('Iamatioll proppr fnl' 
poetry wa.. indi('3t (I to tlw )"('aller In" mU:.i('al lIot,.
. of \\ hit,h the mallus('ript 
poems of St'(llIliu..: :11111 \tlelllt'lm art' an e
ample.1I [n c1ialt'di('..; :lIHI lo
ic their 
t(\t..; wel'C &\ri
tntI(\, Plato, Pnrph,\'rin..., :111(1 Bm.tiu..:. Xotk"I' IJahe n , the tlli(.k- 
lippt'tl, wrotp a tral1..lation. in G,,)"rn:I11, of .\I"i:,totlp'..: I ,)dt.. )llIsic wa
with {!r<,at care, They:-tmliCiI abo mathemati('s :m.J {!t'oIDt.try ; and Xotker La- 

· In Llh. ßcnt'd. 
1 Eckdlal() in ("n,. xi, 

 In Cud. 'b:, 
o. 39J, in 4'0 , of 
f):: p:1ge

t,.':tlo!.!. f. 2-4. I In Cnd. 24

AGE S 0 F F...\ I T II. 


beo, drew mathematical figurc5 ft)r tlw sr(((lpn'
. allli p'{plainctl in Gpl'man the 
meaning of the differcnt t"l'ms. ...\cl'onling to) thcnt, Llll' pat riarch .Ahraham \\a
the ill \'cl1tor of th
e figm'e:-ö, In a:;tronom
', \\ h iell th cy nallll'd "a,trology ," 
the)" did nut confine thcir I't
 'a..dlt's to thp clln:-öI('lIal it)!l.. aDtl course of the 8UII. 
The)' :,onght al,.;o to u.;
 the telt':.:('ope :1I\(1 tilt' :lstrultahe,and \\'I're ahll' to wake a 
celestial glohp, pcrhap", the fil'st that was c\'cr "('t'n in GCI'many. TIIl'i.. a:--tI"Onllll1- 
ical gnitles were Ale
a\l(ler, IIidus, and _\ratu:,. They held h,)rOaster, \\ hose 
kingdom th(>y saill \\a-; Bactria, to he the 
l't'3lf'!'l a..tro)lIomer, allli Kin!! Ptolt'I11Y, 
a...; the invelltor of the :-.nn's hoUt:", awl of the astrolahe-all a
tronolfiical in..tru- 
mel1t which the p'tÍnter...; at th'lt time u..;pd as all emhIt'1U of fl)a
ie. ::,ueh diligf'nt 
readel's wel"e they of thp cI:u;''';, that they ofwn u-;ed the ancient terfl)
, :lIld ap- 
plietl tht'lU to con!cmporal'Y thin
8, Thu..; the Chri:-tiall chUl'eh \\,:1"; "S 'n:ltus 
poplIln..;qup, Re:'Pllhliea." Tlw)' borrowed fìgurc
, in slwakin
, flom the ancient 
history, and st)'led St, Gall ,I Prælor," and "Cen
or"" Ahoyp all, tile." Wen) as- 
si(luons in 
tutl.\'ing the JIol)' ',cripturp
, and the f:lthCI'S, f'sJweially Origt'n, Ath- 
anasÎu:o;, ..Augnstin, Jerome, GI't>
orr, Isitlorc, Chr.\'soswm, Bt!de, :::;eduliu...;, Boet- 
, A\-itIlS, Primasill
, a1l<1 tile e('clt:'sia
ti(':ll hi4orian
. Thpir philosophic views 
were often expre:o:setl in verse: as fOl' ill4anl'e, of prayel', they said,- 

.. Precibus Deus non mut21tur, præsciens earum operatur, " 

Of penance,- 

II Vult ve\ut ignnrns DewJ, ut fatearis amarus, 
Iutime salvsmur si continue fateamur," 

They had SOfllP strange notion:o;; as, tOI' in4ance, that the letters of the language 
which A(lam and the ...;erpf'nt ",poke had a madcal power. 
\.... for science, in oppo.;;i- 
tion to rpli
i()n, the mon k
 of ::3t. Gall he II 1 that reli gion m tlst al \\"a."s be regardt>d 
as far ele\'ated above all st'ipnee,; though scieD<"e al)(l learning Inust be l1...ed in 
its defpu..;e, aftel' the example of St. Ath:ua:lsills, .\ugustin, 3ml Boetiu..;. Besides 
the st lid y of the anciellt;o:, thf' vnlgar tongue was by no meal1
 neglected at St. 
Gall: the monk
 applietl them:;d ves with diligence to its formation, amI made it 
the objt>ct of :-,ttldy. 
" Primus J1:1I'haricam 
('riheus, facien
que saporam," !'ays Ecl,;:phal'll IY.;* and 
nlldpt'rt \\Toft> a (
('rlHaH grammar, f>xplaining 
Cil'lltific wOI'II,..t In the Gl.rman 
8 of tllcil' ('IIIHpn:-öition we fiwl an ele
al)ce \\ hil.h was flleu new: 51) that 
mor(> W:IS etfcc.tpd t'I\\'anl... it::; rl-'fiupment in thp ninth, tenrh, :uul cleyenth ct'n- 
tl1rie,. th:lll was done (lul'ïug' tilt' Sl','eu hlludrt.d y('ar
llI(twin!! : 
lIHI I1ù"fcms 
von Aræ "'a."
, that n.t (}pl'lnan 1'311 fail to ,"et bitterly that th('
e old ma:,tprs 
of.the tongue 
hol1ltl han) hl'l'l1 bid a...itle by tho
' who, oflatt> years, Irave 
to impro\"c it. ""t> nl:l
' 1't)1I1:II,k, indp('tl. thar (>\'el'.\' \\"h"l'(, the nllluk..; lahoretl in 
chool,.; to pre..;el""p tilt' popular lan
e of the cOllUlry in which they \\ ere. 
In En
Jand, when, und.... tile sP\"el'e 01'llinauces uf the Xormans, the oM Saxun 

* In LilJ. Ucuctl. 1;:;;:;. 

t Goldast. Hef. .-\.llemann, tom. .. 


J 0 1: E 
 CAT II 0 L ] ( t I; () J{, 

'('mt>tl about to he lu:;r, Iht-re were patriot.; ill the mnua:;;teries, ..aYJ:; a 
I.ut> wl'ih'r, wllo pl't-ferl't'tl them ..till; alld we I\I'C intl,.hh...l to 
u('h nwn fol' tlH'ir 
prt'''t'r\'ation. I ntrlll 1'11118 wa-i onp. Bt'wail i n
 tho 10:--.. of m:m)' of "i
In the fh . of 1091, " a fe\' .\"ears h .for,'," hc -ays, ., I ha. I 
i \'t'n -l'veral 011 t of the 
tn asllr
', of" "ieh we h:ul (1IIpli(':ltl'
, Iha' thf') mi
llt lx, kept in the cloister for 
(pac.hing the junior'" the :it'Xon h:lI1d, Ih\'in
 ht't'n l"llg' !;Ii
dlt. Ù bf'('au
c of the 
, it h:ad h('('ollu' unknown, f'Xt'C'pt hy a fe\\ of tilt' t'('niol's; tlu' juniors, 
thcrt.fon', \\ ere in.,t rlU,t('( I to I'pad the olt I I<..t h'I', I hat t h l')' III i,rht undt'l'..talul ami 
maintain our ('hartt>N \\ hpll th,.)' 
I't'w old." 
But, torf'turn to
t. Gall: "0 
t Il,'ral WCI'C the ..tllllip... that ahbot Ulrick \"'lll.'s 
cook, I1an..; I{imel, :\1\11 hi.. P01'[('I', Lallrt'nt'l'Tt'IISt.h,<,'ould hOlh ..p..ak Latin, Gr{'{'k, 
ami Ht'bl'(
\\, I ....;{It'-i ht'ing 
kil1t't.l in many IHalll'h,,
1'il'II(,(,. Thp 
I'.uHI (lay:i 
 abb('y elUled \\ ith thc thirh'('nth l't'lItur)'; for, ill thl' fOIJltf'f>lItll, the S ('lilaI' 
nohilit,\' :o'uper
I('t.1 the monks, ami (""t'ry thilw ..unk to thf' 100\('.,t t,bh. .\ 
r, at 
rcfitrlll, howevt'r, again took pbre: for, in the :--('\"cntt> '11th Ct-lItur.", mo:,t of lhe 

wis..; ahl....y:-o S'llt tht'ir nq\,i<.'"" ulul Y(llln
l'I' 1Il,'mber..; to 
tIJd)" ill the abbey of 

t. fi:llI. 10 wlli('h man)" ahbot.. applit',1 fOl' mOllld, ill onl('I' to r(...t.u'p th,' .Ii"'f.i- 
plinc of th"it, 0\\ II housc:;. Uf 0111"1' );reat mt)na
ti('" 'houl.., similar .it.tails might 
Le prodlll'('(]. 
'riLaltl, abhot f)f Corhy, in 1119, \\ ritin
 tl) 'Iall

oltl, llla..
tl'I' of the :o-ehool, 
<'01l('t.rnin).! the gr<''';It lII..n who havc' hPIlf'titl"ll th.. (" h
'' wri[illt!s, ('itt':i 
Bl'(h', al1ll \mhrc,;-öt', IfcilllOIl, \ntpt'rl, Hahall, .John &ott, awl utllf'r:i, \\ ho;,e 
\\ork.. We' r, ad, II :-o:1Y", al
(), th:lt \\P ..llOII)d :o-Illdy P)"thagora..., Plato, Soph- 
ode..;, :uul :"\iIllOllicll...,* III tlll'nillih (.t'IItur
', the :-dl1lol of the 1II011:1:,tcr) ofIIir

c"au po
el tho 'gr<'.tt prof "..o
.,l, H.ichhoù, all\l Ilar<lpl'ad ; of the 
last of whom \\C rl'J.d,-" a gr
at <.10('1<.)1', allll falllUlb thl'oIJ
hout thl' \\'orlel : 
<<1, ar to kill:!", all(1 ru04 dl'ar to hi:; 0\\ n; ill lift' anll t'I'lIIli[iqll 1II0...t emim:nt."t 
In tlw abht'Y of Tagt'rn
tl'e W:l:i pt'rhap.. thc oldt>:--t :o,I'hool ill B:t\':.ll'ia. Hl'l"l' flolll'- 
i...llecl Jll:IIl
' l,'arnt>tl l11<.'n. ,r('rinhcl' wa.; e,.ld)ratc(l :.l:oJ a 1t':U'hf>I'. The Greck, 
Latin, :11111 I1t.hrew tonlrlll.'S were cult i,'atptl in it \\ ith Sll('
:-t; and botanical 
stuc1ie.... Wp!"f> a5,:)j..tetl hya g-:trùell pro\'i(h',} for diP pnl'pn
Thi.. union of 
htlla.:ti(' in..tru('tioll with rpligiolls l't.lllt'<llioll in tIll' mon
of lIu' rnitllllp :t!( s \\ a..; ('onr'ormable to tIll' jn(h
mt'lH allli pr:H'tiCf' of all CHI il;;tian 
all iquity : " ....:tpicntia," I"a
':; Laet:lntills, "('11111 reli
Óullc in paraLili nc;\u <.'011- 
 &'hoo].. \\t're, tl...rcfor(', attaC' to the 1'('!o-ielPIH'C of hi..hops, alltl tl) ('vf'ry 
dlllrch. II eu <x>, \\c re:ul of \\ïlfriù, dIP holy hishop of Y,lr"-, th:lt grt.:at Ilwn 
conHlliUt>(1' !-Oll
 to he eelu('.ltc'(l hy him, whl.thel' tl\('." int '1HIc.(l to miliratp filr 
thp Lorll or fill' tlu' \\orlel :\1 :11111 of E,rl l crt, uf tht> :--alll(, . c, in tilt' \\0,,<<15 ascl'ih- 
('<.1 tu .AI('lIin :- 

· Ap, \Iarlcllc, Vet. 
cripr, xi. 8M, 
t JzU'('ho {;nllerie cler Klti..ter [)l'ml;chlallCls, i. 
I Will. '1Ilm

. de Ol.
li:,. Ponl. .\u
lor. iii, 

t Gerbert. Hi
t. Nlg....e 

 Lih. iv, c. 3 

AGE S 0 F F \ IT H. 


II Indolis cgre
iæ juvcnes quoscunque vitlebnt 
lIos sibi conjuo'i:it, dflcuit. nutrivit, nmuvit.". 

Tbe monks, however, dwelling withill \"a::;t abbe)'s in thc country, and 
rOlllHlL'(l with every tiling f;lvoraLle to 
tU(Jy, W('fl', in a ...tilllllol'e e:o;pecial man- 
ner, thl' in:-,trudo!"l; to wl1Ol11 mell 1l10
t desir(,'(1 to cummit their sons; mid ('er- 
tainly tlley did 1I0t bt.tray the trust rl'po":l'd in diem, III their doi:-.1l'r:. tbe wi:--h 
of St. Clement of _\.h'xtlildria W:lS I"mJi7cd: mcn hOllort'ù the young, an\1 supplied 
them with the e(lucation of God-nìv 1CaZôE{av TOV BEOÛ. t \Vht'n Abe- 
lard, in the abbpy of St. Dl,"is, cornpllsp<1 that learned po('m ill elegiac vcrse, in 
wÌli{'h he la.ys down thp lIest rules to ll'ad a holy ami h'arneJ lifp, uniting picty 
and 8:.\l\ly, he tIlt.! but explain the mona...tic edueation in general. "The SdlOOls 
in tÌle m()lla
terit.s," &1.)"s a great proft'ssof of the .\.eademy of Paris, "were more 
than :õchools of learning: they were, in a high sen
e, schools; for the moral fhc.. 
ultip..; Wt're :-ingularly wdl cultivated. The gl'cat originality of the mid(lIe :age:-l 
\Va,.; this cultivation of !'
lf-kn(Jwlcdge. Les-; inventivethanamiquity, thescages 
di(lnothillg but :-;tudy man. Thus theology itst.lf wa
 the stlllly of man : fOf the 
relation., of God with man rcquired that st1Hly,+ "The fir
t instruction fOI 
youth," says ßonald, "that of which it is not gi\'cn to Illan to appreciate the val
ue, Ol' to e:-:timatp the influence, consist...; in habit:-;, rather than in rca
()nings; ill 
exampl!'s, rathcl' than in dirpet ks...;ons,"
 This wa.. supplied in the monastic 
schools; where the (Juties of life a('('ording to the law of God, not the lUet
cal thpories cf heathen, or the snbtleti
 of a later philo...ophy, were to be the 
chipf :-,ubjl'clS at tel\ÙLÙ to,lI " 1
 ou have sent your two nephews to be instrnl'ted 
by me," wrile..; Peter of Blois. "the one ahoy, the otht'l' a youth; amI 
'on Eay 
that the lattcl" ha.., a great geniu!', and that you Ilc\'er IUd with anyone of a more 
suhtle vein; and this, bc(.ause, omitting the 
tUlly of authors, he has fh.d at once 
to the intricacit'S of the logi('ians. But I believe the 1'(:'sult will not be exactly 
wlut YOI1 ::,uppo,e. Xot in such things i:; tbe Dlundation of learnin
; and, to 
mallY. lwrniciolls is that :-ubtlety whi('h you extol. For wllat doe:o; it a\'ail to spend 
his days on tJllng-:o: wldeh can l}PVt'r profit him. either at honlf' or ahroad, in the 
DH'nm 01' in the <,loi4el', in the court or in thc Chureh, or any whcre Lut in the 
schools? \Vhat is more 8hal'p than th

 heard of COni ?-antl yet wÌlat is it good 
ftll'? Snch is the geniu-5 which i
 all snbtlt.:ty, without gravity. D.) not, there- 
Ícm\ alle
e any more the subtle vcÎn of your 'Villiam; 1'01' I fear I :õhall only 
have twice the labor with him; sinee I must fir.4 el'atlieatl' what ha:-; taken root 
in him. If Juhn ollly Pf'l'sp\,prl'.. in hi.. di:õpo,.;ition, th.. younger will :-:npplant the 
cl(Jer,-Ja('oh, ES:Il1,"'; \..; Tritlwmiu:, 
 of St. Bonaventura, "The monks 
ht au({ explai ned tll(> \\' hole s:wl'l'd S('ri ptul'e and t heolo
y: tcal'hi ng with a 
piritllal s\Vcetn

=-, thE>Y delighted-and, with delight, they moved and in- 

· Alcuioi Pocmn rl
 Pont. Eccles. Ehorac, t Stromßt. iv. 17. 

 Législal ion Prim, ilL 40, I Pctr, Bles, 8crm. 29, 

t )licbclet. 

I Epist, d. 


!\I 0 R K seA T II 0 1.. I C I; 0 It, 

flallH.'C1 the :dT('<.'tions of 3udilOr
." All that OUI' \\ i
lst PO(.t... \\'() dlat youth 
migìlt ohta:1l \\:1-1 grantetl lat're; :111(1 CO\\ pel' laim...eli would find hi.., fÙllde...t "'PI'('. 
Ulatillih ",'alill"tl. c. "
hen I wa... 
.'\'t n )"l'ar:-; 11111," :-a)':; Bt.e)., ., I \\:1:-; givt'n to 
be tlluc.ltul to the IIIlIòt rc\'cl't'ml .\hhol Bt'ut.c.1i..t, ami thclI to Cl'olfrid ; untl 
tlu'llcefè".th my whole time \\ as 
peut in lI1l"tli:atiw r dlt.:::; 'ripwrt ., ancl 01 . -I'\'ing 
the rt-
IIJar di...t.iplille awl
 in the I"hurch : :11111 I [.1111111 it b\H..'t:t to 1 - al- 
way... eitht.r Il'arning, or tt 3('hin
, 01' writin
." To the \\ i:--clom of this trainin
the 1110:--t harut'C.l lllt'll of latCl' tillH'S :--lIl)
cril)t'tl, \\ hCII the .Jt'...Uih inSI itutt.'tl their 
I:ht lIo\'iciate, or ) ('ar of rdrt at, to I't'p:lil' tlae urt'al,h .' which an application to 
human :-.eienc':; might have t"au
'() in du' UIII. 
'Vhen tllC :-oy:-:tcm of the a.:t's of f:litu \\".1"; )'ieldin
 to that \\ hieh now prevail..., 
tlH're \\l're not walltin
 from tIll' l'loi:--lt.r, likl' tllat of:--:a"ouar"b, to a:-:sllre 
ltlaer:oi IIf fiuuilit'.... Ihat "aUtI (.tlut"atillll which ('on...i...ts iu making t"hil,lreu :--tully 
I:;IHnl' profilllt. pods, a 1111 t ht'l1 :;t'lhl i ng tllt'm tn a hank i n
-h()u... . to lake Jc.......on'i of 
exchallg.' alll) u...ur
', wa:, as pl'ljwlil'i,)IIO llieir :--oub lli:! to thl'ir illtA-lligt.'lwt'," But 
'nl'C had 
OJJ(' f(), nntll11l1ll:t:"tic cthlt'ation was to be "'upl'r'sl't1t'C1 hy that 
 nU'1i fOI' contl.mplation to tIlt' l!alllltlil1
-l'oHm, 81111 ft)J' plcilll
' tl) 
a LowlOI1 tavern, 
The author' of thp midtllP :l
" Wl're :-tlHliCtI u
...;itltltlusl)' hy tlacir con- 
tt'mpol".ll'ies in the mflna:-tic :>(.holl):-. "It \\u..;, of prt.,ligiol1s :--ervi('(- to II)e," says 
Pelt'r of BIni..., "that in IU
' YOUth I \\&3 111:111(. to It':II'1I hy hI art tilt' ('}('g:1nt It't- 
l':"t of Hrlllt.hc.'r[, hi:.-hop of 
fall:--."* TIJ(' work... of (;l'rl)1'l't in innulIlI'rahle 
manll...t'ript..;, \\ ('I'C pr'tlpa).!:ltttl thl'oll
h all rIll' Inonas(t.rit.s of Ellropl', ill tIlt' fir...t 
half of the clen'ntl. t't.ntury. t Pl'oft.....:--or..; Wt'n' t:.nll. 11011 the lIludt'1 of "'llt'h lIu'n. 
".ritin;! to 'Iatthia" Kill
 of lIulI!.!ar.\', 
lar:;ilills .Fieinlli :--a)':-:, "that 'n Sico- 
Jas lie \\ ill hear the hlt,
";('tl Thomas _\qllin:l...."
n:-, l'XCUSC''';' himself from 
l'1I1111t..r:ttill!! IIIP \\ ri[in
s of "'t. n'U\U\""lltllra, t'lying', "l){'I'an"'l' tilt')' are (laily 
ill the hands of tlH' )t'arlt\'eJ."
 FIOIIl:I ('(lp)' ",hie.h W:I
i\"t'n to mc hy a h,,)y 
pri"st of tile ...(wid,\' of .JI....U..;, I find tlm[ hi
 IIIt'ditalion... on tlu,Iit;. ofCIII.i...t \\CI" 
print ,(1 
o ('arIy as in I-tflO, whi,.h 
hows how \\ ell tllPir \,:tlll.- 1.:111 hH'n pre- 
' 1II1<1I'l"st. 'OfI. 
\\ïtJ. rt :--pe't'[ tl) the (,Ja...:;ifil.'atiOI1 of ...('iplI('r
, alld till' ortlt'r in whil,h th(.y were 
J.t in ti,l' ...chool:.- of thl> ltIonk
 tlll'rp arc model'll pmh':,;,,;ol's wÌlo a,.kllo\\ k'Clge 
tltat th,
 :,ySh'lII tlU')' fcl}J(I\\(.t1, \\ hit,h \\a
 tÌlat of YïncPllt 01' B 'all\'ais, i.; hl'tt
that th:tt of Lord Theon :Jlltllhc EIJ('y('l"p:c,i,
t.., of lite 
ht('l'nth Ct ntury. It 
\\':IS in faet u natural unIt-I'. lIot partial anti :arbitlary, hut hi):hly r,.a",olla1.I,. :11)(1 
ju...t. Thp (li!!ni[y of th(' offi(.c of in,t'"llC'linn wa,.; 111"'1'1' mort- proftlllllflly f
.lt. or 
pt'aetit'ally maint:tin(.,1. tilan iu tiJ(. miellll.. a
":; :11111 in tho s' 
ehooJs. J 111\\ öuh- 
lime art' tile \\ord:- (,f POP(' r;r('
"I"Y:X. \\Jilin/.! to tilt''J! of:':'il.ily'('till
the dllh
 of 3ttt mliw r to tIlt' illlt-rt,:"ts of It'arniu'r! "Th(. fÌl'st form ttiun of the 

· Eplst. ci 

t Hoel.., loJJ 

* Epi:.t, ix. 

 lIi..t. CIIÌ\"cJ:,it. Pari:>, tom. iii. 


A lì E 
 0 F F.\ 1 T lI. 


upernal hand hefore its fall," s:.\)'R the pOlltiff, "had nn int(>Ili
encc little le:o:s 
than the angelic, and penet:'atcd the ...c('rd:.s of cdcstial thin::;s with the serene 
foref' of light, and ohtained knowh.(lge of scien('
 from the ,If'ptla of an il1umin- 
uro.l brca
t; hut aftcr the fall, it could no 1'lIIgcr hehold, without the interpos- 
ing cloud of worldly <1arkncs"" what it formerly contemplated, Hut the immcn.e 
benignity of thc Creator, unwilling that such an ingclliol1:i creature, forrm.d in 
his OWII likeness, !-hould become nttl'rly vile, to rppair gloriously, a:i if by acci- 
dent, whieh was illjured by the dpadly food, dpcrepd that rude man whom natur
al reason could scarcely lead to the }wrfeetion of tl i...crel ion, 
a ill
by sciencE's and art..., and that the natioH:i disperse(l illto th.. varit.ty lit mallY i.l i "'IDS 
:--houhl be agaiu united as it werp, by means of one uni\"er:o;al source of communi- 
cation in the om' literary ol"d"I' of Latillity : thus tlw depds of our filthers are re- 
cordl.d in books; thus the conte4s of truth and"hOOtI are relaWII : thus are 
taught the prOCCS-5 of generation..; an(1 clJrruption", of all boùie
, the qualities of 
elements: thu::3 the harlllony of v,)iees enables lIIen to conceive how the Lord may 
be served by mu
i('al modulation: thllH the scholastic doctrine e:o:timate...; termill- 
, tli
s the len
th al)(l breaù! h, and height and depth, the mov
ments and construction of the heavpnly bodie:-:, and the whole phy
ical order, 
thongh apparently trallsccIH1ing the force of re'rson. Greatly then does it con- 
cern all orthodox kings that they should p()s:o;e
s in their kingdoms industrious 
men, il1usÍ1.ious fol' seil'nce and virtue, condu(.ing to the glory of their reign, un- 
der the Prince of Peaee, * In point of fact, too, the instructors of youth held a 
lofty position in SO<'iety. 
'Vhile pre
iding over the schoo] at Rheims, Gerhert was in relation with all 
the most eminent Iwrson:tge
 of the day. lie was greatly esteenH'tl by .Adelheid, 
the :-:ccond wife of Otho 1. and hy Theophania, the wife of Otho II. and daughter 
of the Greek Imperial h()lI
e, and al
o by Ad,.l1wi(1, tlIP wife of Hngues Capet, who 
entrusted him with tht:' education of hp}' :-,on Rohert, Ruthal'd, heat! of the school 
of the mona...tery of Hirschau, refused the episcopacy (If IIalberstat, which was 
offert.(1 to him by the emperor, 
, "let it he 
iven tl) one worthy of it. I 
he...,ilale 110t to prefer tlIP mOll:lst ic quiet, and the f'tutly of thp Scriptl1re
, to aU 
the honors and ridws of the world,"t 
" ACL'Ording to the l't-'Dtpnce of lilY heart," says Peter of nloi
, " if there be a 
Para(lise in the pre:ient Jife, it is ei11wr in the cloister or in the school:o'; f(,r what- 
ever is without these two is full of anxiety, d i:--quietude, bitreme

, fioar', 
tude and SOl'l'ow."! "Sdl(Jla
tic la1,Ol'," h(' :-õays el...ew}lf're, "although int.f'ficacÎous 
to salvation, partakf's n('\"t'lthe!"s,,; of a ('crtaiu worldly dt-'corllm anll se('llla!' inno- 
 The gor. a
st intt-'lJi
f)n('Ps of tlIP middlf> a.
ps flpd to it, Fooner or lat- 
er, for pea<:'e. "For thp..:e C:tl'f'..; :1ll11 tl'ollblc..;," 8:.l\'S Gf'rbert, \\"ri1Ín
 to Rairnund, 
the monk of Aurilla(', "the only remedy i
 philosophy and the stndie5 in which 

· Ap, Martene, V
t. Script. ii. p" 1274, 
t Pet. BIes, Eplit. xiii. 

t Gerbert. Historia Nigræ Silvæ, i, 128, 

 Epist, 1


 0 H. E S (J A T II U LIe I; 0 H'J 

() often, a.. in thi.. tl1rbuh,'nt momellt. suught a refwgc flOm tlap 40rms of 
fortune mIring :'gaiust oUll'r:, nr our:o-cln..... Tlu> :--tate o( tIll' rt.'pul,lic in Ital) Ru'm- 
ing to admit of n.. uther mt.1Ul..; uf P:-'I'ul)C frolll tI.t. )'okt' of t
'ralltß, hut by eugag- 
iUlr Olll'sclvc"- iUl."'\mmwtiullS anù lwrrOl
 \\e ha\'t
 chIlSI'Il the ("{'rt:lill It:Ïsure of 


tudi('S, rather than the ul1l.prt3in hn
ine...s of war:,. F:u'ewdl hrolher Airm'.1, 
farc\\t'll the nw...t holy or'(h'r; :uul 
'ou my direct"I' all(l il1:--trudor, b(> mindful (If 
me in Jour holy pray('r
."* How af1,,'dill,r art> thf':o-e revelatiolls ()f Ihe h(':'rt
Il.lcn! In later tim('
, tlw John Ger:--lIlI th,d to the 
am > I'ea<.'
. Tuward 
the clc,..e of hi.; life h(' rctirt>d to Lyon..., open('cl a :--dlOOI fiu' hoy"-, amI \\ Tote TI"3(,- 
fatn:') dp I'm'vuIi:-; tralU'll(li,.: :1(1 Chrisillm. In d.'"in
, he on1..n..l t\aat th.. \\ore).. of 
the holy ma..;'-') cc ::;ur...urn Corlla" :--hould be the ouly in:o-('ril'tioll em hi:. tomb. 
 and h('lIi
llity cOIl....titllu'lI th> mode of tn'atilw :--tudt.nt.i iu the mou- 
tic :o-chuo]s. This i. e
pn' in the imagery oftlae ('amp) S.lIlto at Pi. '1, "hl'l 
grammar is repn' >ut('(ll>y a \\oman \\h.) give:, ")lIck to a child, \Y}Ull bll
\V.l" fil'...t reN'ivec.l as a little boy at 
t. Denk, the 11111111...:; -ellt him to thr Pl'iory 
t. 'lartin ill order that his h'n
el' age llIi
ht not 1)(. e'\.po:o-( (I to t]u> :-('vcrity 
of tIlt> rU]t'i ob.;en'('(1 in th" abl)('y, Gt'ntlcltl':''' i.. the favuriu> quality a..e'ribt"(1 
to the prof. "-.uni, a., in the U('C'rlllo
y of 
t. Gall, \\ h(.rt' th" tlc>ath (If one (If tllPm 
in 9];) is dau.. noted, " X on. l\f:aii obi t n... 1 4 ':li lani .Jcwti .....imi et It('nip. i!o.....i Illi m:1gi8t ri." 
All tl)(' It'ttc>r
 from the 
tudeltts of:--\1. (;all, of whi('h fl':lr-nwllb r(.maiu, indi('ate 
the trl'atnwnt, H From the time that I \\ as pia", d 1111(1, r tIlt' yoke of your 
authority," :o-a)'.., on.. (Ii:-;,.ipl,> to hi
 ma..t"r tlwl'P, "
.on Ila\'1-' ('tlut'atl'tI me \\ ithout 
any l"t'nml1c>r.ltioll frolll my frit>,ul-, \\ it!. no 11'-" 1"\",, than if I Jlad I)(>t.1J )'OUI' 0'\\ n 
!-lIn: hut as it i., wriU('n in thf' (Jù:)pd, , the lahoreI' is worthy of hi... hire,' I pro- 
C> to go to my si:,ter
 in the Î..1anll \\ hich i
I LiIHIo\':l, amI tllt're 1 
that I 
hall n'C'CÍ\'e 
Ol1W littl" 1)1'1 :"'l1t, with ",hi,.h I ('an l'..tlllll to YOllr pn'
These poor boys wpre ('(IIIf'<lft>cl tltll
 t('JI(I(.rly, howen>r humb]e mi
ht ht. t]lt ir 
birth. \noth"r of t}It'Ill write... to his p:lrenb, :lllll Jo'
.:-. " You ha\"c fc)llo\\ (..1 tht
bt...t of coun...els in ænding rue to tIlt''ry of St. Gall rOl' edifi('atioll in dis- 
ciplirll' and learning. There I confl's" I have foulld the'e t\\ u thing
 alHlmbntly : 
but this i...; my d. lI1:n1l1, that you wouII out of your ("omplli:l
ion "'t'wI m(' a IlnIt> 
lIt or two shirts anti a Jirwn tllni(>, tlra
 I ma) appe:lI' honorahl}' \\ ith my fcl- 
10W'-c;;tm.1enl..;:, and 11m wilh the :-II:Iru.. of nak..dne-..;."t 'VlwTe\'f'r a eontrary 1-}"S- 
tern was introdueed, we read of it.... hf'ing- ('ondt>mn('(1. Tim..; Ellffridu.., a holy man 
of the diocese of Colo
np, CIne &1\' ]H'arin
 a (1'rt'at CI'vi,JlP from the ..('hoo], ('uter(>(I, 
. . I"> 
amI ....('Cin
 'holar ahout to be flll '!!L>tl, rll:-;lll'd lip like a lion. ...
isiug his 
again..t tl)(' R('hllla
tic :11111 hi
 as...i..tallt and deli\'erf>tl the bov fro II 1 their ha1Hl
, . 
sayin!!" ""
hat ure yon doing', t
'r:Utt? You :u'e pIac'e,1 here to troch, not to kill 
scho]ars." The othc>r ft.maiu('(1 mute alul ('OllfOlIll,I('(l.t 

· Epi
t. Gerbcrtl. 43. tAp. GoldMt. Alcm .n. Antiquit, II, I. 
t (;a:S:ir lleist
rlJ4ch IIIu3l. M.r, Lib. xi. 5, 



Guibl'rt <If' Kogprt, afler describing wllat he terms the cruel love of his pe,la- 
goguP, to WI1O:-oC private tuition he had b
t n committt..,1 in hi=" boyhood, oh:,crves 
H that it was irrational not t.) allow him time to play, "ccall
e the pUl rile, alld in- 
deell the nature of grown men," he 
a)"s, "is bt.yonù measure distclldt'd by the 
a:òsidllity uf me litation, it is Wt'akpllcJ, alltl rellderell Il'thargic. In pruportion 
as the acumcn of tile minll killdl("
 to pcr8
Vl'r;1IIt'e ill study, doe., it on the othcr 
hand ('1)01 from its :-õtrellgth heill
 too mu..h exh:m4t'ù, ami (l'om ex('c"s of rigol' 
it becomes ùrlll. Thf'rcfi,re it is nl'(,l'..;
aI'Y t
H' the illtelligl'ncl', while t' 
with the weight of the body to he more templ'ratpl.,' excr('iscd: fiu' even in 
heavcn thpre is one hùur'
 silence, fft)m the impo:-obibility of eXI'l"ci:5illg the gift of 
contemplation without illtenni
sion. l\Iuch mo1'C arc mortallllincl:ò in('apa\'le of 
eX('t':,,,,ive labor. God ha... not m:Hlc natUre uniform, hut ha... ddiglatl'd u.. with 
variety, and the Illlltatiull:-; of day and night, ..pring and summer, autumn allt! 
winter. Let everyone tlwrefore whu has the name of ma..ter, take hee(l, and let 
him Illoderate the discipline of boys and youth
, because we ought not to treat 
them 3S if therc were in them the plenary gravity of 0111 meu. 1\Iy ma4C(' pun- 
hed me f<H' not knowing what he dilillot know him:,
lf, Lut it \\'a,; too had to 
expect from a fm
ile little orea:òt what he had never gi\'en to it. And nothing 
is more difficult, than to give instruction to others wLen one's own idea
 are not 
clear. All this I :-oay, my God, IIot that I wouM injure such a friend, but in or- 
del' that e\"ery onc who reads may UlHlC'l"Sbn 1 that we should never teach for cer- 
tain any thing that we m1Y fau('y, nOlO involve others ill the cJouù:-; of our own 
conjpctlll"es.' ,* 
'Vith:n lIlollastt'ries :òlll'I. was not the di:oòciplille; for" we finl) mCll looking back 
to them with 100ye, a., to th
 play-place of their early days. Colemanll says, that 
he had heart! IIemming, the snb-priOl' uf PeterbOl'Ollgh, dt'scribe theju\'euile Spell t:oó 
of St. "Tulstan, and how he lIsed to play on the IUpa(low:-; with othel' boys, allu 
that, at a time when he \Va..; a minor of :-:;aintly YOlUh,t The Pré aux (,Iercs w:ts 
an impoI'tant :-:pot k> the 
tl1dl'nts of the ahbey of St. Gerrnain-tles-Près at Pari=,,: 
so wa
 the river or the puol to tbo:òe of other Illona...:teries; for sOIne of them, like 
Beowulf him
elf. WOUll) not baV{
 feared tu :-:truggle with a fancied foe Iwneath the 
. The ahuot OJeri
ill3 el'ected a bath in the abhey of :\Ionte-Ca

ino in 
the tenth celltur)'.+ Baths also were in the 11101Ia...tery of S1. Benediet at Capua. 
The rllle permitted eVl'1l the monks them..;eh"e
 to bathe; which custom St. Dun- 
S an and Lancfranc 
 In the annals of Corby, at the date of 12t34, we 
I't"8.d that the junior brt'thrt'n lISPl) to perform a ..;acrt'll comedy of Jo..;pph, ;,,,IJ autI 
promoted, but that thi8 was iJl-interpretcl) by the other superiors of the ordel' ; 
and in a manu:oòcript uf Claustel'-neuburg, tlWI'C i
 melltion of a piOI1
 drama, in 
w1!id1 onr LImPs re:,urrectioll \Va... l'epre..;entro. In lhe monastery of St. Blaise, 

· Gu.tberti Abb, de N()Vl
ento de vi

, Lib C&l). t. 5. t Dissection of thef&xon Chronic
t Chronic, Caaincnsis, Lib. iv, 3, 
 His(, C&SinewÎ6, Præf. 


.M 0 H. Ese A T 11 0 I.. I C I; 0 R, 

in th. Black Forc4, there W3S a hook cont3illing tLf
 play of the three :Magi, in 
\\ hidl dlt' nci
hboring 1I0blp:" such as the COUllt..; of Lupfen and }'l1r:-t .nhcrg us d 
to pt'rfi,rm. Frllm the Ùlcultit's which Pope lIonor-ius II I. yit.ld:-. to \V Illiam, 
bishop of 
Ioùclla, of a h"o h, in." scholars will) 
houltl slrlke 0111 allot her lightl), and 
without raucor, * it is eI,'al' that jtl\'cllilc :--pOl"t... h:ul .111 I easonable scop('. The 
 of play-days in tllP abbe
' of
t. n:llJ, ill tlIP tCllt h ('cntury, were throw- 
ing, running, wrcstling, and having a IlllX'k ti,r}n with ...tUIl ''':. 

.. Hac gall.' 1 lapillent pueri, pbudantq1lc 
His st,ulii
 ad mctas tendant, his prremiß prt.ndant, 
Hos Tlllllos juvenis ch'xtret, mnuus uncia p.LIlC
DOrslL tf'!!at nlulus, solt.t iet u
 clsm darc ludud. 
Ephcòis m
lh hodie sinl qUtl'SU fltt'''l'l)a, 
ill'ILt oculosque vidc'ndo Tt.ftc'clat, 
0, miiti rlonemr, hodic silli t:Llpl1 put4'lur, 
Tu Pater cly
ih, vidcllr' qUÌl'
cerc campi
. " 

Above an, swimming, win(', U1Hllidu
, that i.... 1)1<1)' till af >r dark. 

II 8uppeditant ft:
to tria Gaudia, (Pax Pater esto) 
Fa\., lavacrum, vinum. "t 

811('h were tlwir thn'e jo
's. The \\ ilH> is an :llIlIsioll tl) tile ftllllldation made 
by En,hpIIOt'rt, a \'a";";:l1 of dl(' ahhpy, from his 
Cloc.l.., at Ell... fn.. 
 c.'3(.h of 
the :-.tmlcllt:5 a 
b:-:..: uf \\ infO on'r cla
'. Kill r Conracl 1. awl Bi:-ohllP 
III. ga\'e tlwm cerL,1in da
's of pla
', ami the ocr r...ion of till-' IaU('r being given is 
thus 1'('lat(>(1. ACreI' 
 :--Otllt days at 
I. lIaIl, thp Ahbllt 
alomon, bi...hop 
of COllstalH'(', on the m()rnill
 of hi... dc.'partlll'c, wi-hiug to hid allicu to thefl('hol- 
ars a... he pa..:-;cd by th,> Sdl'lol, opc.'npd the c.bol' and \\'cnt ill. cc 
ow it wa
hi w then as now," say,.. F(.kdl:ll'tl, cc that all 
tr:l1tg-ers ellt('ring !<Ohoulc.1 be m:tde 
pri...oner's till they ransomed tll('m..:plves, So thl' scholars ('ried out that they made 
pri!'oner not the Lonl Abbot ill,leecl, hnt the Bishop: hc willingly suffered them; 
So thc)' plat'P(1 him in the ma..:tpr's ('hair. C ". ell,' !'=:lic.1 he, C bllt if I !"it in the"tJ 
t'at, I \\ ill u...e his amhol'ity.' t B.
o,' sai,1 tlw)'; C 
till a" 0111' 111:18- 
t'r, we will a..;k )'011 to ran:,om your
.If.' Th('n he, as lIe always dt'li!!h((>(1 in the
 of St. Ga)). ri!"oillJ!' up, emhraced and ki
!o't'cl tlwlII :111 onc :111('1' anothf.r. 
'Ym,' said hp, 'if I li\.c I will ralJ
()m my:,elf.' Tlwn {!oi!rg onl, and ('.tIlillg the 

nior:-, before the cloor of the scÌlool..:, he or.lainec.1 that thpncd
)rth thp boys ...hollld 
Lave three f:tJ('('t--sÏ\'P day... of play pvery y('ar, :11)(1 -hotJlc1 ha\'c w' at fc'r clinner 
Ich of them; ulI(l tllt'll he c.I"part('(l." Ifp flollri-hl'cl IlIIch>r tile Emp('ror 
Lewis, :lnd 8..'\W five kinLrs, who wl'l'e all IIi..; frit'n,1s. Ulld,'r him tlwl"e were 
fifty-two pl'iests in the ahb..'y, tWt'nt)'-fourcl('a('fln..:. fifteen :-otJh-tleacon<:, unll twpnty 
b..))'s.t The walkS of thp 
tudents were anotht'T rC<'reation. In the ('idlth 

· Itslis Sacra. i. 1ge t V&Catlon Song of 
oKer LAbeo In Lffi. 
 d.' T. 
t Eckebartl de C&
ibus S. GaUi, c,l. 

.\ lì E 
 () F F.\ 1 T U. 


celltury, thc aLbl'Y of Rei(.helJall ha\"iJlg a l't.1I alul :-('hool ill 01*'1' DollillgclI, amI 
)leillrad olJe of th... monks ht.illg I';Cllt 10 pn.side O\'t'r it hy tilt' ahbot, we I'('d(ll hat 
the walk.; which Ihi:o: pr"fe...:o.ol' ll
l'tll" tak,. witlt lIis :-('holar., 1111 the IIthel' 
ho"(> of 
the lake and ill 111" cl('('p ti're...t uf E11'Iwal(l, in...pil't.d Ilirn wilb all"h a I'I\'{' Ct,!", 
, that at Il'ngti, ht' 1<'ft hi
 uf1i,'c' of h.adu'I', mill h('('anw a Iwrrnit ill that 
\\'OU(I.* Su('h \\'I'rt' in gem.ral tlu' trallquil ..('('rc'ati'lll'" of tilt. pa('ifi(, h""
Th.' rel1l0l'::,C inspil"l.d It}' ac(,id('1l18 :H'i
in!! froUl 1"""gÌlt'r !-ipOI"IS, in,li('au':o' with 
wh:.t e)'CS they wcre rl'ganled. 
I('illhc'l' the &'cuml ahb..t of 
[ollte St-r('I1O, in 
1137, Lad a hrother, \\
iclUanll, who was pr"Sl'IH ar a certain juvellile pIa., \\'11
onc ouy was killed. .\s a pl'nalJCe, he i1l1ll1e(liat -Iy re:,,)h'pd to ll'ave thp worI,' 
a.nd follow his bruthcI'; but he wou],) ne\"er consent to risc hi
hel' than suh... 
,Il'at'on. t 
\Ve havt' befiH'e he
lI"\l that it was in the 1l1OIIasti(' schools that kin!!'s suns had 
gem'ralh' recein.J their educatioll, proclil à strepitll offelldi,'uli"(ltle allli('ls, as the 
01(1 writers 
ay. Here in effed \\e find them aloll!! with tho...e of tb" humblest 
8l1bject8; alld ind,'ed it wa..; a lIoble and kiug-I)' cllhurl', \\ hi('h imparted Iht> ...ell
of dutie..., which (lried Bot np the heart, nf'ither rt'D,Iert.d tlw hody ill('ompetellt 
Ii)r <,xel'cise, 1101' th" mind f.,r the meditation of mural truth.... From tht' time of 
Charlemagne the SOliS of the Frellt'h killg"i were al way
 brought up in monaster- 
, and generally at 81. Deni:::" whf're thl'Y recievecl a Chri..taill 
lu('atiou, umI 
were trained to a malll)' allll pilHl
 ,liscipline, D:agobel't, ;:,011 of tile kin
 of AU8- 
tmsia, were cducated in a mon:l....te'k.y of [rc.lallll, antI after a :<-t'clllsioll of lIIallY' 
,years th.'rt', beiug recalle,I t () Ir is oWII ('ouutry, he beea 111P snvel'eigu of all Aus- 
tra8ia a:; the :-õecond D:lgube,-t. LOllis ''''11. says oflril1l
elf in a cerlain charter, 
" we pas....ctl tilt> time of our buy hood in the cluister uf the church, as if in a cer- 
tain materlla) bosom."! 
In the thirteenth ('elltury tÌle emperor Philip, from ha\"ing l'E'{'ei\Oecl hi... et1ura- 
tiun in all abhey, was !'ai,I to ha,'e retainc,I ever afterw
mls a great fimd lIe
8 fi)r 
the sacr&I offices. I. He lovt'tl to ahi...t at them, awl in the hou:-(' of tile Lord, 
hefore whom is no rl'speet of person
, he u:;ed to appear with so Jittle regard to 
his dignity, that he used to suffel' the pOf)re
t prie.,t ur 
cholar to rep",'at the rp...- 
pOIl:-,es at his !'ide, as if hp were only his feIlow-:o:ehular'." Th is t'lllpt'J'ol' e'Xcd I(>d 
all Illl'n of his age ill chivall'ou", (It'ell
 ant) rellowll.
 The chrunicle of 
t. Hi('hal'ju
, "t!tat ill thi5 1ll0lla4l'ry duk(.s, C()l1I1t
, :;UIlS of duke:;, and ",Oil" of cOllnts, 
amI .::;on
 of kil1g
, were educatel) : whatever was mu:::,t 
uhlim(' in dignit
. in tlae 
king-dum of the Franc:o; rt'juic('tl in ha\'in
 a rebtion in the mf)nU
lel'Y of 8tr 
Richarius. )IaIlY of our abhots wen> COllllt.., ",hillill
 in nohility of hirth 
!'trict ob
el'vel's of the sacred fillp. "11 So it was c\"eJ'Y Wllere, The youllg COllnt 
Elzcar de Sabrall was edu('ated widl the I))onks of the abbey of 
Iarseilles: COr 

* Berno Au
iens. in Vit, S. 
Ieinrad. 11. 
t Chronic. )[ontis Sereni np. 'h'nckenii Script. Her. Ger. 11. 
 Ap. Script, Fr. Xl), 90... 

 H urtt'r Ge
ch. Inn: ii i. I I. !}.t. I Lib. iii. c. 


)1 0 I: E 
 CAT II 0 (. I (' I: 0 I:. 

&uo tip 
It',li('i", tllc t:ltllt'r flf Ili
 C'IIlIlItry, in the ('amalùult'''l' COllvellt of thf' 311- 
gt'Js :It Flort'JH'(', TIlt' hook
 of till' nllll<llt. agt's ,'ontaill mall)' iu('i,IPlltal ((.:-ti- 
IIlOlIit's tll tht' ('lIara<,h'r of tll(, ::-tll,!t'llt.. ill tlu' mllllas1Ïc Scllooli, ()f St. B,'rll- 
"an), rhirtH>llth hi,ltop uf ITtI,h'.slwinl, rh(. oltl wl'itpr' of hi, lift., Tall
lIla.., S:I
,. \\1"'11 a 
'''"tI. in the ..;,.hool:o', !ai, g{'nill
 alltl viI tile \\erc :ltlmirnhl,.. \\lu'n I 
u..ed to lakt. hilll with IIIP on :-;.t :o'onw "PI'\'i(.(' \\"itllOlil tilt' mOllü..t('I'Y, I 1I
'(1 tu he 
htnlt'k mUl't' thall p\'er \\ ilh Ius C':\tl':lol't1ill:lry (1'1:liitit..., \\"hidl :It otlu'r timt.:-, wl.t'n 
11l' \\"a:o' ill tl... rnitl..t of th<, olh,'I' YOlllh:.;, 1 (',,"1,1 nll( :-,d l':L...ily l,
timate. Oftt'll 
for thp whole day we stlidiCl1 011 llOr
ll'k, at Ollf' nmp reading a no Je pi olix 
on thall if \\ . Wt.'I'e at ll'Ï.,lIre ill th> hI'houl.., at :motht>r po(.tizing 1Jn(1 makin
\'t'r..p:.; by tIlt' way; thell (l,,
 10 IH'"
I'0Il1111, Wt' l1!'f't'l to :lr
lIe on (plt.
tiolls of philosoph)'. 1ft> t'X"t'I1f'Clnrt Ie..' III till' lIu,<,lumieal :lI'ts tllall in allliht'l'al 
6Ciell('('. lIt, \\"fott, hl':llItiflllly, hp paiutPtl well, lit' ""lIll'tm'td, and ('OIl:-\tl"ll('t.'(1 
builtlillg..,"* P .tpr of BI"i:). ""I'i ti 11(1' 10 rhl' auhot of Glone'I', :oay
, " Y 011 a..J.. 
mt' \\'hl'ther I kill'\\' thi::, nèW hish..p of Pari.., aI1tl what I think of hi:o. life :IIIlI 
rnRllltt'r:o'. It i... 0:' ('lIrio..jty to illqllll"f' tllll"; hut r kllow tLat tl". 10\'(' to )"(1111' 
onl II 'llry of Itlt":)..t'(l mf'lItllry, the btt' hi
lwp of \ror(,l"1'Ih'r, oillig'
 you to in- 
quirp of liS. kllt'w him 'du'll Iu' W:t;o, ahoy, :md r tft'\'olltly 10\"('(1 him a
little ..cholar. Pet'r tip Y' ernll. his ma
t{>r, lI.....oc( otten to 1t.1I m
 with what :011- 
li(,itlu 1(' and dp\"ot iOIl II<' 11:0.1 a :">t"'I'C( h' tit p"{prl.i ..... 11 i..: h..y i..h 
 ill \\ ort.::-- of 
r i,>ty. \.. a youth h.. walke.1 in ..;:uw1Ífimtillll am) h..llor, III 1a1t'I' life II(' tli:-o- 
,..r..r.d ullhi:-: 1'I'lIpf'I't
- ill ElIgI:uHI :m,1 gav,> to t1t(' 1)llor, impo\-erishillg him
t) Pltrich tltree illdll..tnoll" ..cltoIars. lIt, is uow tr:tll..plantctl, that hi" I,
ht ma)' 

hille 10 all men. Ilè i... nt a...
' rclat,.ù h)' 111ù..d to the king" of Eltgl:1lltl a lit I 
Fmll("(', hut the humility of hi:.; mill(1 l':\('f't',l
 the nobility of hi.. orig-ill."t 
('a.':-,al' of IIt'i"lerltat'h n.Iat'.... a \'i:o'ioll, tlis('lo..iu
 tit(' :--allt.tit
, of a 
'holar, "III 
HIIIIll," lit' 
ay.., h wa... a c.'CI'Iarn rt'CIuSt>. who one night pt.ft'ei\'t><1 
,..dl:t light 
throng-h tit. C'hillk of hl'r l....I1, that ..he rhought it \\a... ,lay. ()p('nill
 her \\ in- 
<10\\, w hi('h looked O\'PI" the C('lIlct..ry, 
he 8:.1\\ m'l'l' tll(' 
ra\'t' of a ,,('holar, who 
laa,ll)t'(>u l:Lrt'I
' Iml"it"tl. a "OIH:m stlTI'lIlIu,1l"I with a hIa?p of 1!'10I'
', which \\":1'" 
tilt' ('all..f' of tht' li,.lu. 
1lf' tÌlol/
ht sial' lH'arll a \'oiet> 
 that. it wa
motlll'r of Chri
L ('ome to takl' away tIl<' marty.' ; fi)r tl"uly 
cholaI'8t if tht'
' li\"e 
.inllut'f'IIt1y, alu1lt'arn with zeal, arc lOal"t.\-,-s:9t 
In rhe thi,,1 hook wf.lIa\'e f,ten the ('3.11""..... \\hi(,h It'd tll tilt' "..tahli..llltlt,Jlt of 
tht' lIuin'I':.;itit,.., to w!ai,'h tll(' sliperiors of mOllla..tip ,.chollh, :-'0 IIllwiliindy !'f'llt 
tllt'ir :-òtlltlt'nts, It \\"a:-. ill1lltl"';:o'ih1e, howt'\' 'r, to n.:"\i..t tht' Uf'W attr:l('tion. 
o rim. 
Stl'phclI Laxill
10n,:l1I EIIU.1i:.!'1I11:ln of :mgt'lit' lift" tile llill,.tt'f'lIth ahhut of {']air- 
vaux, ere<'ted, in 1
10, thl' ('ollt'gf> uf till' n,'rll:lTtliIlP", at Pari..., fHl' tilt' "'lUdellt:-- 
of that ahhey,
 Thp Ilbl>ù
 had hOIlSC-..; for thcil" I"l'''p('(,tin. stUt1Cllt.... ill .Iiffi'l"l'ut 

· Vita Ikrnwardi. Ep. Ilildec,h. up. Leihnitz 
cript. nrun..v. i1Iu
f. tom. i. 
.,. Pt.!. nll'
. "
f. nx,i. f xii. 411. 
 SUli!. .\h, Or,1. rist. 

\ G E:..; () F F \ I T II. 


univf\r:sitips. Those of Trotla..;t, of :\Iotlllt :-;t. 
IicLat.l, of OauDl', D;lrÙt'De, llal'- 
 ,1 )aval, De :"bvig-II)', J)p 
IoJl(laYt., l)t 
t. Barhe, anti Df' 1l..1,f' Estllillp, ha(1 
ho,rds fclr thpil' pupil-, in till' ulli\'er:-;ity of Cal'", 311(1 all thl'
I' ahhols IIsl"ll to a:"i- 

i:öt at thc op('lIillg of tht! -,('h1Iol..., whi('h was a \'l'ry honorable thing to :OPt', add..; 
Dc Bourgut'villl"* 
\Ve ucfi)re rcmarkpd the cxtraol'dinalT privilt:>gt:'s granted with a view to draw 
:-;c\aolars to th{'
e a('a,lel1li{'
fany who had as..;i'.;(Ptl to dp-;troy the institution... 
of tlw midtlle age,-the houses of the templar:-; and of the lepers, coming to ha\"e 
<louLts a-; their own mission, fotln(It.(1 cuHege
 fill' the poor ;-littlc poplllal' I:;tates, 
as it were, in the heart of Paris, whieh w(,l'e multiplied in a few )'pars. Xcvcr- 
. thc--e only seemed to gi\'e oecasion to the monastie 
tudent for following the 
lInph' of SI. Bt'npdi('t, who, when a youth, (.hoS(' to fort'go all Ilu :1lhalltagc of 
attelldallce at thl' puhlic scholll..;, to bp "ðcÏClltel' ne..;cipn..; 
t saplelltel' illlloctm
rather than suny the purity of" is öonl by remailling to witness the disordered 
lift., of the swdcnt. 
'V'hen the 1tloJla.<;tery of Clairvanx, in ('arly times, fir::;:t in
tituted a house fin' 
:-,tlull'nt..; at Paris, tht' ahbot ::;ent to tli(> de\'out Arllulph, :Ibhot of Y'illier:ö, to ask 
his as..,istallce; hnt the latter was astoni:,hell at thi, 110 \'f:'lty , 
ays the chronicle, 
t, fill' he kllew that the onlel' had Leen founded ill thc Hpil'it of 
('eat simplicity, 
amI that it had continll{'d to his time to evince the utmost humility and !-'anetity, 
aUtI it ..;pemcd btrange that monks should IIOW forego the doi,..tral ex"rei
e, and 
gi,'e tl.eruselves to the study of It:>ttel's. He con
idel'et1 the wor(ls of the apo:--- 
tIp, '
cielltia illfbr.' t)u "e retl1l'ne(1 answer that "e would give nothillg; whi('h 
the abhot of Clairvaux took ill. FIIIII1'P 
cll('ratiolls," at1t1
 the chronidl', t. will 
judge whether the man of God di:;cerlled the truth, and whcthpl' tlw 
ame humil- 
ity will continue in religious houses 3ð in time
 before the ordination of such 
Exp' ricllcc too soon ju:-;tified these fiH'eb()dillg
. The universities proved a 
:o'nare which elltau
le(l and eaptured lUallY, That of Xaples, fount1
d by Fred- 
('ri" r L, out of spit.. to ß,,}ogna, IH"o(llu'"d fI'uitoj worthy (If it..: allthor, e\'en ",hj]e 
Ulvn of gn-at nwrit, 
uch a-; Peter of I ('eland, the ma:-;ter IIf St. Thoma:-:, tau
philos"phy in it. 0 how y"ung Thoma..., while 
tuclying nndel' him, regretted 
wcct llays that he had pa,..sed at '[lInnt-C:I
The univl'I'sitil'::-; cClutl"Ìbuted tf) en-at" a c1a:,sic,ll mania ill ('crtaill citie:;, and 3S 
an ingl.nious author :-;ay:oõ, " borh in arts awl leltcl's to ha..;tcn thp l'E'sllnection of 
 Tht> uniYt>rsitic, OpPf)'f,d eYer
' thing that hroke the :-;pil'itle'
 un i- 
t)f'rnity :ll'i",ing from tltp notic)(,..; of c'cntralization. r n the <{narl't,1 of the l'mpirc 
wir-h rlw (,hul'('h, t}wy alm",t alwa
'...; tllok the sid{' IIf thl' temporal power, whieh 
hall It101'e f'"dllctive pre...;ents than tilt' popl'ttom.1I They were often ho:,tile to he- 

* Lps Hecberches de Normandie. 
t Hi"t. :\{nn:L'It. Vtllnriensi5:. i. c. 8, np. 'Inrtf'ne, Thes. Anecdot, iii. 
f Tournn, Vie de :;t, TUom. 9 Hio de )' .\.rt. l'IJfétiell, 44:). I .\l1din, Vie de Luther, i. 40, 


:\1 () n F =" CAT II () 1. I C I; 0 H, 

roic \'irtue, of Pari., <lft'ill,...l a
t Ih.. mait! uf Orll'311:i. The}' w
dc...;tilll'l) to illlu.rit Iht, h at tmh. of ,\ hich wt' arc )'t.t to treat. .\., tht' agcnts of 
II,.nry '''I I I. d,,,c'u\"I'I,('(1 tlley c'uult! l
 buught UV
r {.,r a L'f'rtaill ..11m to IÞ{'tray 
jll..tic.t', thollgl. I ht'Y might afterw:ml
 tlll'lI rolllwi anti for greater t'a.'it' Iwtra o " the" Tilt. Ulli\'CI'..ity uf Paris wa.. dc'ad hl'fort. tl.l' revolutiullo Aft('r H"l- 
lin, it pr cM luc'f'(lllo Illall of t'millt'IH'c. The hislwp.. dill 1I0t <,ontid. tht,ir f'cllOlai S 
(ù it, but kt't't tlwm in their ..t>lllinarie:,. They fuund aftl'r all that tl. . monks had 
1)('('11 right at fir-I. 
Philip, aIÞhol of Gondhope, in au!;wer to a ('('rtaill .JoI1ll, tl)f'IIH'rly a disciple of 
AII=-'t,lm, ,\ho :Iftel' heeumillg a mOllk "t..'CIHf'cl to I't'gr..t tilt' timt' of his !-tlHlif-''' ill 
ays, " Blt....S(.'t1 i.. the mall, nut who hath IU'anl .\Ia-tcr 
\ lI
t,lm 0)' \\"1.0 
hath ::5tudi
1 at Pari
, bllt "horn thou, U Lord, Joth tt
('h thy 1:1\\."* ,. '\'e 
('all l)I.ithpl' ('omll'mn ncw appro\"t
 of your \\ i...h to :--tlllly at Bolo'!na," :-a,'"S Pope 
Clenll'nt I Y., \\ riting to a ('Ierk mUIll..) Ib
'lIlOnd tit' En
:-o"li..., u f.'I' tlJ(' name 
of sUit 1)'," Ir
 eOlltilllU''', ,. takt'll prupt>r1,\', s, ('111, 
II f
tir that it ...o"tlU':o; tilt' ('an.. of 
311 \\ ho hl'ar it, tH whom it pn.'sl'lIt..; t'ither ;l Id\'er of ..;truly, or oltt' tlldioll only 
in n Imt', altlH)lI
h of tell onc thing i., :U'led alHI anorIwl' pret(,IIJt't.)."t " Th
\\a... a certain )"onth =It Daventium," rhom:I
 (If Kelllpi.., h I'lIr.ning- Ilia 

truli('.. as a 8<.llolar, arul'OIUf.rimt.... lIt' IIS''ll to he in\,iletl :I1HI t.'mptf'tl hy om,..

t>lIt . to rt'lIlov
 to Pal'is. but 1,,\. tIlt, mh'ic't. of tle\'tlut pel"fooon!o\ Ill' c1
posillg himb<'lf to 
Ucll fJln
l'rs, )It.umdlilt" it !.appl'lIt.t! that t\\ 0 of hi.. fi.llow 
:-tudellt..;, who hatl gone frllm that schullilo :-tuJ,\ at P..ris, aftt'r a short timc dild 
then', hoth 011 tl1t' 
:lme cIa,o. Th :;aicl ,,'uutll, IlP:trin
 of thi"" waS ctnlck \\ ith 
tilt' ulIl't.rtain 
oocI attellt1ill
tic things, ancl irulu" to ht'Come a cli..(.iplc 
of Christ am\lll)! nH)lIks."
")Ii-eric'onlia- Pt'mini in æt..rllUm ('.;ulIabo," uftt>r c'iting whil'h WOld:, a S;l
on monk exclaim-, ., U Lonl m
o (joel, Ill)' Creatul' :lIul H,l'tIt"'mcr, what ltIt'
hast thou Alum n me from thp l){'gillninc- of my lift. to thi.. cb)'. Sot an 1.0111' 01' 
mOIllC'1It h:!.. pa-:-e,l in whic,lt thou ha.t ItOt IIHlIt iplipcl up"n me th)' IIIt>l'ci('
, fiu' 
thou llicl
t prt's{'I'\'e m)' illf:m('yaml )'ollth, :I lid 
i\'p 1Ile' 
nC't'-" ill Ihe St'h(
that in m)' t>ight{'t'nt h yt'ar I \, a.. plat't'tl 0\,('1' 
i:x t
. or (.i;.dlty :-; '}lOlar:õ to c'xam ir'!t' 
them in Crf>el,.. Tilt n \\ hell m
' part'lIt.., Platt' with :mdl a rt'plttat 011 in Pal ;:-., 
\\ i
lH'd me to 1'f-'IIIO'OP tn E.-furtl! fc)r un,\'cl'sity :-orlldip.., thou ùid..t iUfo'pirl' me 
\\ ith h('ltl'l' n'slIlnti"Il
; for thell I hpg-all to think :111(1 :-;''l
'. If II"W I \\ fOr e to he 
a (In('tor, :1Iul ('\'l"I')' (lay to IIt'ar thp -alntation. Domine D()(,lm', :m'} if afÌPI tI.i:t 
life T slrolllcl ()"'{,('l1cl to t'wl'nal flamf':O;, w!tat wo11l1 all my philo..opllY :lml1earn- 
illg :lvail? :'q thp \\lIrtlR t'u'lclt/ik :Imi omm.erl1U'r 111:1(1.. 111(' df'I(,l'Iuinc> tu fOTS3kp 
th wodd ancl ilð dt.lig-Ilt
o TlJel'('
)rc tilt' mf'rt'i,.s of G()(I I wiil for ever !-ing-, 
who inspirf-'(I me with thc g'OOtt will to Plltel' till" holy rdt'I'." 

· Epist. vii. ap. Buhcu... Hisi. Lnivers, Par, tom. ii. t Ap. BRIU!
, 'Ii 11ao, tom, iff 
t Thurn. d Kt'rnp. D,',lflf,r. Xoviliururn. 
t; Johan. BuscLlli LihC'r Hefollnatinnis 
['r. :"':L\.tluiæ, c. i. ap. I elhllitz. 
cript. 13nmsv, t. 

 0 F F A I T H. 


Tht. mOlla
ric students did not pant :.tfter th
 watef:-i of th(' univt'f:.;it)" with the 
ardor whi('h impelled the t;a
on iunovator to I'l'pair to Erfurth alld \ri(tl'nl)t'r
\..ruulph II., tht> nill('Teenth abbot of Villi..(':,,>, ill tht> t'igllih l'pntury, wa' 
a youth, IIC did not wi:-h to Lc 8"nt t, Pal'is to ..tllcJy," 
}"-; tile chrolli('lc of that 
abbey, " rather desirillg to be etlifipil in I'Ia
n'it.\. th:111 to be inA:uecJ \\ itl. :-'f'it'IICP, imi- 
 the example of t;t. I3l"lle(lict, who dp\'otc() him..elf wholly to reli},:'iou, 0- 
mittin!! the ::;chool:-i. NevertlH'I('...;:õ, at that timc the !Utlll3stl.ry had many :-IIIÙt'lIt.. 
at Paris,". \Y ritillg to olle of his clt'rks, PptrllS Celh'lIsi..: ..ays, t. )'0111' pla('e of 
t'xile is suffi('iclltly replete with jop;, howevt.r vaill. 'VllO hes:dt.s 
would not ":-itl'cm Paris a place of delight, a gardell of plant..:, a land of fi..
t fl'llits ? 
Xeverlhples...;, in lallghing you have bpokell the truth; f.II' where tllt're :Ire 
er pleasure..; fur the b I(Iv, tllPre i8 the place of hallishrllcllt for the soul. 'Ubi 

or et ampliol' \'olnpta..: rorp"rulJI, ibi rerulJI pxilium animaru:n ; et uhi regnat 
Juxllria, ibi mi,..erabilitel' au<'ilbtnr pt affiigitm' 
lUillra.' 0 Pari..., what a fit I'JaL'C 
art tho II fOl' taking (':lptÏ\'C aud de(.
iving :;oul.;! In thee are pla('ed thl-' lIet.. of 
vil'e, amI the snares of evil, :1Il(1 tht' arruws of death, whi(,1t pierce the h. al'1S of 
the foulish. 1:;0 thinks my Juhn, all() t!acrt>fi)re he name..: it an exile, .:\lay yon 
always e:,teem it a-; all exile, and hastplI to your true country. Therc 'you will 
find fact> to f:1Ce ill the OO(lk of life lIot fig-llI'C$ and elelllt'nts, but divillity :tn() 
truth ibt'lf, without the labor' of rt.a,ling 'II' the wt'arint's... of sepin
, witlJllut dan- 
ger of mistake or error in under,..talldillg, without the care I)f retaining" 01' th.. fi'ar 
ot' forget1Ïn
. 0 happy ...('hool, whet'p Chri4 wi1l teach our hearts by the wonl 
of hi... p"wer; whpre we sh:dl Iparll, with"lIt :õtlltly :1Il1 rt'adin
, in what IIlanu('r 
WI' Illay be ahle tl) live etcmal1y happy! fh're dip book is not pUI'<'ha,ed; the 
)la..rel' of tht' wl'irill
s i:-, lIot pai(L There i... 110 ('ir('ulUvention of disputatiolls, 
))() illtricatinll of sdphislU:-;, but a cl..aJ' determination of all questions, and a full 
apprehplIsioll of a)} rea...ons amI ar!!umcllt:-;. There lite a\'ail
 JlJor.' tha.n rf'a(1illg, 
:--implicity more than ability. There 110 Olle is t't>futed, t'x('eprin
 thosp who are 
(,'\:('111<11'<1: but with olle word of filial ju<l
mellt, Ite and ,..,.. enite, all objpctiolls 
alld llllt':õtioIlS are dpcide\) fOl' ever'. I wi,.;h that the sons of m{'11 would apply 
tilelJl:o;el \"t'b to tlif'SC bettel' :.;tud ies, rar her than to vain and pernicious d is<'o\1I"
(\.rtainly tht'Y would fiud a more :lbundant retul'II of fruit, and a gl'eater and more 
a \'ail i II go hOllor."t 
Bllt it is tin1l' that we pa"d :-til1 more into the intprioJ" of the abhey, all(I inquire 
rp:o:pe('tillg' the !"lIlp..: :Ill,l CU:o;tOIll:" of the house of peace. 

* _Hisl. Xou, Villar, c. xl. 

t Epist, Lib, tv, 10, 


:\1 U H. 
:s CAT Ii U LIe 1 j U H, 


_ FTER de5Cribill
 in minut' Jl'tail thc miS{>rie.s that marked a courtier':i 
.4, life whl'lI 1Il'lIr)' the N>('onù \\as tht' EII
li..h king, Peter of Blois CQIl- 
-.a dutl"b, :o;ußlming .111 np, hy :o:a)'iJlg that U in tll(' ('om t tllf'l'c i... 110 01'- 
- dcl'."* l\'rhap:-, (H' eould nol filld a IUUfl' eXIH'I'
-;i\'e tt'l'lIl to" marking 
1.ji the eont.....! II,,,,..,,,.,, the ..."".ful life ill cluj.h-.., ,uu] lloal of uti..... III...., 
than by u,inJ! tilt' ('oßvcr.,e of this ",>nu>u('e, allil sa}'in
 that in rill' 1II0U- 
IPr)' th..r,> wa..; ol'dl'l'. 111IJ!0 of St. Victor, illlll't'tl, ..uppo",':'\ onler in the ('onl"t ; 
hut hi..; ,li8tindioll'" lIIakt.' th,. "Olltl'a:-,t 110 Il':-''' !-trikill
, "Fanlitlc1"l>IIt;' he 
" is the ordel' of the cllli-ter 1'1'11111 tlaat of till' ('ourt: th('r
 you -it ill ('oUlicil with 
the rich in st.'Cret to :--lay th.
 illllt)('l'nt. ht'n> )'OU · XliII . '(Ii CUIIl cOßbilio 
\'.mitati", l't ('urn illlpii
 JIlin 'el( 1.0.' Th"'Il' your ri!!ht hallù i.. filII of 
ifh; hl're 
Y'IU \\':I:--h your hal1(l
 with tl)l' iIllH)('t'nt. rlll'l'l' tilt' pllllr arc rohl)('(l; hl're to tIll. 
1'001' frre ot1t'rillg:o; are iliad". Thert' thl> "illne'I' i..; praiSl"t1 in th(' dl,..ire:i of his 
-Oil] ; here rhp jll!-'t lIlall i.. bJ(>-:--l'(I."t P..rlmp.. u!!:lin W(' ('ould not hettt'r por- 
tr:I)' tht' ('h
rfnl Ji\,,'rsity incident to thc cloistral ol'eler thall by ('ollfronting it \\ ith 
tl"ikillg picture of itb e,,{
H't oppll
it(>, whieh Tipk proclll('t'" a:o; &Ill' \'i..ion ot a 
,. " III tht' nlllllt'roll" \'a..t haiL", 
W:lJ'Ill- of 1111'11," I... sa.
'S, cc WPI"> sit- 
. 01' \\ulkillg ahout, all ill th,' ..allll' ..tate of (ll'plorahlt> wot.', 6\ III I 
no \.aril't
" 110 (I i \'i..ioll of t i IllP, 110 hOIl r, 110 (lay 01' night ('1t
ed I his I11plallchol y 
IIt'...... OIlP :-olitar). al11u . 'mcllt wa.. there. 'O\\' awl the II 
 Imp (1)(' 
1 the otl.el"" oftlwir fOl'mcr faith: h()wdllrill
hurt tißW the)' hac) tf'arel 
alld wor
hipp,.d Gild, TIH'n a 101l() hUl":o;t of lau!:htpr, as at It mo..t purtt'litous 
ah:--uJ'tlity, pt'alpcl throu
h the hall. Aflt'rwaI'11
 tilt')' all 
rt.,\, gl"'.l\'t', :IßII "ollie 
:-otl'o\.p \\ ith all Illeir ':t('ultil'" to ('all h:lek the 1"t'\'erl'IlCe alii I -an(,tity uf tllt
ir fiJl'- 
IIlt'r tl't,lillgs, hilt ill \.aill," I n the mOlla..tery thp full' wa., \'al'iet
. ill IIl1if.lrmitr, 
all.11 h., ""II
"qllell(,('" \\ 1'1'1' pe.I('(>ful joy, amI hop" that I)('\,PI' \\ itlwrc'(). c, I
oll('(.t." "a".. :---t. B:lsil to a fant.'n \'ir
ill, .C 1'('('0111'(.t tlH' tr3lHplil "a,"!" :tllli tilt' 
illlllllillalt'(llIigltt-, :nul tht, ....piritllal dlaullts, alltl thl'
OIlUl'ol'" p=--alllllld.,', alld tht! 
Iwl y praypl"s."t cc \\llat,.\,cl' is dOli · hy the lIIonl...!<o," 
a,Y:) a gn>at EIIg;1 j"h phi 1- 
opIIPr, "i.. incited hy:m adeqllate moth"p. time is reglllaJ'h' c1ist rihUlt'<1 ; 
om' (III t Y :--IU'('Ppt)" :mllth..r, '"'0 that t!JP.'. :II.... not left opt'n to the e 1 r'"'a(.tioll of IIn- 
gui(lpcl choit'e, nor 10..t in the 
had(:-, of li-tl....... illa(,ti\'ity, Thcre i
 a ('('rtain ta-;k 

.. Pet. DIes. xiv. 

t Hugo dt: 
t Vict. De rlliU
lro .\Oll11æ, Lib. ii. 16, 

t Epist. 45, 

A <.; E:-\ 0 F F \ I T II. 


to he pl'r[UI'lIIl.>t1 al all appropnalcd 1a01i1'; awl dwir toil.. arc ch

rful, beeau..;e 
tht')' ('oll:",idl'r tÌ1em as act-. of piety, by \\ hid. they at.p al way:o. :1.(1 \'alleillg towallb 
('llIlJe.,s fi.,li('it)""* TIIC 110111'''' ill IUlllla"lic lit.., (Jt''':''I'\"ed tlH' ap}wlbtioll 
i\'ell 10 
them hy th . Pythagorean poet, where he :--peal...... of the thrl.'C ::,i:,tPI'''', " (joO(I-lt'gi:;la- 
tioll, J lI
tice, awl Pea('e," wI. i('h Wl't't' alsn ('allcd hn.. rs, frnlll tim. lh'in)! 
tial to the (.xcrci;o;e of their l'l'sJ't.(.[ i\'c flllwtillu:--. t Such were the fruit" of the 111011- 
a...ti(' ruh., orclpr, varit'lY, and pea('(', 
TIlt' 1l10,t ('('
('\'I'ated of tht.' pnmiti\'e rules of tlae oriental monks w
l'e those o! 
:-\t. .\nthon
, .:::)1. 
, t;t. lIilar;on, an(l t;t, Pachomius. III the Ia...t half of 
the t
)\(rth l'eIllUry till' rule IIf:::;1. Risil ga\"e grt'ater t't'glllarity to till) IIIOn:lstitJ 
ill:--titmion, St. AII
lIslin f
)(llul IIHHlkð ill Italy, alltl, in fact, the mlllla
ti(' orlipl' 
pread O\'er the ,,"e,;t. III a work of the fiÙh century we rt'ad, ., fll.....e 
IUt'lI gt'lierally lin
 ill r"'!Ho[C place,.;, eVt-'1I whcll they reside ill cilie,..;. Thein'lIn": 
ver,atioll is without o:o;telltation: dw)' have one place of a"'.':)CI,llbling; they aro 
humbly ('lad; they care nol how vile may be theil' food anù <!rink; they have 
appointed hllur.; for;ng'psa
m8 ;11\(1 hymlls tll Go(1 ; tiley tit....t tin t'\,(,lliug-; t!aet 

ht':;,:tlJ(ldul'ing tlJP ni
h:, tllPrt'arp:",tatt-'d \"ig'il
 all') lillle.;ofpra)'er. 
They II ('vel' mistake dip. :tppl'oa('h of day, but. the first (lawn l'ai:,cs tlU'Ul and maL
IItillal .!E:'V,)tioli is l'
('l'ejs..d III ,)ftl'l'ill
 prai...e to Gocl,"t Tht'l'e wcre, ho\\"e\"e1', 
tllen \'ariou'"", in thc \\'c:;t. Tile Italian lllon1...:s gcnemlly fi)llowe(l the rule 
of ::)t, Basil, bllt ill (lalll c(leh grt'at fl)olla4el'Y ga\"e name to a ('t'rtain clal:>s as 
 the ('u
rom..; of that ('I lief hllu...;e, \Vhidl iu the !-ixdl ('ClUury all lap
intI) tllP hoh- in
titlltt' of St. Bl'IIt,cli('t. To\\"anl:, the <'IU.l of till' fifth (.,.utlll'V' 
, , 
.J.t Xllrcia, a few Ìe Igiil'S t':t:-òt from :5poleto, at the f
)ot of the A,wllnilll's, 
t. B,'II- 
p,lict dIP gn'al was born, the patriarc'h of the W('..;lt'I'n lIIonks. ..At 
u1)ia('o, and 
in twelve othpr mOlla
t('rip,,; built by him, hc IPi'I a certain fì'rID uf Older, 
hilt gave no la\\"s or pr('('<'pt
 to bind tht-'se in union rOllnd 
l ('OmmtHl ('('lItl'C, :1('- 
C'orcling to thl' id,'a whi(.h h:1I1 originated with P:1('hOlnill1'Ò) but whi('h had ht-'cllllle 
 obsoldt') f':1eh IHlllla,tt'ry f.,llo\Vilt
 tlw rille..;. of ilS ()wn ahbllt"
\V\.r(' Ikarly a,.; !Han
' rult,
 thl'l't' wert' cell..; antI m()n:lsre/'i
..;; yet all were ulJitt-'J 
in 1'1';\I'e allll ('har-it.". TIH'rp \\",1'1' supposed to he hut olle ortlel' of monks in lilt-' 
( "h IIl"(.h, Th I'pe ('cm u rip..; ;1f't1'1' t ht-' g-rp:!t ß(>II
.) iet, in tLt-' 
"t'ar 7,) 1, thp 
t:'('OIJ(1 of 
thai name \\'a..", horn, 
t. Bt'nt'di('t of .Ani:l1It' wa..; by l'af'e a Goth; ht-' wa:, hn.,J 
a pa
e in the.' COUI't of P('pill-Ie-Brt'f, lw('alll" a warrior, alltl :-ot:>I'\'l,(1 in lIIany of tire 
('XI""litions of Chadema
lIe. r II 77 -l he l'elloUlH't't1 the world allli Lc(':llIIe a IIIlInk 
in tilt' ahhp)' of 
eille, fmlt) which he p:I
..,e.} afrt-'I'\\ard-; to that of Allianef 
wh('n' lu" hp(':lUll> abhot, III' it w:\..; who ('oll('t.i\"pd III(' pIaIl of I'f'fhll'in.
 tilt' ritt's 
uf ad tlrc (Iit!e/,pnt Jl)ona=--lerit,:o. to Ollt' ('oIllIllOIt !"t:lIl t hu'd, T"i
 !!rt-':lt wurk wa.'i 
1/1l at thc '01<<.'11111 a..;selUhl
' of the ahbots of III" \\"('-;II'rn l''''pin' al Aix-la-CLa.. 

'" J0Ì111son. RI"...,.ls,.. t Oh-mp, xlÌi. 

\lh .1. Z I{',.:t i I't .\polJonii. Lih. iii, co, iii. Ï\, an. f),WIlt'/" :-:'picileg, x- 

 :\lahili. Præl:lt.' ill V. :"o;t'cui. B"I', 


'I () I: F seA T II () 1 I (. , I: 0 I

pclle. TL \\.lr.. an(1 tl'oIlL;l'::i of till' nilllh 'elltlifY I"t
\'in'(), h,)\\cnr, the <'OlIf,l- 
-inn, \\hit'h \\a.. IIlIt tillailr l't>II10\'('() till the ri..c of tiae<-'t'lphrale<l ('ClII
nriClIl of 
('11111)' 111111(" 0110. Tilt, mil' of St, Bl'flt'tlil't IIsl',11n hie' ('alh'll A'(rT' I"!;(J)., ,ii, tiat' 
rill.., tilt. hlll.\' rult" holh h)' cunllcil.. :lIlIl ('hap,('r
, :\fahilloll PIU\"t'S :'g':lill..r :\I:.r- 
C'..;halll, th:lt tht' til..t mOllk..; of ElIgluml t;,IIct\\ thi... I'Illt',* whi,'" 
t. B..llif
intl'c.JlIl'eti illlo U<>rmall)', Kt'ro, a Jllllnk of 
t, (;.111, trall
latillg it 11110 hl' Lal'- 
haron.. i,liom of that pt'ople.t Th
 olle lIalllf' of IIIlInks, thcl"(.fiH'e, IJf

:l1I to he 
ht'tl ill to \'arillll
 Imul('h.,.. at tilt' Pllel of Ih(' lIilltll ('t'ntllr
', ,,1U'n th{' 
:ltioli of Cllln,\', on a,'('uullt of clI
t()m-.; ...up('I'i Illlw.t.el to I hI' rult. of 
t. BI'II- 
t'(lid, ht'g-all to he (':111("(1 tilt' orelt'l' of rlIlIlY, lilt' ('hid' it>atlln'" lwillg tht, 
f iOIl of uther mOlla:--tcrit. to tIlt' abbot of ( '1a1U). III r he dt'Vt ß1 h ('CUI III )" 6l1C- 
cl'PCleJ th(,.(,oll
ng-.1tioll of Camaldoli, t
'1I11I1('(1 L,\' 
t. HllfI1l1altl; that of VaIl,ulI- 
.bl'lI!'\a hy "'t. .Johll Gual1){'rt, that of ('i-tt..,u
t. Huhrrt, 31)(1 IlIallY otl...r.. 
"hidl \\(.rt> :Ill :-ul
t'tt to the I'll It, of Sr. H. Iwdid ; :0." that until diP thirtt't'lltia 
', ami till' ri". ofdlt' :\It'ndiC':1l1t onlt>I':', Ih,.I'(' \\:l
 but ollt'ol'd'>l'ofIllOllk:-o; 
f()r tlltlugh there \\l'f' tht' litll'" of C1\wy, ('
and ()tlll
r.., yet th ..t" \\
all ('onfederat '(I in th ' union of ollt' rull'. 'flat' IraLiG iauJt'cd ,,"..n' (lin
'ft'l1t; tlll' 
iuwit'll t .ll '!U'lliC't i ill'S wl'ari n
 1>1..('1.-:, wlwl1(,c tIlt')' "pl'e ('alll.<l tlw hl'wk monk... ; 
tilt' ('>rl'ians at fir
', and ant'n\ aft1
 whitt-'. 11t'IWt> St. 1
>11l"1'(1, III hi
.\po)og." 10 the 
\hbot \\ïllialll, :-a
's, .c (T1I1I1Il OIdilll'lU pruf.:- 'iunt'lt'nc n , Cl.tCIO" 
('al,itate ;" but tlU'rt' \\fuo slill hut 01lt' "l'nills of the :ml'it.1It lUona.:-tir order, mul Olle 
t,t,t \\ itla th(,llI :III. 
\\lmt nll\\ ,,:t.:, in gpDcrn} the fllll(lanwntal dml':I<,tpl' of nH monastic I'll It:., ? It 
w:,s an :ul:rphitillil tu Ih(' ('II(I or' prn<..'
 a pac.ific.lift' in t'OllllUull for 1I1t'1I, \\ 110M' 

't'ar..; \\ t'n" tn 1M' Spt'llt ill ('Hllh'lIl plat illg UI' ill alillolllll'i IW thei I' 1,('11 igllall ( LOf' I 
 Clu'i..t, t.itllt'l' a.. Iwillg bOI'1I ..1' IHlr.-t'tl, III' : .. tt'al,hiIW, Of fa...tillg-. 01' pre.a,.Ia- 
illg', nr bhorillb, 01' dyill
, or ri:-oing- a!!aill, fir a..c.t'lIain
 to h('a\'en, or ('Olllillg 3!!aill 
10 jllll
m('llt. \\lwn II BplIl.dietillt' lIlollk fi..,..t 
Uh!-'(.fiht>(1 hi.; "1I
ellu'lIt, h.. laicl 
flit' in-tlllllll'lIt nil th'e :lltal', n"lu.atillg, "
II..('ipt'III"', f)..millt', 1-*'('110,111111 pltÞlIUill1ll 
tllnlll, t'f \'Ï\"am ; et non (,0Ilfllll,1a:-. IIIl' ah t').pf'(.tatioIiP lilt a!" Tht'!'c "or,ls hav- 
 hu'n thriC'f' l't'p(.'atl'd hy tIlt' 3
 'm"l,,) hrt.tlll't'n, tilt' npwl)' pl'o( ..I p1"tJ
him:oWlf :It the feet of t,..,h l1Iunk in 1IC<......ion, IIt.
..ccLillJ! him to pray fi)r him. 
ami :18 hc wa<.. rai!'Öttl hy (".1('h lit' "Pt>t..i\"f'tl the ki..... of pf':H'e. "TIlt' rlllf' of St. 
aY:i 'I i(.IIt')t.t, (,olltr:l
 it with that of St. Columh:m whidt 
pt.risl....c I th I"nug-h ib px<<,c'!":,,\ of mysl i('i
1JI J Ie i... a rul... of got" I '11:0:.', a rlllt
 of In- 
I'a\'t. ,md pm('tÎeal." \:"\ tilt' aho\'t
 It'l'lll- of ..uIN'riptilln imli('at... it is a rul
('ollf()rulab!t' t.u tht
 \\ol'tl ufliod. 
illlilall,\' :I!!:,in, ill the I'nlt, nfSt. Fr:mcis th(\I'(> 
 nothin!! hut \\"h:1I i.. pr(',rl'iht"(l in du' hol.,' 
'riptul'(,", as tlH' hit 
..t>d C:t,,,:'I'ilh 
ho\\ ". Th(' "l"raphil' falllt'r only ...:tys, " TIlt' rule :lml life of tlw f..iar.. 
millor ('(III
t... ill ol',,(,I'\"ing tlr.. hili)' n"
pt.1 of our Lon} Je.:-II... Clari
t, )ivill
uht'llit'I1"('. without propt'rt
', :lml ill dl;l

* Pncfal. iu I 
rec, B,'ned. d. 

t Ap. GoltIl&
t. Her .\I('m. ii. 1 

A G r.: 
 U 1,' F A 1 T II. 


llcrnardine, general of the Capuchins, f'a)":;, in his apology to Cardinal Ban
sc\"cri no, .. The I){.rfe(,tion of tll(' -eraph i(' al1(1 c\'angt.1 ic rule coru;i - ts IIl1t III sy I
 or :-:Clltence-, bllt ill :-;pirit ami ill t/,I/th,"* Th(> urdt,l' of the lJarc-t'.,oh'c1 Car
melite.s oifel't.ù, a
 SI. Thel'e:.;a :-aid, " tlal'::)c three Slt.p:,,! tll Cltristiall pt rl'cetioll, pov
en)" in ('0111111011, I"('tn'at frolll the world, awl manllal Jabor." "In cO! rt.(.tiou, 
amI admonition, amI (li:.;(,jpJin.'," 
ay the Prænllln:-trateu
iall staWtks, "an i., to btJ 
done according to du. rulc, , Cl1m dileetioup hOlUinuUl et odio vitiorum.'''t Johll 
...\.n(] r a
a, a mo4 pmillcnt la wycr, \\" Ìlen in Umlle, ('xami uetl the :-tatUIt.s of the Cur- 
tL.u..;ian:-:, alHl then :-:aid, that Jll' hatlllcvt.r I'c
Hl or h('3.t'(1 of all)' drawn up with 
g-r,'atcl' di
cretion, sohrit'l)', hUl1li lit
., or charity t hall t ht'sc; awl soon aftt-I'\\ :ml:-ö 
with hii patrimony he huilt the Carthu..ian lUoll3:::ilery of Uologlla.t "011 elltf'rin
a religious order," says Father Jlltldt', "a lIIan fillds that thè mJe has only <1pn,l- 
opt.d what he had lon
 bel'n accu
tome<1 tu read ill h i
 own heart." Thus "t"- 
fun' the cou-ititutioll:'; of "':;1. Igllatius, St. Fralwi.. Xa\'Ïcl' go\'ernpd in [nJia 
Ilt'arly ill the ...allle mannel' a:-; the holy foullùPI' dill ill Europe. The fil'::5t fathers, 
on rect'iving the cOllstitution:;, (ouml that tllf-')' hall thclllselve:s had the :-arne 
thougbts.9 A moùern Frcneh alllhOl',1I alluding to the reform instituted I.
' St. of Anian
, prot1UCtS ;ooome of the minute al,tidp:; whic'h \\"Pl'C df';ooi
fur the t1olll('stic rt'gu1alÍon of Ulonastel'ie..;, rC8pediug' hahit.. and dit..t, and then 
complains that the...;e art> mi..('rah1e pl'e
.;<,ril'tioll:-Ö, qllitc ft'reigll to a religiou.. senti- 
ment or IHllral i 1I:4itu t iOIl, Ell t lit' :sl wl1lt! Ila\"e oh-(,I'\'l'd, drat r he...f' prec.ppt.. bl'
by cnfort.'illg attt-'Iltillll to tlae origillal ruic.. whi(.I, had f'xtorH-'ll hi:; prai:::it'>, aUt] 
though to a prof, 
-O1' hd
II'c a pr.l/tli;oocllOU
 a"-f'mhly the:õe minute artide:s lIIi
:-ocelli tdRinK, to an)' f-'xpt'ril-'n,'ed :'ill}wl'iol', whll hat1 to g-O\'erl1 a number of Il1(>IJ 
 in onc l'OUSl-', tllf.'Y wOllld }lmh,bly apPf'aJ' a Ill't'(>:,
ary part of the material 
..1('1I1.'lIt of a religious cOII)IIHl11it)'. TIll' pl"l'scril,in
 a p:lrtjeular ùiet for eaeh 
:-e:&..on, the prohihition ofiudiscriminate bleedillg, alii I the }lro,-iding peculiar iu- 
(:'nce., ftll' the si('k (/1' dt.licatf', 01' e'"cn the re
lllatillg the hours 01' opeuing 
and sllUttin
at('..; hy the alt"I'nation of ('ertain month.., fUl'llish wpak grtJulld
Il' the ('()IIdIlRioll rhar rI1t' lIIona
tic illstiturioll had lost its grandplII', :md ha(1 
bet'ome full of p"t,t'i I itie..; and SI,'l'vitllde, 
 -u!Je,'il)l';o; ofr .li.
ilt'l"; 1I00lse..; kn.w pt>de('tJy wpll thl' distinction which this 
hi,.;rllrian St'f'ms to propO
f' a.. th.. J't'slIh of hi,.. own pÌlilo-opla
'. "Ilahetis dilt'c- 
ti-:;imi : }'OU have hl't'p, IH
' ht>loved, accordill
 to YOfll' rl', certain c\l
which we oh:.wrve, in which :Irf' mallY mean :l11c1 IIlilllltl' thillg'
, whi('h pt'ri.ap... 
ought not to be writtl-'II, nlll

.; bl't'
lIIs\' )"OUI' Jo\'e W:1..; rt--:';lIln'c1 to jlltigt' llt)\hing, 
hilt to emhrace whate\'(>r \\a..: IIICpal'l'(I." So -pl'ak,.; Fatlll'r G"i
o, prior of the 
Carllwsian.., at the end of Iii:.; "Cllstoms," about f"rty-ftlllr Yt'at'.. after the fcmn- 
òation of the ol'cll'l' hy St. ßrullo, Inl](>('d, the f;'urth ('hapter of the first hook 0(' 

· Annates Capucinorum. '\II an, l,')al;' 

utf)rus, Of' YÍlnl'lLrlhusiaua, ii. Iii. 3. 
-; Ann:11e,; I)nl. l'arthll-ieusi... Lib, i. c. 

t Statllta Orcl. Præmnn. c. vi. 

 ffiuvres Spirit. iv. 65, 



)1 0 I{ E:, CAT II u L I L' I; 0 H, 

this ('ollt'('tiun t"t'ating 011 tilt' 
pil'it :11)(1 e.nd of this ol"(lpl'. :-1If'plit.
 all ..u1mir-al,lt, 
all:-,\\'t'1' to ::>1I('h ol
l'c.tlf)n... l{ic'l.ard of 
t. \'",et"I'. wllilt' ..1)0\\ illJ! IIlat tilt' eJi..e'i- 
plilll' of Ihe hotly i:-; IIsdt.:-;... \\ ithour tilt' eli"c'iplilll' ofdlt' IIlinel, 0),"'<<'1"\"':0-, "!at" \\"1lt'1'f' 
t'xtt.rior clisciplillt. i:-- w:llllillg". Ihf' illt,'rior ('t'''laillly c'alll1"t hc' IItailllailucl:'* 
c, .E\'f'ry po\\pr," :,ay:-; 
t. Th"ma..;, c, whie" (':Ul he onlailll'C] to :U'tiol1 1'C'(l'lirc'" I.ahit 
b)' whid) it Illay hl' \\'('11 di..po..;t.tI to ad, atHl thel'efol'l' habit i.. Ilt'e't':'-

U"Y 10 tlU' \\ ill, 
which i
 all intellt'c.tual po\\el'."t The object of th ' mOlla..tic ....
1)btit)n!- wac; to 
protlul't. hahit. 
Tht' \\ i"l'4 politician-- ha\"e aclmiu(\<<1 that rht' \)('..t way of It'al'nin
 ho\\ to go\"- 
t'rn a well \\a.:; to 
ll1cly tJ.(' (,PI1--titllli"n uf l'('lig-inu.. Ol'e1c'r:,. Tllc'ir !-olll, in- 
cl('t>c) , was ol){'tHence, \\ ithout which. a::, tilt' hi...t'll'ian of tilt' ( 'a I'll III" i3n.. ..a
:o., " not 
e\'t'n till' cIt....('rt coulel )'ipld pl'af'p." :IDe 1 tlwl'l.forE' ::--., BI'll n,l ""1101 I)1C" 'c I that .. \\, et 
solillld.. at tht' voi(\{' of tll(' sovl'rf'iJ!n pomiff.t Bill ft.r rut'll hlllBhle' aile I 
a.. eVt'1i tl.c> prof:uH' hi..tol'ial1 I pruark:-;, "th. .--t'I"\,ic'c> of thl' ('IIIII'I.h \\:h a trill' 
('I'vic'(' awl prnc'tiN'o.; ofl'('li
iem l'
alt awl ('nnoblt', :11..1 c'oIT' 'pond 
with thn
p ]ofty :o-t'ntinwllt... of th(' ctt
nity of Ollr ori
in, \\ hic'h :Irt' f
llInel in thC' 
wririn!!s of tll(' 
I't'at rrwlI who coll('('I
1 lIlt' tr:ulitioll" IIf:lnlic"lit
., ",llilt. tho..C' IIf 
tllP worlel 
t'('111 oftt'u iU\'('lIt('C], in onlt.1' to tlc.(rraclt. ullcl Immiliah'lU.'II, \\ hil.., hy 
flatterillg tlU' pa..
iolls, tlll'Y rc<,ollcile tlll'lII tf) rIU' "ill'IIf':-" :uul ahsllnlil
' (If Ihe 
uffi,.p.. rN]\lirpd. "'Vh,,' ..ho\lld mnnastip "l)('cli<<.tlCf' "Noll) grip\'oll" ?" a....k.. a ma..- 
tf>I' of no\"i(
, "\\l)at a hard 01.l..1i"nc'(" .10 \lllhappy 1IIt'1l 1'{'n.J,'r in tllf' \\orlcl, 
wirhollt :111." eou
obtion or fl'llit froll) it !"!: TIIf' motto of th" c'''"
rc'g:ttio" of 
thf' Oratoire mi
llt hnv{' ht't'll that of 2111 tit.. rf'lh!ÏolI" h"II"'l's. c. I(.i l'OIl 
!'ans eJ(opf'ncln', et ]'011 
Rn.. ('omlll:lIHI{'r," Tht' 1I)0n:t..;ric' rull'" t',,(.luelpcl 
poti"m. "For no ..upt'1'iol' 01' :-111
f'Ct," ..a
 Pc.t..r of B]ni.., " i
 it lawfll] 10 
fclllnw his own will; for the 1('g'i!'lator of monhs IH'('..c.rillt'cl. a'" if hy a J!{'npral 
{.diC'l, that all !--hollle1 fi)J1l1w tllP 1'111(' a.. tl.{.ir 11)&..1('1'; allel from this law IIpitlH'1' 
th,- ahhot nOl' t hp prior i
 t'xc'c'p','el:'-. In poillt of fil(.t, too, the gO\'Cl'lluH'nt of 
monk:, wa
 f\lll of imlI11gl'nl'e ancl ('(mtl("..(.t'n
ion. bP1cloru coult1 they aù(1r(:o- 
their 'llperior in wonl.. like the.....' of .Ell 1')' I o.:h\l" in the name of his ('ornpanion-: 
to Uly:-o...t'..., complainil1
 of hi
 irou llalll1'e' in ol',h'rin
 tlH'IH to \\':tHdpl' a]] the 
night lon

xirAIOt; Ei"t;,-7rEPl rOl "ivot; o1;ði rl yvìcc 
 pa vv 60{VE 611i7/pFa 1rrtvrcc rFTr'Kr..u.... 

'\'ïlliam of Jumiègt' . 
'" of I
"ht'rt 3 1 ,h..t of "",. E\"I'olll. who t'
tal)lish('d . 
lIlo ll a..h'ry (In till' 
h(lr('... of Calahria, that" lit' t1 :'I.lai,,('(l hi:-. lIWI) bocl", hut bUp- 
pliecl all who \\'t'1"(' :-;1I1
je'C.t to him wilh ft)oc1 all(] duthin!! in abul)clalU"(" \\ hile en- 
(lpa\'orillJ! to maintain tlJl'ir Iwarts uueler a re
ubr di..('ipliup."tt 

Ric. :--l. Viet. A)Je
orire Tabernaculi Fæd. 
t Pet, 
lltnrus. Dc \ïla CSlthus, i. v. 1. 
I JOlin 1\ .fUll I nslruet. 'I I !;Í::, I. 
 11\ Itlolllhl. 
tt Lib. \ ii. JU, 

t Q. I.. .\1 t. v, 

 orclt'ric Yil lIi
1. XOf. Lib. iii, 

 Pet. Ble
. Epi...I, t:n, .. 
ii, 2;9. 

A (; E 
 0 F F A I T 11 


"It is 110t for me," say.; Peter thl' \.. cl11'rable, abhot of Cluu)', "to Ùl'tel' 
l1oviceJ::\, an. I by UI}' probatiou of a year can::;
 them to be l'ljccled j;,r ever. It is 
not for In\' to rl'fuse to ::;upply lDeat aud ùrink, anù clothillg, alld uther neCt.t:);,a- 
l'if';;, aecu1'lling to thc din'r::;it}' of infÌ1'mitie:" ('Iimat(', an I time:5, lest, while I do 
Ul)t remlcl' tll mau what is man's, he ('a II 110[ I'cudcl' to God what is Goù'-. 
8hall ('har'ity gi\'c place ht'l'(, to the di('bw..; of a prowl ..npl'l'stiti ll u,"* "Xo: hillg 
i:i cllutml',Y tll tile mll'--, " he "IY-- :I
a.ill, "whi('h i.; dOll\: fro III charity; if we ('h:JI1
or modi (v 
omc minor rt')!ulation
, w(' do it till' the guml of other:-: ; ant) \\"t' bl'o;ul- 
1.\' reply to those who accuse n..; ùf inno\"alÏou, that ('hal ilY justific..; alHI ('all:-- fOl' 
:illch di..pen-ations."t Thp c1oistpr, uot\\'ith:5talldill
 the Sl rietlle_..;s ofils di-ciplillc" 
did nllt furnish an cxception to the l'p,.;ult which a rnotlt'I'n :Hnhul' a:5cribes to the 
orgallization of society ill the middle ages, 
ayillg, ill all.u..ioll to it, " J:tmai..:. l'in- 
dividu n'a taut vécu." 
\\.. e find that the monastic superiors followe(1 the methud of Pythagora
, wilo 
cd to adopt a different mo.le tlfdi
 .iplillc with ditft'rt>ut per:"ol1
, \Vheu A 1>:11'- 
is the :5<')'thian ('amI' frolm tht-' Hyperbol'eian
, advanl'e,l in age, a priest of A pulltl, 
and \'pr:--f.d in !':tcrell thin
s, though rude and tll1(.ttltivate(1 in Grct->Ii: ()i:-:eipliue, 
he did nut lead him about fir.4 through various c(Jnt('mplatiou
, but di-}wu
with the l()n
 silPIlt'e and th(' It)n
 hpariug, and at once admitted him to filmiliar- 
. with his d()('triup
,+ The prilH's of the middle ages acted thus. "
Glllllt UI/igll \V.IS admittt.d into the mona:-ìtel'Y of Clnny, the 1101,\' A hh"t JI II
 that lie !.ad I,L'C11 brought lip delicately from a boy, and W
iS a('('U..I(1Ill- 
ed tù hAve unly :-,pft fl1l'
 or silk next hi
ra1lted him a clispen
at ion from 
wearing the 1I:>llal coar

 \V()olleu vest; ft)}. he forbàw that Iw \\"1111 \\':1:-' fir
t in 
the secular \\'arf:lrc would no le..:s dt-'.
írc to contend with the best ill IIJt, :;pirit1lal, 
and :-,() thp cvent pl'O\'c<l."
 St. \.Ialhar I, m the nintÌ1 ('pIHllry, t!to1lgh tl1t
names of the hl'ethl'ell were inscl'il)t-'d in hi:; heart, yet hac I alway)'Ò a ('ert:liu uum- 
bel' of them writtell on a tabid, whi,.h he lwld in hi
 hanel, that he might <';l,()U- examinc an,1 study tilt' mallIWI'S of e:
ch, a.. thin king that he would ha\'e to 
albWPI' fOl' them in iu,lgn1Pnt, Th('I', knowing wh3t was peculiarly ('xpe- 
dit.m for each, he provi(lp(1 what was com1Llf'tive to thf'ir !o:alvatioll.1I Orderic 
\....ilalis say
 of T!apodOl'ic thl' fil'
t ahhot of Oud)f', in the ell'vpmh l'l'ntury, C"hp 
at 1m itt ed Iw'n of diffprent ages ancl dpgrf't:'s to ('on \"er
ion muleI' rile rult' ofth.' I\("\ly 
Father' Benedil't, He It'd humhly to 1ûllow a better lifè in the f;I'hool of Christ, 
Guufroi, Rainaud, Foulques, and 
orne other learne(1 gr;lInll}arian
. Irc treated 
with g'ClOdIH'.... the 01<1 m:Jn Ri('uJpIH>, and thp countr)' priest Hogpr, the 
r Duralld, al1(1 
om" otl,,'r ...imple disciplt':-'. II tmine,1 also to the art of 
 well, sill
in'.! alltl writing, and other us..fill works, proppr for thc SCl'\'- 
put..; of (iod, IIpl'hert ami Berenger, Goscelill and l{o Illlphe, Gislehert, Bernard" 

· S. Pet. Yen. Epi
l. Lih. i. 28. 
t Jl\mblich de Pyt.h. Yil. 19. 
I Vita S, Adalh.'rcli }bb. .\('ta S. Ord. Ben. iv, 1. 

t Ihi.) 

 ßihlinl hec, l nnÏ:lcens, 4!>9, 


I 0 R K 
 CAT II 0 LIe I; () H, 

({icÌlal(.l.. :I lit 1 GU.tIaUIIW, aud m:lll'9 utllPr \'oun. r men of O'IIOÙ <<Ii" l ) 'ition", , . in 
fIi -'.
lim', Ill:UlY tlf the pt'a:-allts þj,.t.'illg ..w,h Zt'al awl f'..:.\Il\'tity, fOIlIl,1 al..o theil' 
tiou dll'l'l'."* 
t;I, I\'rnard 
I(h-i..illg fnrstill, :lJ'C,hhi:-,llOp uf York, tu !aold wllat he !aol,I:-" ami 
exllihit a lUolik III tile CpiSl"'pal digllit.\., a,ltl.., ., th
lt if ""Hit' latt'lit ('all" ..hOlild 
eUlUpt'l him, ul' the Lord Pope illtllligt.' IIi... ,1t''''lre uf quier, Lt, aùd '.. him not to be 
()dl'rn',I by l'I'P"I'tt (I a:-p('1 it\" tlf rood or d"thillg 01' povcrty, pro\'id.
1 h. ma\' pa..::., 
\\ h, I'e lit' ('an !tOPl' to nlltl gn.':lt 'r pm'it\,; amlmol'eu\'f>I' thm III IH)II
e.. uf tlri:-, 
killJ slIlIl... art> ill 
u,.L a lUanm'r ,'olblrlt('tl ff)!', that :wl'urcl,nJ! to tttrt' and \\ t'ak- 
l}t... a fiuing care of hodit.s i:ò nev,'r d..uit'tl."t St. ll,'m:ml fllrlli;-;h..s a It'mark- 
able ilhlanL"C of the torlX'aTance of moll:l..tlf' :ill)> riot ill hi... m\ Il L nllu"t tu- 
\\anl..; Sicohns, tile notary, a ('hpat ailli imp"..t"r, "ho II ft th" Ci...,,>n.ialls unc1t'I' 
him, ('art'yin
 ufr houkH and mOlley ; Im\'ing fn'fl'h ntly 6Irg-t>d l"u('n; ill hi.. nalllf', 
from lta\'iuJ!: po....t'...
illll of hi
 :-,('a1. St. BI'I'II:ml ..ays t!.at hI' laa,llolJor klluwlI till' 
lIIan, hilt h:ul waitl'tl f;11' hi::, ('()n
t'I'..illll or oJIl'1l dc'('latatiull of tread,,'ry,t 
It was ('hal a('It'ristj,., 110\\ 'ver, uf all mona..1 it' rlllt'
 to imp})" a ..t:)[P of lifc from 
"hit.h uu IJollht 111111 of thr Iuxllriolls hahit.. bt.l(}ngin
 to tilt' m,,d,'rn (.i\'iliJ',tinJl 
reeoil \\ ith a kind of horr(lr, a.. from all all
t"rity whi(.h Il(,ith,'r l'I".I.."n lIur re- 
li,riOIl :-alH'tion ; thllll\rli a littJl' ('()IJ..idl'l'.alioll woultlle..ul ...ny IIIlJ"'tjlldi , ', (I milltJ 
tu a cOIacIu..i"n widely ditl(.n.m from tlwir
, ...(1 c1f'al' i.. tilt' tl'lIth ob-PI \'1 ,] 1,) ::5t. 
tl:;till, timt it "i, E:<l1..Pl' fo'l' thu 'W110 l,,\"p Gu(l tv 1',.trPIU'h Cllpi(litied 
than it is tor tho \\h" I<we tL.. worl,} tll "ali

' tlH'Ill."
 " \\P e ale apt <,n()lI
 a Jatp histllrian, "to ri,li('lIh thl' all..t,'n' oh..el"\':\Iw'... uf 841111" urdl'l's; y..t \\e 
IJlay ljt, a..
un'(l dam" itlallllt f'ut'h .JU
tt.l'iti('.. muna...ti(. pit,t)' "lIul,1 not lung ::'l1h- 
t;i...t. Tho:;c who li\'e 1)1) the IlIxurip... of natllre "ill rect:ivt: the yokt, of tI... p
Having alre3dy allaule<l to th
 hdi"f an,1 prw.tic(' of men ill Ugl'R of faith ill 
thi:-- r":-p('('r, r :-halluo\\ pa...... 011 ha..rily; only ohs..rving, hy the way, that l'\"'U 
t I... :1IH'ielit ph i los..pllt'rs pra(.t il'l't} ads of ...,,,1 f-tlc'llial r(l tc;u.h them paticlIl't' :111<1 
t'lUlul UIl('P, Ii Sllel arl':-' wa.. kllo\\"11 to ha n
 dlllle. -. HlIlller, a... C'arc):111 rt'markb, 
.. his UI
' ...t
 1I0t ('onra\!t'ons, for hc pr..ft'rs \jax tll him; not
 or ..wift, 
'()r h" mak.,s \"hille'i !-up<,riOl' to hi III ; lIot ri,'I., fin' he 
i\"l>s tIlt' fil
t plal,(' to 
Prialtl; IIlIt PO\\l'I'{III, f,'I' h. 
 him 10 .\
am"llIlIolI: hut ht' :Iscriltc':-; lu 
him rhp \'irluc of ('lItlllnuwp. ** X"t alone with tIll' 1II\'stpriolh depth
hilt also \\ irh :.11 that i... 
rl'at ali(I Ill'l"Oi<, alllllil" II1{'IJ, \\"al" the au-tt'rity of rht> 
doi..ual life in hal'mon
' : aillt Lene . it W:Ji a popular 
\'illb of the midùle 
, a... WP harn frolll IIIIg'II of 
'. Yicror, "That a ..c,ldif'I' 3wl a mOllk wt'ar 
the .1I1l<' "Ioth.,.tt Th" lIIild a:lI) .h,liciolis 
1'a('l'S of (aith \\"lIlIltlw'\'cr h:l\'l' 1)('('11 

l.t'n in the \\odd, if rhere 1r:J(luot h'pn al....) witnl....!'cl, a., lIu!n of HI. \",('IIH' 

· Lih. iii. t .:pi..I, 31U, 
I Europ" in \Iul. .\&!I,q, VII). ii 
tt nt. C).IIJ
I rll \nim.l., Lih. ii. l

t Episl, 29
· Aul. Gcll. ii. I. 

 E......1. :!:!o, ud BOllif 
.. l'urd:ut tit' :-'.lpicnti3, I. 

AGE::; 0 F F A 1 T li. 

:.? 1 

6a\'S "the :;aclidoth uf Jerome; thc tnnic of Benedict; th' mat of EuJaliu:- ; the 
, , 
tears of Ar 'cnin... ; the nakednc
':Ì of Paul; the pul of .Elisha, * 
)Ieu of euuutedcil gaiety, who live in the crowd, though otten heard to ex- 
claim, "U how full of briat':; is thi:; workillg-day worhl !" arc filled with sa<1- 
 on visitin(r a CaJ,thlisian or Cistercian hOllse, from believing that tile inhab- 
itant:i of thc:ìc :o;erene abl)(h'
, illal'('('
..;ihle to Inner care, are in a state more wreteh- 
e(l tha.n the gpIlPl'al infelicity of Ilia II : the,v even evince di
plc:1sllre, declaring 
10llclIy that they do not pity th"II1, ..;i lIec hy t heir choice of life, thc
' have brought 
that mi:;ery on thf'Ul:,elvf's. But we have only to wait a liltlp to he convinced of 
thcir error: fUi' the willd of i.uh'cl'sit.\., fo-ounei' or Jat/'r, is sllre to hlow upon tbat 

miling surface, and thpn all i
 visihly re\'ersc(L Let the moment of l'pfh..ctÏon 
('orne; who are, theil, thE' sel f-tol"Hil'nte(l? \\ï II it bc f;n' thcm to compi.I
the monks? 
[or.,lity may :..;1'1\l'e hel' grave concprn, :uHI hf'r killd !oõu..;pidlln... 
They will have to 
ay of them what the Book of ,ri,..;ùolll affirm.. of tilt' jn:-;t: 
" TIIi autem ::;Ul1t ill pace." .\nd if thc seem' is "';0 qui('kl.\' n1ten.d in tli P pre..pnt 
dal'k, unceltaill life, wllPre a blow, ur a sieknt's", III' an." pllli1Î('al c'(HlvulslOl1, is 

Ilfficiellt to make the dissipat,e(l and the reli
ious chall
e part..;, ill re
art) even to 
the external coudition,-what will he dIP COllII'ast herE'after, when ('very one wIll 
Lc ohli
e<1 to di:;tin
o"d frolll t.vil, wit.hout havill
 any lon!!l'r thc PII\\'H' to 
make a choH
 ! This,-this wa..; the r",flection that re('on('iled 11H'1l in age..; of 
flith to the au:-:terity of cloisters, ,. 0 what f.,lly," eXf'1aim.; an u
("ettC, " to fear 
the Illolla
tic di
ciplilH", alld not the flamE>'" of inexting'uish:lble, eternal fire! Ah 
there is too great a diffi'ren('c between the hnmhle habit.. of lI1()nk
 and the J!'ha..tly 
3Spt'Ct of demons; between the devout chant of the religious and the intolerable 
wailing of the darnnL>d,"t 
Thc hahit..; of the mona,..;lÍc order were not the inv('ntion>i of caprice, but the re- 
suit of experience, whi('h dl\termilled what dres..; \\ as 1110"t simple, æ('onoll1ical, 
and conducive to the pllrpo:;es of the life to hf-' pur..ued by monk:-:. Panl IV"" on 
hi.. ..Ieclion to the papal chair, being mindful of the ancient frienòship whid} 
from tpuder year,.;, existed between him and J erume Sue:;sanu,..;, thf' ht'fmit of 

I()ntc COl'ona, :-:ent orders to him to come to Rome. The ubeJient man arrived, 
and W;lS rt'cei\"(
d by the pope with a joyful countC'nan('(', \.fter embri.H'ing him, 
tht' pontiff, rai:-òing him up, 
ai(l, " \rhat eoverin1! i:-: thi
, .T<>rome? "Titat aus- 
terity i:- this? It is too \'ile : YOII must hy it a
iJt'," Th
. old man an.;wel'ed, 
c, Holy Fat hl' I' ! when clad in thi
 habit, I can walk mOl'e easily amidst the 
oaks :tnd brll:--hwoocJ: nor would any other be suitahle to a penitent." " Yon 
!'ohaìl Ll' no }OI1!!el' in thp WOOl!' and dp..;prt," ::;aid th e pope; "hilt yon shall re- 
l1Iàin here with II:";, a1)() a lwrmit hecome a c:mlinal." Pr,'stl'ate instantly 
on the (::1l'th the oM man f..lI; aile I, with tear...:, irnplort.d the pontiff not to execute 
l'Òuch a r('solution; declaring that he knew of no hapoine:,s heyond the solitude 

· Id. Prolog. 

t Dialog, 


M u l
 .E.:::; t;.A T 11 0 L It' 1; u 1.., 

uf the de:-
rt. Th pop" fOllnd tlwt it would bt, gr1evou:; to }1ft":) lIilu fartllt'r, 
:-0 the holy lUau n
turllt..d In trulluph to "i::; ndl ill tilt. \\0 'ù:). This is that 
etl Hit'l'on)"lIlu", bue,
.lllU", ..t)'lt..>ù ah,ar" ., The lH'rmil IIf 
Ionte COlona who 
' d he ('urdinal':o- Ilat." II... Wa:-- all t'
(,t'llf'nt I'h,y,i('ian, awl !-o
illt Ù in the 
 art, on ",hidl Ilt' had t'Xp"l:-sly \\ flU, 11, * St'n'rth(,lp
:-, t'lIlu
h " the 
brll..hwood" tu.'collllh'(l fOl' .IIUdl. it ('aliliot lu.dolll,tf..1 but that th('l"(' \\':1:-ò a trut' ('on- 
IIC ,tion hetweE>1I th
 :;olemll "l'li
iou:-, habit arHI tilt' :-òpirit of tlae 11)"11:1:;1 if' 
"A vain healt," say' St. Bl'rllard, ,. in,lu":- a notp of vallity ill tIlt' body; amI 
the external superfluit)' is an illdt.x of the intl'rior." There Wa
 lu.:-id " perhap.., 
a l'Crtain tra,lit.inn of antiquit.,., \\ hidl wa.. not withollt it;,; illflut'l},.t', in the ori
lIal ('hoicp of color: ft,r, tholl
h OIlP t':mllot !-oIlPpo..P t hat tilt' t'A:ullplc "f Pytha- 
goras, \\hl) u,t.d to "t'ar a while hahir,t wa.. I,;f'pt ill vit''', 
'f.t lIIall,\' ofth,' ti.r
Christian..;, who pa..' '<1 from tht. 
 'holll... of Ih,. philo:-,oplH"
 n.u1 rl.Íaillt....1 th(.ir hahit 
may be prl,:)uIllt'tl to Ilavc haruiptl dm\ II . 'mt. g "tt'.111 notion :IS to the kiDll mo,t 
:,uitaLle to the life \\ hich <,,>>rrt"polldt'tl, in th \ ('hurdl, Wil h ahat of tlu>il' ft>>l"IIwr 
t Clt'Illf'IIS of \It-xarH1n:I :-ay.., thai Plato fi>>l1ow:-; :\Io:-t
, ill prai
whitt' garrm.rlti a.. IllCl:-t propel' for' Pl':I('t'flllml'II, \\hu al'l' chiltfl'cn of li"ht.! I- 
saiah, Ire :-a
'", went bard..>>ot; Eli:l.. alld SI. .John tilt' ßapti..t welt' c')a
' clatl.
Popular 10<'<11 U'a
c dictated, ill later timt..., Ihl' dllJi" of tht> ,'.aphi(' fatllf r ; 
h poets foulld it 
uitahle to all angel a... to him who did open tire go.ut' of 
purgatory: of wholll till'." 

.. A..Clhes, or earth. tl\'en (hy out of Ibe Irround. 
"'eat: of ()n
 color with the robe be wore," 

(( The few('r thillg-
 a mall wallt... tlU' IWan'r lie i.. to G(}Il," repJif'(1 
, to 
nne whn ritli('ul..d hi
 ('II..tOIll of ',alking h:uef,lflt, and ha\"in
 IHlt Olle drf..;o< fi)r 
sumnwl' and \\inh'r. "uhlinw an..'\'('I'! which O\I
llt to ('Olltt'llt tho-I' I)wthinl.:s 
who no\\' c1il-o(bin tll(> hahit ill whi(,h Pallte wisllt'd to dip. Bllt, ill the-e 1II0

iddy time...;, 1111'11, whl) ('oliitl t'lItlurE> to Lt'ar tllP :11'1' 131 ion, \\ould ,hllddel' at the 
ht of we
 tht. ('allolli7P1I habit of a monk; which, of oM, was of ita.:clf 
all inclirnti,)IJ, hOlh of the ul)f'(lit'IJc'p :md the ('hal'it
, of it.. w('art'l': filr it W:I
f'l1rf-'c11.\' :111 al't of dUll'it
, 10 Il.t IIII'll 
I'e, hy the \"l'ry railllt,nt with whi('h tht')' 
dotlu d tlwm"'CI\'(>:-.. that tlH'Y \\'Pl't' ..;till ill thl' mid:--t of them, tho:-t, who follO\\l'(1 
ill th' narrow tr:l('k of 'ailltl
 f,'lIncl"J':o., hOlm<<1 to
..thpr in a vl'n'
cit.ty to 
pre., n.p, lIot "0 muc'h th(' pl'Opt-'rt.\' or the ..\.('mpti()n
, whid} might ha\'e hPt'''IDe 
('\.('11 p
rni('ioll", 3' tht>> :--pirit flf tlH' hol
' ord"l
 of Sf. B..nNli"t and "'f. Frallt'i.., 
:-+I) illsl'par:thl
. ('''l1Iu.(.It..1 "ith a litf-'l-al 01.:-: '1"\'31]('" of tlwir rul. H. "I kill'\\' many 
 m"I1." :-;:lY
 Far h. r EI7.(':l1' I' A 1"('}1('I". a Frall('i'('an, "\\"110, frnm h:l\'ing 
' Iwhd(1 ('t'rlain IH"':ldll'l't' of ellll' ,mIl'l" in till' pulpit, Lpfore they h:ld pro- 
nonDN'd a word, \\'pre already ('01l\'t'rtp(1 in tlwir he:lrt
, and 1.:,,1 rl'soIvecl to Iea\'e 

.. Annal. C8018hl. Lib. lxxii, 

 Id. Lib. ii. c. 10, 

t J:tmhlieh. ,Ie '.it. P)'tb 

t Plcd. Lib. Iii. c. 11. 

 of FAITH 


the world, merely by the force of these men's countenances. Hence it is "0 "rtt'll 
o.lid, that our hahit of itself pl'cachc.. i and that it has a thou..and tongut'.., tad. 
thp mo:-;t elo(p1<'nt."* 
TIU' (.sts aUlI ab:-;tim
nc(', 36 regulate , ) in the nwnastf'rics, Wt'r(' f:tr frnm hf'in
('ontl'ary tu what the philo'ophy of tilt' aJ)('ien
 del'IIIf'I) wi:-;, amI ('xp,.di"lIt. 
Ami,l..t b:lIHI'U:t.. likc Ihl-' Hyral'u..;an anJ I tali(' tab!. s, that Plato COIHlcIIIIIPd, 
mcn may nllW :'\pcak disdainfully of tÌlt.'1II allll obtain applausc; but, \\ itla su,'h 
lll:tIllIl'r...;, it will ht' stiIllrllP t'l sa.", in tilt.. words ofrh:u philosophf1I', that 110 Ulan 
Ulult'l' hl'a\'l'n ('an ('\'t.'I' be wi......t Pytha
ora:-: pre
wripcd ah,.till<'lI(,(' from 
eCI'tain kind.. of food, th)lll "ping convinct'll tbat tilt' jnice of lIH'at h.'n<1cd to ren- 
dCl' wickednl's:.; robust. " \Vhu knows nOI," :uhl:-; a great French ph"si('ian " tbat 
men fasting arc mm'p cli
p()sc(1 fOI' nw(lilation; ancl that, aftel' a fpast, the mind 
i..., WeakCIH'II. 'fhp art of ahstinence i,.. th" art of living well."t J:)t Clement of 
Alexandl,ia I'elll:trk:-;, .. that IUul'h food pl'{)(lucc.; indolence, and ohliviolJ, and 
stupidity ;"
 :lllli ...\I:llln:-; dc In:-;uli:- dnc:; Bllt confine IIw e\,il to the ":0111. f()r he 
saY:3, " 1)0 you kilo\\' whclJI'e cume illfil'mities of b"J
' allll mind? (>prtain Jy it is 
from excp,"S of foud. amI the deluge of pot3otiOlI,.."1! JIplJce the !-aying of the 
ruicl<lle agPS: "PIIII'I':-; (.t':lpllb quam gJa , lin,.:," I1e..idps, it was impos..;ible tllRt IDpn 
ellth' :lnd I'pf1necl lIatnre.; ..hould lIot lovp aud ;tclore that Orphic life, illll\lcent 
and pl'im
\'al, fr'ce frum till' slaughtl'I' awl tf)(' blood of :llIirnals. " Tlw less ont' 
speks," moreovel', as lIugo of St. 'Tictol' says, in commenting on tlw I'ule of St. 
u...till, "the more 
trictly (me li\"e,.;, th" happier one is: for an absterniou.. 
life kilI
 vil'c,,;, eXlin
ui5he-; de
il'es, nourishes virtue...;, strengthen') tht> :-oonl, :.IIld 
ele\':lIc.; tll\' mind to cele4ial thing,.;." \Vith what horror men ill the middle agf':- 
regardt'd tht> ,.:hallu-' allli sin of gluttollY, may he witne..sed in the curious letter of 
Petel' of nloi::; to Richar,l of S:lli:5bllry,.
 Truly, if we abidc hy the sentence of 
theil' philosophy, tlwl't' onght 10 be no hesitation in deci<l iJ1g between the sim- 
pie diet Ill' the ruollk
, and the luxul'iou
 grandeur of worldly tables, as described 
hy Lf' Gran,l d' \1t

Y, from the pagP"; of Fl'Oi
Mrt awl other oIcl authors i be- 
Ì\Wl'1I thCl
f' of" \'ol'acÎouR ßnrgl11111y, lcwing fpasts," an(1 thp hoanl;.; of that 3ou:-,- 
tere commuuity of Ctr(':Ulx, r('\'i\'in
 tllP mallners to which the Church alludes 
in the vesper hymn tùr the fea
t of all the saints of the Benedictine order:- 

.. Vobis 0111" dhnria 
Fllere. vel Il'!!nmina: 
Potnmqll\' lympha præhuit, 
Humu..;quc dura Jcrtulum," 

, thp ()..Ii:an ph"si('iall. ,ai,l that olle (,.3.u,,;p of the cli..:('a..;('
 of IIwn \Va..! 
the divf'r..;it.\P of fct"d : :11111 (
:\rd:1I1, ill the 
am(> ('apa(.it
,. ...,)(>ak.. IIf dIP t'xc",I1"II('e 
offi..;h, a.. l)('in
 simplp awl Ji
ht nouri
 SI. BOil a n'lI1 lira. a('I'ol'(lillgly, 

[ont cl'Oliv('t t Plntnni- Epii't. vii. 

 Pæcl!\g, ii, 1. .' De .\rtc PJ:t'11 iC':\t')r1:\, Lih. iv. 

t .\ Ii hert. Ph ys.nì ()!!ie .te5: Pa>-slOns. 
· Ep. 8:;. *. Prudcnt. (,ivili
, 43. 



 u H 
 CAT II u L I () I; U R, 

'I'\"t'S that monks in tL.. ('loi..ter, in cOJ1::,equencc of their temperate and austere 
lift', gt.llt'lally live to :1 great a
t.'.* III m''ril'5I of ('arthlbiallb, Man hi..tor- 
iall of 1I1:lt or,lel' ub:-ern...., it i!'o\ ('Ol11l11on to find f:.\thel'
 of t.ighty un,1 a hundred 
year.. of a1!(',-witm'... tllt'ir di..('ip]int' (lut.':-- not impair the :-trellgth of na- 
lure. t Th" P-'r' Ù' Lrcralllb n'lIIarke,1 IIIOllh:- ill Ihe ('Ollvellt uf St. Cal harint', 
who, :It thp :l
P of ei
' an,) nillt.t
't aI'S, :oollo\\'(.J alllhl> \'igor of }'t,uth. The 
('0111111011 opinion, tilat tilt' Carthll,ialJs l:.lh.e u vow to nh,t
\ill from meat ab,u- 
lute]y, is \\ ithout f0l1l1t1aI1oll; r.'r tilt-I''' i:-. nothing in t]leir 'tatuh.... to forLitl tht'm 
from (,.ltill
 it ill ca"

 of IIt'Cu
ily.:t: Falhl'r El/t'a1' l'..\rdll'r, the Fl':.ln('i"'(
after ()bscn'in
 how ah
tllll'llce i:o, l'omilleivc to hl.ahh, sa)", "if it wt.'rc Ilot f
thpir ]ifp 
 sappl.'tl allbp fuulldation:oo, which are the f>ct, ill cOIl"eqm'n'l' flf 
tile i{'(' anù rock anll t'ragg)" paths \\ hich IIlt,y h:.l\'f' to pa...... oVt'r, I h..lie\'c that 
()\l1' 1'0 1 )1' fl'i:.ll'
, from beillg :-0 ah"'lt'miou" \\ ouM lin' 10 h.. "'0 old that it would 
ht.. 1Il'(,c...:,:&ry tll knock them on tit.. Ilt.'atl at b
 "\rhy Jo philll:-ophl'r"" :111,1 
hClluit.:) li\,c ]OU1!t.'1' tl.:l11 olher III('II?" is a <Iu ,.tillil put hy Cardall; who repli
" Ikcau,e tl.l'y leå!1 a !o-ill1pl
, abstentious life, ill harmony \\ ith nature."11 III fad, 
the IUlllla,lil' rlllC:::l impost.(1 nolhill
 1I0\'P] ill Ihat n"pl'(.t. \\11el1 the ru]e uf 
Ben..t1iet '\:lS fir...1 illtrotlllc('(1 into Briuam', tllt'n' h:ul 'ÞC'l'lI alrta l l)' St't'll tll('r(' t!.t' 
pattern of a 
imp](', lI:1uu.lllift-', :\u:-lt'rc but healthlul, in the lIl,ulks, wlao halll.M:l'u 
 in that Cllllllt..}',
Iahillollju::.tly oh!-\('rn
, dlat th.-> pXI)('rit-'u' ofmauy 
P"', awl th,. :ulmiral)le fru
alit)" of the 1110"( hoh- well ofücrrn:Ul)', IUtI
t dispro\'e 
th . as.
...ti()n of th(' IUOtlf'r&I;o" who prpteutl thai tll( Ilwna'lic di..C'iplinp ('an not be 
bOr&lt-' UIIJ,'I' thai 
h.y, :1I1t1 wilh tit.. hotlil.,' c1i:-;pll
itioll of Ihat l)eople.** \11(1, Le- 
, we m"
t rt'lI)t:'1II bPI' tile ilia xi III of all rf'1 it,.iolls onler;o, \\"1. iell F..] ht'rt of 
Cha..trt's rlm:-- l'xprt.. . : ".Ah,tiIlPBt.(, ollly frol11 Illt':lt doe
 nut ..0 much a\"ail 
Yo ith die L. 'I'd, a.:) dlt' lIIortifieatitJIl of \"i('e5,."tt It is ('ertaiu that the ab....tillt"nce 
and fa,.,t
 uf the rl']il?:iou., orù,...s, like paris of \' "tnU'IIIS, 3rf' now only \" - 
tig-t'''' of primiti\'(' time..., whi(.h o..i
illally ft,rllle.1 1111 di..till('tioll l)l,tw(.'t'n monk" 
alltl otllt'l' IIIl'lI. lA.' Grantl ,1'.\ II
S)', citin
t:llll(" oftlw I ('form of 
l. Clamle 
in 1-1-11'\, -.ays tlaat lit' l,it,., th
 1',,1..") of th" monk, f!"t'(jllt ntt
', h('(':III:-C, from thpil' 
noul'i,hlUl'lIl, Oll(
 call ]earn wllat wa... dlc 
'oc.l of the pcupIt,::t! SO that 
t'Vt'n ,lu\\ n to that periud, th, diseiplille of rllona,tp..i.,
nleJ 110 slich prlldil?:- 
inu... ('ontra.,t as \\e might IIOW 
uppo:"e 10 that of tll(> rm
jol'iIY of 
t ('lib l' hlll;

o st I'ictl
, W:t:; r Cllt ob
r\'t'd by the p('opl(, at hl'
(" tlHlt. t'\'t'n :OO1l]aIP a, in 1 G2!t, 
therp '\f're olll)" "ix OXf'1l an(1 ahollt :ooÍ\.ly e:11\'{'S kil1t'tl for tla(' JItltt.l- Di..11 all(1 
tilt' \\ holt' city of Pari..: ft,1' tIlt' ho"'piial h:lll t\1('11 tilt' t''
i\'e privilt'rt. nf :",dl- 
iw r 1I1(':lt ill L('lIt 011 t'IC tlt,]i\'prallc(> of a , }l.\,...i('iall'.. l.'(>rtifie:tw. f-iO'IJf'd h\, the 
to" ' 
cure. I II 1 Gtj,), the num'wr \\'a:- inert>.l"('fl 10 t\\ 0 IlIInùrt d OXCII and two 

· D, H,.format, nom, Illter. C. 30. 
t 1(1. 
acré " lilt d'01ivet, .'j::)1. 
'II Lnhirwftu lIi!'t. dt' Bn'!. Liv- ii. .. Prærat 

: II i,t. tic h Y ic pI i H{' c1t ' FI '\nc:ni't. ii. '


t Pet. ::Outorus de Vitll. C rthusfana, Lit). i. c. 8, 
I Cltrt1all de COllsolntione. Lih. il. 
iu III. Sæe. ßt'n 2. H Fulb. Car. Epist, 36. 

AGE S 0 F F..\ I T II. 


thllusalHI calves; and so it went on increa,illg, Hlltil, as at present, the consump- 
tion lw(.':unc nearly the same throughout the year. * 
Tht' Ji..,ciplinc of religious hou;:,es :15 that of the dlllr('h generally, buth ill the 
('a:-.t alld west, bas variL>Ù. in diflèrcllt age..; with rc
pt'ct to the kinds of food \\ hie'h 
l'oll,titutt-d abstinence, Sucratc..; says, "Home ah
la;n from all animals, othcrs 
cat ouly 6,11, othcr:-, cat fowl, with fi;.;h, Lelie\'illg th(,111 hurn fi'CJlll the water..;, ill 
ClllI-;"qUCIll't' of the text in which )Iust's records, that th" water:; were cOIllIII:uul,"cl 
to produce them on the fifth day, an illtcl'pret:ltioll gellf'l"al from thc fourth century, 
a.nd which öt. Basil amI St. ..A.mbro:-; > :-'eeIllP.) 10 authorize. I n the lDo:-t 
a.lbtl're religioH.; orùers, fowl and gamc WCI"C IH'rlllittp l l at ('crtain scaSOIl:-ì. :O:t. 
Colmuhan fl'l.l his monk::; with that fuoclllurill1! a ,c:areÏty. Chilperic invite(l S1. 
GI'egory of Tours to take some suup, all\Iing that h> might cat it as it W:l::, ID3ÙC 
of fowl. IIowever in 817, the council of .\..i
.la-C'hapf'lIe f(>l,badp the u
e of such 
food excepting during the days of EastPl' allll Cill'Ï:..tlllas; anti in COIl=-eqU('I1('(' of 
thi:-\ rl'gulaliun the royal dOllation..; of finvl )'early to Illall)' diflèrcllt mOllaster- 
ies \\"er(\ ann u Hell, or remll>red only 01,] ig-atory at tho..;e seasoll:;, This rn Ie of the 
il dill !lut affect the tahl
 of seculal'=-, for until the eighteenth century, no 
olle :,crllpleJ at them to eat various of aquatic birlls on days of ao4in('Il('c.* 
.\.t one time again, the :5ullllays of Lellt were of ab:-;tincnce, :Iu,1 at otht'rs not. 
In the tenth CClltUl'}', meat \\'35 then eaten. Photiu-" patriarch of Constantinople, 
atièctell rigOl'i:;m, amI accused the W('st of 1I0t obsel'ving Lent !-'trict1y; but Hat- 
ram, mouk of Corby, Hincmar of Rheim:;, El1lles, bishop of Paris, and others re- 
plied to him, and showed that such things val'y,t 
Loeal circumstance::; sometime:; affected the <.1i..;cipline of house...;. Thu:-ì the ab- 
bey of )Iol1ut. Sereno being on the top of a lofty mountain, and far (li,t
Ult from 
 were fish could he obtained, Pope Innocent ITI. ga'9c the community h'ave 
to eat fle,h, especially a; their rule of St, A uguslin did not forbid it,
 III the 
abbey of St. Gall on days when meat wa
tI, the m'lfiks cat oeal's' flesh, 
anti that of wild horses, wild bull..;, ibexes, marml)t
, phea:;:ants, swan.;, pt'acod
anti all other bird,.:.\! In the eighth century, Sr. Chrod
ganù, bi8hop of 1t.lerz, 
speaks of acorus failing, 3.:5 if they cOIl::;titutcd an important article of fi)()CJ. 
PLilippe-le-Ilanli, duke of Burgundy, who hall :l Duminican for his Confe:,sor, 
used to reg:.lle that monk every year on the f
ti\'al of Sr. Thomas uf Aquin, with 
a lamprey; and if it \Va
 impos,ible to find OUt', h,' IISPI} to give him forty-five 

UU"i iu silver. \Vith re
pcct to the order oJ)
l'I'\'l'l1 in the refectory, many min- 
uter rule.5 were laid down; but we have no 
pa"(' to devote to them. fhe plal'e 
of each monk who heM office, the position of the bole..;, dlP. number 
md kinci 
of ves:-;eb, the books to be read according to. the altern
ltil)n; of month::" wcre all 
<h'fel'lnined. In the abhey of Crnybllc..l, it was orcl:tillell that cv('ry da,\' after 
dinner, 38 :'0011 a.; gr:.l{'e wa
 said, there shollltl hp pl'ayer.
 fOl' the son) of King 

" leI. it 112. t ,Le ('rl"anrl d'.\us
\', i. 326. 
I Ild('fon.. von _\rx Gescl.1ichte d. S. G. i. 2:;0, 

 Id. ii. :39. 

 8pist. Inn. Lib, v. 10, 


,[ 0 H. Ese A T I I 0 Lie I i 0 R, 

Etl.c1, hald the fclumler, and that the hounty of Killg "''jt'hdaf, who left his 
 horn, /o-Ì1ollM b(' ('omml'monlt,.ò. 
TIlt' silPI1I'c in oh!wrvcd r.ligioll
 hOlls, .. wa
 :lnotlwr fi.ature of mOllastic disci- 
pline, at whi('h IIlt'li con\,('rS:1l1t \\ itb thc ]c,s..,ons Ofullf,iellt wi
dolll will Ix' I(,s:, (Ii,. 
"(1 to \\Oll,]el", th:1I1 thll'c wh, " mill(].. are ftll"lIll'tl by the common Opillioll' of 
Jater tilUt.,
. One of the fil":-;t proof... whi('h Pythagor.,,,, rt-qllirea frum his ùi
was w}lPthcl' the
' were abl(' ËXE)1vthì., that is, to kC('p in sil('ucl' \\ hat he tau
tlat'J11; fill' h.. lai(J 01111"(' ,tn':-s upon tlae h(.ill
 able to kt...-p 
ilen('e, dlal1 011 tlw I,t';ng talk,. Cato tiS ,I to say, " I \\i:-It that al1mt'n \\ere mute; tlll'rt' would Le 
tlll'n imprtlbitv,t fi/l"(
ih))' t'xprp:-;-;;Il
' \\ hat Plutarl'h )u
'!5dO\\ 11 ill his tna- 
e on "
aking ton much." It \\a
 ::::>imouidc.... who saill, " that we hall (.fwn to 
repent h:,,"ing spoken, Lilt JJever h:l\'illg ho..-pt ,i)
 nee," "I n 
ing \\c han. m('o 
fOl' our 1l1:1:,t('I'S," 
 the Chæwlli:ln :-agt', ., hilt in I
ilt'n"t., the go(1
\\ hit'h wao.; :111 allusioll to the my,.;tcrif':-;. o
 Silellce," lit' ad,I" (C i:, 1I0t 0111)' \\ ith. 
out thil:.;t,:Ii Hippo('rat ï " say:-;, but it i
 withllut pain and :-'jrw\\ ; it i8 So ora tic 
:mù lUa
."t \IJudillg 1)C,"haps to \\ hil'h opinion..., St. Jl)hu Clima<'lm... 
gty)t s ,. a :,ilt'llt mall a :.011 of philn:;,)phy:' fh. antiqllity (If thi'i (1i
 Chri...tiau... h3S be('1I often 
hown. u Extra P:-a)mo
 !-ih'lItium t':-,t " :-a
bt. Jt'rümc in hi:-; ('pistlc to 'Iar('('l1a, ...peaking of Chri:-tiau ('ollll1llwity. ...\t 
Xitria in early timc-i it wa..; a rnlt' that 110 onc shllnlt] :-IHak tin aft.}' St.'xt. At 
nonc begall pra)'cr anú p
hn()(J.r, a... If in pa".ldi
e, From L'ompliu till thc " Prc- 
tios.l in ('ou'I)('(.tu Domini" at pl"ime, :-ilellt"e was oL)ig-atllr)' ill t'\'t.!'), 1 digioUh 1.011:>-('. 
Th,. rl'
u:al' pb(,,'
 of a where :-ill'lIce wa", to he ol''''l'r\'cd, w!.'re tht. (101'- 
mitor,Y, th' refectory, the illfirmal'Y, til..\', thc dmptcr rOOlll, the doister, 
nrul the conventual gardell.
\Ve may l't'I11.1rk that the (Jl'fen,e of this di",,'ipli,ll' alllOIl!! the worshippers of 
ace, fllrni:-he... occa...ion to th,' lIIoU:l:-tic philo...opll<'r:; for c\'int'ing the profoun(1 
hllowledge which th..)' po,sc.,scd of humall 1l:ltllre. "Clloos!.' h;len('t'," 
a)'8 Pt tLl' 
(If Bloi
, "if yon wi
h to ha\"c pt'a(oe of he:lrt."11 
t. B,'rn:ml ('.111.., th. tOlwue, 
"the in.::;trunu'nt that scr\"l.:s to empty th.. Ill'art." ".\s a fUI'II3(,{,," he :-a}s, "of 
,,"hi(.h th, mouth is alway... opell, calm'lt rt tain the ht3t "ithin ÎtM.'lf. So Ilcither 
can the hrort prt5 
I'\'(> in it,elf thc 
ra('e of (k\'otion, uul(
 the mOllth h(' clo
with the grace (If :-;ilcucp." The holy f'arthuo.;i:111 Patriarch Bruno 1
1)(,\\" \\ ell 
how tn appr(,('iatp the fill"<'C \Vhi('h i'i \'lIll1" to man, rln!1 the dallg'l'rf' whi(.11 
PI1t'OInp:\'s him in th" frigid atlJ)lI
ph(>I"(' of th(\ prt,!".nt lif1
, wilt n he \\ rot(. at the 
hra,] of hi.. 1aw
i1t.rl'." If :111\' (.h,,
(\ tt) h(> (]i
pl1t:ltiou..:, ant] to inquire" lay 
8u('h bws shou)(] he n('('(''''1r
', tlJ(
 Ci:4pr(Oian'i mi2'ht h
I\"e dt.cmec.l it lmfficit'llt 
:\pology for their CU
tOfil to reph" with clha].;:p'pf'arp, 

.. 'Vuy, 'tis good to be sad, and Bay nothing." 

* Jamb1ich de Pytha2. Vita. c,20, t .\111 r...l xviii. 7. t C 20. 

 In:m à Jcsu IDstructio 'tagiijtri Novitiorum, 8. :.!:). I Pet. Hies. de Silentio scrvl1odo 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II, 


In point of f:lct, howcver, thl're :lre mallY ll1t'n to wh!Hn this P:lIt of (1isc'iplinc 
Ì-; full of ('harms, lI<.'ar how Cardan :--pl'aks uf hinH; .If, "J fe!'1 that I am lit- 
tle fit f.Jr cOI1\'er:-,atiol1 : fir:-,t, Lt.('Üu
f' J IO\t' :--olituclc; for D('\'(>I' am I mort' with 
tho:,," whom I 100"c, than whcn I am aleHI('. nut T lovc lioù, the go()(l Spirit. 
\\"111'11 I :un aIOlIl.', I (.ontl'mpbte tll(' illlrlH'Jht' good, the (>t('l'I)al \\ i:--dom, tIle 
Authllr of light, the trlle joy, tIll' f(I1JIHlation of truth, the Author of all things, 
who i..; happy in hilll:-,plf, and thfl dc.-jirc of all the happy. 'VII at other mind ('an 
1 lu\'('? ""hat intl'l1i
ellec mOl'e 
in('('re, more lufty, more secure than thedi\"ine? 
LiLl'aries arc er:ullmed with Look..; minds are spoih-d by el'Utliton; men tran- 
...erihe but writc not: what tht-n ('fin r hopp from th(' con\T(,r.\e of men-garru- 
lous, ayari('inus, Iy;n
, amhitiou[o; J})('n? nut 
.()II say, man is a 
()cial anima], and 
why rpnot1lwe fricnd..; in the world? I kn,)w that thc..f' things can he ohjectt'd to 
me; hnt I a111 not iJ!noralit that many thing:;: may 
ecm hard anel ahsurd, whieh 
when in\'e4igate(1 :1pp(,:1r yery diffèrent ; alld that on the contrary, there are other 
thing':; app:u'cntly geniII' :1n(] useful, which in reality are absurd and hard,"* 
The nocturnal \'ig-il.. a
ain prc.:('ntl.d a point of contra:;t h(.tween the cloistel' and 
thp \\"01'1(1, Fut1h'it-ntly re1l1arka},I<'. amI though men at present may not be long 
sleeper...; like Epilllt'ui(]e,.:, 110 part of Illon:l:-itic di
cipline !:ieem:s to them to present 
a more vulne:'ablc side. 'Yho is this that moves solitary along the dusky ai:;les, 

NIJ/cra ðf' a'ußpo611'}Y, õre (J' Et ðovðl ßporol åAAol; 

In ages of faith it \\"a.. the monk, and tn11y his motive was ::)ub1ime. "Tithin 
Illouac;teries there were, at lea
t, fc.)l(1' hours of spiritual exercise and solemn music, 
wJ.ile the re
t oflhe "udd was buriec1 in sleep. ',,"hen I was in Carualduli, the 
monl..s u:.;pd to lwgin matins in thc c1Jlu'cb at haIf:'pa
t t\\,('I\'e. At three they re- 
tUI'J1Pd to take repOSl', aUtl at fi \"e ro:-,c tor the day. At the CarL}IU..Íal1 Jl}ona..;tery 
of La-part-Dieu, in a det'p black forest ot pines on the mountains of Freybul1!", 
the monks rU:ie at elev('n, amI rern:nned in the church till two. They thell rc- 
turned to re..t till Eke. The (by closed with them at 
even 111 thc eV(>lIill
, when 
tlu'.\' ("etircll to I'f'
t. bo that the very ohsen'al1ce of hours :-;epal':lted th(,111 from 
the world, and I coull's-- on going' haC'k tIt it, I almost (,J1\"i('() tlll'1l1 <,'\'('n thi.. di
tinction. In till' ahh('y of Cwyland thr(-'e light:; used to hurn in tIlt' cloister, and 
ftmr in the dormitory en.r)" IIIJ!ht till (lay-break, in order' to guard against fire 
and many otlwr danger... as In
lllpIHl:; says,t The ehroni('lcc of SI. Trndo ::,ay, 
" that light.. all night \\"('1'<> ne<,( ::-S:U'Y ]I) thp cloi,..ter of that abheJ', to Clh\,iate that 
horror of darlll('
:"i whieh thp children anù the monk..; woul,1 othel'wi:o:e have hal] 
to.('I1C'Ollntpr in 
oin;! to mu'ins an(] returning."! In the hou:-;e') of the kllight 
 :llso light.; lI"ed :tI \\":1\':-; to burn thl'oll("h the wholp ni(rhL
 TI.(-' holv 
. t:) :"" . . 
father=", a.. we ohsef\'f',1 in tIlt' fifth book, were unanimous ill recollJmending tÍle 

· Dc vita prnprin, c. 53. f P. 10:; 
t Uhrllu. .\bbatiæ S. Tl"lul vi. :lp. Oacher. ::::.picileg, VII. 

 Regula 1:n:, 


l U It Ese A T II 0 L I (' I: 0 l-

pral'ti('(' of (le\'ution in the night. The mOlla...tic oLSCrn1l1Ce is thl.ft..fore 110 110\.- 
elty. "Our 
lcep," :-,:\ys 81. Rl:-,il ill his cpi:41c to St. Urcgor)' Xa.ziall
t'll, "ougbt 
to be short, and illterrulltl,<l by tbe thought:> uf Silh'atiull. 'fhl' middle of tlie 
lJight ought to bc tì)r those \\ 110 are entircly devote,l to a spil itllal lifi., \\ hat tile 
Legilllling of the day i
 fi)r per
on:-, who live ill the world." ;ojt. Chry:-o:--tom 
:--lwal...:; (.If it as a mona:-tic Cl1:-tUIIl to as:-,i
t at the divinc worship hefor' (lay at tIlt' 
('r,)willg of th
 cock. ,,
\ slt.eping lIIan," 
JS Clelllell
\Il''\alulrinlls, .. i:-- liI
a dl':\ll m
J.Il, Uflclltiull:
 during the night, one ought tu ri.... fro1ll une's bt.:d aml 
gh'e thanks to Gud. 1fOÀÀåA:lS /Lal 1'1;; YVA:TÒ; aYEYEpTioy Tli; ,wíT1/; A:l.t'l -rÒY 
Thl morc ancient 1110nk.... detf'rmillro their time of ri,ing hy the cuurSf> of the 
star:;, as C3
iall rdatE's.t The 1II01lk... of Cllln
' ob;o;pl'\'ed thi... rule,: Gnomoll
wen: u...ul in the day, 01' hour, a'i ('a......iodOl,u:-. relate... ill his di\,ine rl :1(1- 
ings. Pdru
 Damiallu:i allude..; to allotlll'r but diflil'ult lUodt' of kno\\ ing ,he 
hours, \\ hich W:IS, from the (l'lalitity of P
 Sumc a-.cril){' th
clo('k to the inventioll of Pope t:'yh'p...ter -r I.; but a rloek W:I::' ...pnt a, a pr<" 'Ilt to 
Charlemagne fml11 the l"in
 of Persi:l, tn () 11l111l11'l'(1 yro,.., hf.forc 

Tht' :mcient Roman:' hatl a hoy to UlllltlunC'p tll<' hOllr.... TIIf'Y !o-uper
ht it hetter to numher tilt' hour
 hefore, than th"S(. afi,'r it, a fancy 
whieh apP,'ar:-; al:,o in the work of I [e...ind l.ntide 1 ,. I >a)'s." 

Ul'h then in brief, \\ erl' the mu...t :-('vere 1)I't'
"riptioD" of the mOIl:t:-til' d'5('i- 
pline. To the multitude they lIIay app ar painflll, for without 10\"(', :,11 things 
al'e hitter an(l ta.,rl'lc!'-...., hut ",h:ltc\'er ;... bitter 1)Ct'om.',,; "'WPt.t hy love, as dlf' holy 
father", of the (le:;ert alltl the mllilks of latel' a
e..; found, the (omH'L' l\('rh
hark of trec:" dry bn.'ad allli cold waÍl'r to,' lIourishment, the earth fill' their 
WtJ, u 
stone fOL' th('ir pillow, 
\Ckcloth for eo\'cl'inQ', :Illtl the btt'1' tht= diet 3ml DCC- 
...arib bcl"ngill
 generally to the pOOl', ill all which things th('y both fOllnd :111 
indf:.lble ...\\et'tnl:,,
 011 accoullt of loV(', whidl rt'Il,Jer:, all diffi('u1t thing:-- light, al\(l 
3..; it w('re no,hing.1I TIlt' le
i...lator of Fontt'vrailit showl" that tl.e 1I\('l11h('rs of 
his ord('r.wiil do IlOthin
 tllrl1lldl fl'ar, hut that tllt'Y \\ill ob:--cn"e all th('ir rule 
h the }m'e of Chri:--t, anll thrnu
h that 
ood habit alld deli
ht in \'iltlle 
whi('h will ht'long tl) tllf'm,. Htriet illclt..'td was the ohli!!atioll of nltlnks to ('0111- 
ply with ,heir holy ill:-,titutc. The ex:u't ob!--t'I'\':UlN' of the rille of 8t. B"IIPfJict, 
 the ninth anI) tt'nth ('('ntnrit'.., \\'a
 :m ol
..(,t C\'('II of thf> 
n'at \ 't illtel'c....t 
to killgs. En'r)' mOllk \\'a.; hound to lpam it hy h('art, \\ 01',1 by wor,1. ** .A 
Gt'rman hi...toriall :-3\"S that no monarc.h..: ('lIulll have more at heart the di
3Iltl maintenance of their trOllps than the Emp<,ror..; Otho 1. and Conrad I I, hac} 
deeply fixP<1 in tllt'ir hre3í't
 a... their fond c1f>...irp, th" f'xact ol)-'(\I'\"all(,(, (If the rnle 
of St. Benedict, by the monk
 who pl'of(':-;...c(1 it. Oiho 1. swore that he wonM 

· Pærla
o!!us, Lib. ii. c. 9, t Lib. ii, c. 17 

 Oj1us. la (".p 1 i. I Idin!æ Cor.t(.mp. 
... Capit, .\qub.gfun. 81., 

t ßihlinthec& Clunisren!'li!:, 448. 
· La Hcigle de l'ordre de Fonlevrauhl, c, liv, 

AGE S 0 F F A I T 11. 


break his crown and ghTe the fragment' to the abbey of St. Gall, if it WE're nec- 
essarr to promote the observancp of th
 rule. He delayed to give the ld...s to the 
new elected AhLot Xotker, merely from observing him dre:,sctl with more elegance 
than he thought would ha\'e beell sanctioned by St. Benedict. )[onks were hurie(l 
holding the rule in their hand, to signify how much depended on their having 
well obs..ryed it. 
" 'Ve arrived at FontevrauIt," :-a)"s Dom )fartene, " while they were celehrating 
the oh..;eqnie..; of a young monk who hatl died that day. In the morning he had 
been calTied into the chuf('h of tbe nlln
, wh.'l'e hi
h mas..; bad heen snng 6)(' his 
8oul, aUtI all the si:,ters had given him the holy Wafer, Tht'11I'e he had been car- 
ried into that of the monk
} where we 
aw him clad in h's mona::,tic hahit, holding in 
his hand a taper, with the rule, which wa'5 as the :-(-'ntence of {'tern:.I happines..;, if 
he had well ob
erved it, or of his damnation ifhe had ill ob..ervl'd i t."* But the (] ue 
oùservance was known to ùe spiritual rather than literal, for hear how St. Ber- 
nard hilH
plf!'pe:lks: (( Huw dv they hold the rule. you 
ay, whll nre clad in skin
and fed with fh-'
lUd dispen:;ed from manual labor? Attend to t he rule of God, 
from which the ill5titute of St. ßem.dict (loe3 nol dis:;;ent, 'Regnum Dei intra YOS 
est'. ThHefore, brethren, do not found a calumny upon corporal ob
and neglect the chi(:>f thing., of the rule, which are it:;; spiritual institution,. Bet- 
ter is humility, ('lad in 
kins, than priùe in destitution. Better is a lit- 
tle meat fi)r use than mueh vegetables for 
atiety. Esau was reprphend- 
ed not fi)r flesh but fOl' pottage; :md 
\.(1am was condemned, not for flesb but 
fm' fruit; 3ntl Jonathan was judged, nnt for fl<'sh hut for honey; whereas Elia
eat flt-'sh with innocence, and Abraham placed flpsh before appI'o\'ing angels. 
\Vine in rnot]eration, as :St. Paul pI'escribes, is beUer' than water avidity. Kor 
should you glory in the lahol' of your haIH!:':, ""nee ::\Iart1ra, who 
erved, was re- 
proved, :uHI :\lar)', who sat sti1l, wa.;; prai..:eJ; fOt, the true Jahor i:o' that \\ hich is 
\Vhpn anyone monastery became eminent fi)r the regularity of it, discipline, 
the abbot.. of othel' houses used to propose it asa model to their own community. 
Tbll:;:, in the seventeenth century, the 
 of many ahbeys ill Switzerland 
applied to St, Gall f()l' monks to E'ffeet a reform in their re
pecti\'e hOllses. when some 
were :-:ent in con",eqllence to )[ariaberg, in the Tyrol; to Rheinan, Engelherg, Dis- 
entis, Pfeffel''';, Fulda, Hil'..(.'hfeld, Ettenheimmiiu:,ter, Kempten; only at the Jatter 
convent they were Uppt'..;ed hy lIlt:' by nobility. 
The yenerable ahhey of St, Y. enu{', at ,r erdun, twice reformed all the monas- 
teries of J.1.ì'allcP, III the elew-mh century its holy abbot, Richard, re
tored the 
discipline of lUore than forty principal abhey:-:, ",h.ich communicated the ref:)l'm 
to others; al)(1, in later tilllt'
. Dom Ditlier-Ie-b-Cour, prior of the same hIlUS{', 
ed the spirit of::5[. Bt'llet]ict to revi\Te in np;uI
' :300 lllonasterie:;:, 
nd the 
congregations of St, Y'" pnne an(l of St. )[:\\11' to be in:-:titllte<1. 

" VOY<Lge Lit, ùe Dell" ßcned, 1717. 

of. S. BeiD. de Præcepto H Dispensatione, v. 6. 


1\1 U HE::; C \ T II U LIe I; () U, 

One great olÜN't of tlae joul'l1e
's of th" monks ill IllI' mi(}Ùle ages wa."i to visit 
di11t.'rellt lUolla
tl'ril''';, with a \'iew tu t>xamine theil' custom..;, ill orclt..1' tu tran:-fcr 
tho::;, that \H're ex,'ellPllt to their 0\\ n, TIIt(..; we rl'ad of Sr. Botulpl,P, afh'I' the 
middle of tll(' s",'('nth e"ll1ury, that in hi. 1I)0Ila:-Ít'ry in Lill('olllshirc II(> t..!-tah- 
hl.d many holy ('II
toms and rulci or'life \\ hi{'h lit' lawl 1(,;11'11' d ill llltll1a...t('ries 
bt')'ollli :-ca. ,. lie tau
ht his disciple..; thc prect'pt", of :-,ah':ltioll a('cording to the 
rule of ble:-
t.J Fatht'r ll('IIC,1 i(.t, II) ill
l ill
 oil I with liP'\' aJ}( I IWW with al1('it'nt 
s; at olle time tca('hin
 the in...titutiun of the alJ('ic'nt
. at allotla('r \\ he 
had di:-('erne(1 Ly him:-elf."* I ngllIph, ahLot of Crmdallcl, in th.. timc uf \\ïl- 
liam the Conqueror, 
's, ., Hl'nH'lllhering that, to tll<' honor of no(1 al1a the t.'tli- 
fi('at ion of hi,; pcople, ill the momht('rie:- bpyond en. of F"ntandl(', .J um ièg-('s, 
Clul1\' ami others malldatum of the I )oor wa...; al \\"a\':- oh... -1'\'('<1 u
r J.i1!h ma.'-s , 
," . 
ami that the people of (;0,1 wer(' mudl ('(lifil.(l hy it. :m,l tlaat in 0111' English mOIl- 
terie... it was omittA..d 01' ulI]\\ n, hy the 
uhi('c of our ",holt> COn\'ellt, I 01'- 
daim'd that it .,holll,1 bc daily pril,.tiæ,1 in (IUI' monastery, tlirf'C'Ìing that the .11- 
monel' slIouhl lea\'c the choir a fte t' the Cl
tJ::)Ccrati()n, alul to pro('('f'c1 to the gate of 
thp monastt'ry, amI iDtrod IIC'C thrct> st rnng('r.-; into t lie 
r('at parlor j or, if tJ.l're 
:-hould be no stran
pr..., tlar('e pOOl' oM IIIPn; an,1 if th"r,
 ..IHmld be 1101)(' SIIl'h, 
thret> hOlll''';( hoys; all.1 tlll'lI, at the .'n,l of ilia", their f'ct 
hould b. wa
IH'(I, and 
pl'Ovi:o'ioll:-' given to t'ach of them, whi"h they might cat there or carry away \\ itb 
them a
 tht.y cho...e. t 
Brother Udalri('u
 ofClllny, h(,l11
('nt by tllP ahh..t illto Germany, and ('()ming 
to a mona
tt'ry ill the Bl:u,k F()ft'4 at 
pire..;, tilt' ahhot of tlmt IIOIH', "''illiam, re- 
{Jut'sh..'(l him to :-btc the partieular (,1I...toIll8 tlaat \\pre oh..;('rv{'ll at Cluny; (( fcJr," 
said 11(>, " your chllreL, by the lUt.'rey of r;,,<I, hath ohtailH'tI 110 :-mall rt1mtation 
uf religion among us; thereforc, you wOllld conft'r a gn.>at fh\"or 011 111(', if you woulJ 
illform me wliat are tilt' ('u..;tOIl1..; 31Hl in
titlltioll.; of
'ol1r pn:tl ('{'b;:0I'S there; for 
('vpn if they are III,t ob:,t.'rn'() hy u..; it will S('f\'C to hlllllhi. U
, if we lrorll how you 
Ih'e and c(ln\"t'r
e."! "I Iwar, he eOlltilllH'S, " that your I'P:HIin
s on private ni
in \\ inter are very long. "'ill YUII rt.late in what malll1t'1' tll(' Old :111') 
cw J't'ð- 
t3m,'nt al"e rpad, hoth in winter and slIlnru('1' ?" L(lah,j('u..;, afif>I' gÏ\'in
 hi III thi:
t-ali:,l:u.tion, infc'rm
 him of dh'e
e c'ustolU; ohst'r\"f'(] at CluilY. "ÙJI l\l:ulIl<by 
Thlll'..;(by," J.e :o-ay:-,. ., thp poor arc illtrodllc'f.d into tlH'l''r, amI pl:u.('cl on !-f';lt
in order; thp lord abhot and a..;..;i..;tanti proct.>t.'d to wa
h their fc(,t, \\ hilt, { )[:111- 
(latUIIl lIovum' is r('a(1. Theil the \\ inc i... blf'

t.'(I, amI two dellarii :Irc gin'lI to 
t::ll.h of tIlt.' pOOl'. \fif'r ('ollation in the rcft'ctory, the monk..; ri:)e to f'harity, and 
110 une 1111'11 pr'i'ltIlH'S to ah..;tain \\ holl
' from the wille \\ hirh is prodll(,f'd; but 
c\'cry Ollt' ta...tu; a littl... \\"111'11:1 mOllk (I('sirt':o' to ('onft :-:-', 1.(' 
talJ(l..; bpf()1'(' tllP 
pripst, ami drawing his rigbt hand from uuder the 1:31t..t.'vl', plal'es it on hi

* 'Iah. Præf in iv. sæc. t lIi<;t. f'my1. 10:) 
t .\ lItil luioll.... COllsuctll,lille... Clunbcf'n!'i" :\Inn. Profl'm. ßp. 0:\1'111'1. 
. iv, 

A (j E S 0 F F A I T II. 


which is the sign of confes::;ioll. If any oue illcur
 a vcnial sin, he dOC3 not for 
that day ki'::3 the text of the gospel, nUl' go to the peac
, Ol' tù tile offl'ring."* 
F' all other Benedictinc IIlUllasteril'
 onc monk us d to he ðl'llt to 

in(), ill lmler to Ob:;ci'\'e th.. di';l'iplin.' therc,t an I for a similar pnrpo'e the ab- 
bò:s of Firmita..;, Pontigll)", Clair\'3ux, alld 
rorimolld, Were oLliged tu visit 
CiteallX :-'l'l>:lrately every 

ulillg oecl1pit'd a large purtiun of time ill thl' llIuna
tcries of the middle ages. 
In the ll'IHdicrinc hou.;ps an were to study, a.'i wdl a:; to labor with their hands. 
In LI'nt e\'ery une received a. manu::3cript frum the library, which he was to n>alJ 
thl'Ough ill orJt'r, aud rdUl"n it ill capite quadragt:'simæ. From the morning un- 
til t!l'ree the monks wei'e th"ll tù he empluy<,\l ill stlldy, aud no one was to cause 
any distr
tction by cOll\'ers:.ltion. On SUllday:i aJ] were to study.
 Pope Leo 
IV. decree,), in the Unman syw)d, that on en-r)' day the monks shonld be in- 
strudell by reading 01' pio!l"; d i,;cll

ion :unon'.!:",t thelllsel ves,lI The no\.iees were 
rt'lJ'lirell tll le:lrn the Sew T('sbllll'nt by heart, and e\'ery day they were to de- 
\'ote half an hour to study it. ti ll Aft.... w"pers the jUlliors aud ot1wrs might study 
hi-itory 01' philo:-ìophy.** In the nIle of St. Isidore it is required that after ves- 
pers the monks shoul.{ meditate 01. di:o;pute on questions out of the divine les
till cornplin. 
The \Vorll collatillu originated in the pl'3etice in lUona
terit's of takillg some slight 
{.)Oll :1l1l1 drink on fasting days, in the evening', before going to read the co 1- 
)ation:-) ofÛf'n, pre\'ious to !-oingiug l'oHlplill. In reply to the a\)bot \Villiam 
of Spirp..;, Udalrieu-; of ChlllY tlll(:-; de:-:ìcribes the order of 
tudy in that abbe)' : 
"The Penbteuch is n'ad between Septuagesima and the beginning of Lent, both 
ill the chu1'ch and in the refectory, each day the reader beginning where he haa 
last fini,IIed. During the night.; of Lent we read the expo:-;ition of Sr. Augustiu 
on the PS:llm..;; during which 1'e
 a hmrher goes about with a ]alltern to see 
that no one pel'chance 
. During the Pa;-;
ioll we read the prophet Jeremiah
but only in the church, Durin'
 the Pa
chal oeta\"e the A('t
 (If the Apostles, and 
tht'nce to the 
\-;l'en::;iou, the Apocalypse, and the ('anonicaJ Epistle:" which rpad- 
ing continue
 till Peulecost; inc1wlin;! the hooks of Killgs, of Solomon, Job
Tuby, JUllith, E..;ther, ESllras, and l\Iaccahee..; : all which are read only in the re- 
fectol'Y, an) ne\'e1' in Ihe ehm'eh, ex(,pptiu!! in pOi,tion, on cerl:tÏn SnI}llay=", From 
the calends ofXovember Ezechid is r(a<1 only in thechllrch, and fiuished hef(}re the 
ft'ast of St. ':Uartin, and then we read Danit.) and the Twelve Prophets, with 
llOmilie..; of thf> hlf's.,ofl Pope Grpg'oT\? noon EzC'"hif>l. nl1l'ing A(h'ent we rf>:H
 prophet E..aia, whi('h is (>"f>lh'ralh, filli",hC'r! in 
ix nights, Then f()l1ow the 

. L 
epistIès of Pope Leo. De Ille.trnatione Domini, an(l otlH'r serrnonH of the holy 
Llthers, especially of St. Augustin. We then read the Apostle; the Epistle to 

* lb. c. xii. 18. t Hist. Ca
sinenB. Sæc, v, 
t .\ D!!elO Manrique Cj
terciensium Anna1, tom, i. 
 Reg. c, 55, I Præfat. in 1 Sæc, BeD. 
-:1 Joan ù Jesu InE'lructio 'f:1
istri Novitior. c. 19. .. Ib, 


i () It K 
 CAT II 0 LIe I j 0 R, 

the Homalls i
Jl1 Ihrollgh in two night... T fill(' \po,th ...hould he fini..Jard 
l}('furc &'ptu:lgc. in\.l, \\c r('aJ till' rxpusition c f St. .Juhn (,hl'y
ost, m up"n thr 
tlè to the H. 01'( \VS. Thi
 is thc cirel · of the )'f.':lr."* 
III the \\ i
e c01lJIHuliities of tlte we:--tel"ll mOllk-, att:wh..d to the qoil hy lahor, 
men beheM fc.)r the fir"t time wOl,k hy fr,'c h:lIId... I utIi(' rule of St. HI 11' dict, 
asn l"I't'nch historiall ohser\"e
, "0111> is ...truck at dIe 3,hllir:tLI. el}lIilihr:ulII of(1e- 
votion alld practiee, Lahol' is the first woI'(1 of St. BCllcdict's fule. III vaill c1iJ- 
some of ,he lri,h :-et'l" a morc my..tic rule 1II)(1er Ihat of 
t. Colurllban, aJruit- 
ting ollly pra)'er slid cnnt('mpbtion :u'('onling to the orif.'nt:11 il1la, The rule of 
St. Bl'nediet (''Xlillguis}1('<! it ill the w(':--t, Thi:-; md..r gavt' to thc 3.IH'i(\lIt worlel, 
W01'l1 wilh sla\"('ry, lile first example of lahol' p<,rfiu'lIl('d by free n1<'lI. Fot,tlH' 
first time, thc ('itiz('n, humhltt(1 by the ruin of th(' city, tUl'lled his e)'E's to the 
 whi(.h IIf.> had df sp:sf>(l, :l1Id n.nwmhen'(] th(\ lahor which W:IS eomm3lHh'd 
at the bl'ginnill
 of Ihp world ill Ih,. 'f.'ntl'IH't' IH'IIIIClUlIf.'I'el (In .\<1:1111, Thi:oi 
illnll\'atioll of fret> and voluntary lahor, eflt'l'Íl'd by the I\) (In I.: 8, i th. ba:--i:i of 
the lll"d
rn :o'ociety." 
" 011 ar,'i\'illg at the monastery ofSt. lEquitius," Fa
'..; Julian, who had he(>11 
sent hy the Roman pontiff, "1 [oUlltl Ihere ...orne vld l1H'n \Vritin
: I askcJ, 
wh('rc \\a."\ the ahhot? atu1 tlwy r('p1ie.d, cy n the \'aJl(')' l){,l1l'ath tl1(> I\)ona!-'tcry h(\ 
i:'t cutling 
ras...'" ðpf.'akillg of lIe rill ill, {.Iund('l' of Bt'l', 3011(1 of Iii.. first Itlonk:-l, 
\Villial11 of .Jul1liège say:--,-"You \\ould J.a\'t
 . '('II them, a ft.. I' tht' of1ì('C of the 
dmrl'h, going into tlte field:-- to 
pt>nd the day in agril'ultnr,,1 lahors; the abbot 
 tilt' b ds tJn his l.(\l1d, amI hol(lil1g tool..; ill his halu1 ; bornc c1c....lI'ing the 
grollnd, otlH'rs ('arr)'in
 lII:mtll'('OIl thcir shllul.I('I", allcl"'pl'rodil1g itelll titf' gl'ound ; 
110 UII(' ('atill
 hi.; hread in iellpllP
", :111 r('lUt'ltill
 to the chul"('h at Ihl' houl' or 
tlll'divill(' ome.p, and tlll'lI :-:ittillg (lown to a lIIf.'al of oat.'n anel lu.rhs \\ ith 
:-:alt Rile) \\atc'r.t \\'hen tlH' mOllk.. of (,lulIY U' d to go illto th(' fi..}cls to \\ork, 
tile)' wClulel hl'g-in by ::st:.mdin1; in onlt'1' \\ itlt tlll'il' LWc'" 10 the, allcJ then, after 
!'hol't pl':\yer
, IIIPY pro('l'f.dc>ll 10 labor witb Ih('il'llanels. 
From tht> tran>!,.; of Dom :\lart<'I1t' we c:ln learn how ..lri('t1
. tIlt' Itlonk
plif.'d "ilh thi:" illjt1lwtiou 11I1c (lcmn to Ihl' latter tilll('R. "In till' ah- 
bey ofOr\"al," he S.1)':-:, " \\ e sa\\ angrls in mortal h, di '-. l.JC:llons imitatc\r:3 of 
tl1(' fir,t L,'lwr.., tllf'
" ohscr\'e Imt.qllal houri in tbe di,tributiull of their (''\.ere'i
thp)' work in thp fi('ld...:, alld 1301.:(' tlll'ir c1inllel' tla('re (Jnrill
 the han"t.,t; Ihl'J are 
 !!:a.", amI on" ";('('.
 thl' joy of their -ou) pain1('1} 011 tlll'ir ('olllltlllam'I'8,"S 
On al'ri\'in
 at. thl' abl><,y ofGcmhlol1x, Wl' Iward that tlu' cb.\' }'f.'fc)re tllc monks 
had b(,(,11 :1t work five laonrs ill tilt', gallwring' in thl' han'e'l.lI " On \\eak 
:lIld c1t'lit':ltp brethren," !o':\)'S tlap rill.. of 81. BellccJi('r, ":,III,h work...:, or art
, !"houlcI 
be f.'n} ,inl'tI, that they may Il('Ìth"r ht' idle, nor oppr(''''Loù with ,"in}cnt lahor. 

· Anliq. (,lun, <'. 1. ap. D \C'h..r. 8pici1e!!. iv. t Lib. vi, c, 9, 
t .\ntiq. ('on":IU'1. f'JuniacI'no: '(on. Lih. 1. c. ,-,II. lip. O'\cher. 
pidleg. iv. 

 VOY:\1!e Lil. c1" Ol'l\X Bt'n. t-t
. 9, 11h. 117. 

AGE S 0 F F A I T H. 


If there should be artisans in the monastC'ry, let them exerci
e their art with all 
humility, mullet not anu,ice creep in by the :òale of their works, but let them a1- 
wa":,; be givPII cheaper than the f'aIlle would be sold by :òeculars, that in all things 
Gnd may he glorifh.d."* .:\Iany m,f)u);;s, wht) sttuJipd mechanics in the time of Pope 
St. Grt'gor)' VII. arc :-opokpl1 of a.. being most skilful workmen. Th('y were :Ir('hi- 
teets, carvers in wood, workers in metal j and e\"en the common arts for the n
e of 
the mOlla-;tery, such a3 those of :-Loemaker.; and vestment-makers, were exerci:;ed 
by monkA.t 
Trithemius mention..; that there were 150 monks in Hirsehau; and, be..ides 
these, there were sixty Lear(led brt.thren, who were not clerks, but called conver- 
tite:-:, who were employ('d in m311uallabor, and imitating the (,olJtemplatioll of the 
monks. cc Amongst thf'ðe werc men :;;kil1e<l in all m('chalJical arts: carpenters, 
masons, smiths, sell I pwr::;, carvers; and also tailor:; and shoemaker:;: all these 
llipt in common in the church at nocturnal vigils, ancJ had pel'mi:òsiou either 
to follow the monk,' offi('p
 01' to hear :;;horter, and all dined together in the 
l'efe('toI'Y. The ma..ter of the
e convertit
s was one of the 
est monks, and 
most learned in the Scripture
 an(l skilled in pl'{'aching: 'l\Iaster Bal'bato- 
l'um' wa5 his name. On Sundays and festÏ\'a)s after prime, and again after 
sext or nones, he preached OD vulgar obsef\'ance, There were also fifty oblats- 
men who retained their secular habit, doing all kinds of menial work, helping the 
builde1's and carrying watel', and re3dy for any duty,-who abo s
rvf'd in the hos- 
pital, and all with the alacrity of eharity; and they also bad a master, who was 
a monk. Thus there were in all 260 men, 
erviug God in all the fervor of char- 
ity alld peace of religion, ill all cleannes:; of heart and pO\'erty of spirit, !'o that 
it wa.. truly admirablp to think of it. At compliD every night, they all met in the 
church; and, when the office was finished, all retil,ed in sil('Dce to their cells, 0 
how heautiful and delightful to behold such peace OD earth, such a fraternity among 
mell 1"+ 
From the seventh century, in the abbey of St. Denis, there was a certain num- 
ber of poor, calI
1 l\IaÍ1,iculal'ii from their names being inscribed on the boards 
of the abbey; am1 the
e we!'e supported an(! employed in variou:; ways"
I. Although the monks, "says Pete!' the "T enerable, aLbot of Clun}'", "bave ser- 
 and rll
tic lab()rer
, we employ them only for lawful uses, aUlI never 
vex th
m by {'xactiol1:-:, 01' impose any thing insupportable. ] f we 
ee them in 
want, we :;l1ppOl't thcm with our own. 'Ve have :-:,ef\yallb and maidservant:', Hut 
as servant., and maid-
, but as }H,othel'...; and si:;ters; aud \ve nevel' lwrmit 
anyone to injure tht'm, "II In the Bencdictine urder, the abbot.
 and abbesses, 
on cel'tain days of thp year, \\'t're to minì:,ter tn their inferiors in the kitchen. 
The ru1e of St. Ferreolus, as also the ritual of Bec, prescl'ihe;; that thi,; shall be 

 Reg, cap, 58. 
t Trithem. in Cbroniç, Hirsaugiensis, 
I S, Pet, Ven, Abb, Cluu. E!li,t. Lih. i. 28. 

t Voigt Hildebrand und sein Zeitalter, 

 Lehæuf. Hist, du Diocèse de Paris, iii. 200. 


)1 0 1:. E 
 CAT II 0 L 1 (J J; Ù H, 

òOlle three time:; in the year. All thi.. pictllrc lIf mona::itic works I sa\\ realized, 
\\ nile I n'sidcd iu the abbe)' of Camaldoli j ami I reluelllLcl' beillg lUuch 
at the picty of the :;en"allts all<l hl'nl'lllclI, who u
d to U
 a".emLltll e\"cr}' e\,(
iug to "'3.)" the ro:",ar)" allli the litallY, illlll1l'diatc1y after the monks had ...uug \'t'
In cOlldu..ioll ouc may oL:o.t.rve tbat the dÍ\' i:::-iou of lahor Wa
 u.,., well oròl'1"l'll in 
mOlla,tl>ries 38 iu the most indu:-triou:, city. Some \\ erc charged with altt'luling 
to the illtere...;t::i of the cloislcr ; other::, \\ crc to pre..idl' o\"er the crop'" and harVbt. 
Oue wa.; to r('('pive the lribut,-'i ; anothcr to r('
ulate thc dome:-tic ('('OIlOID}'. One 
Lad earl' of the sick; ußother had to receive the pilgrims ami :,trangers j another to 
wait upon the poor.* 




_Y ( RUT
\ non IIierusalclIl in IUl'erlli
:" at hearing which words of tLe 

J Suprl'me Judgt', 
t. Ht'I'Il:l1'l1 l'
daim:-'J CI QUill ill Ibh)'lolle tutum, si 
L ð lIie1'1lsalem mallt,t :-l'rutinilllll !"
ow, \\ ht>Il.' ahll
 or deg-cllel"tl<'Y ex. 

. . istcd, there wa:- Bah)'lolI, in the judgmcllt of the ag" of faith; 
lIld the 
! 't t diffi clllt y of COllet aling IIr di-glli>ill!! allY ..
 it \\ hieh lII.illualld it,elf into 
tIlt' m:\l1I1t'1
 or in
titl1tinll- (,f the mi,1lllp a
", i,; one of the IUlI,t re- 
markablc f
atl1!'t':" which di:'tiu
ui..h tllf'lU from !all'I' tillll'
, C
Iany, by the 
per:-n3bion o( othc!':,," ::);1
':-" l't>tt'r tit> Blois, cc bt.]jf'\'C that their pCr\'cr:-it)' is hid- 
dt'll ; but the)' are pprilously decl'În'll: fi,r let c\'l'r
' supl'riol' be a
un.J, that, 011 
idc or lither, he will be nlway:i infamoll..;, ullle..s h(> f',"in
'e true :-..lnctit)" in 
his works: (''''ox populi vox U..i.t''' It wa:, l'<]11all)' impo:",..ible for relaxatioll 
ill comlllllllitiu) to htJ palliatl d or kept "(,C"I.(>t : it 
dOIl hC'(,
 lIois"ll ahroall. 
IIC'nce inquiry and r(-'form \\erc wOI'lI:i :18 (amiliaI' in 1I1O'l." tilll('" a.. ('on\'ersioll j 
and, accomillg to thc 3lh-ipe of the coun('iIlOl'
 of Alhcrt ,...., dul"e of 
ahbots ratllPr llesirt'll reform of exi..tillg than the PfCClion of IJ('\\ mOlla..teriC5.
But tllt'rf' W:l
 anotlwl' kilul of examination antieipatPl1, ami \'pr
' diUi'Il'utl)' rc- 
gardt'll; whil'h II II goo of 
t. Vi('tor thus l1t'..('I'ilw...;: " Bal:uu, tl1rllill
 his f:1('l' to- 
\\arl]s the desprt. :1I111 rai
 up his eyt-':"', hf'I.Pld ] ..r:u,1 d\\ (.lIill
 ill tc'llls h
' tribe...; 
and the 8 1 >irit of (
oJ cumill"" U I )on him he 
aid 'How l)t:1utiful are they t3L- 
:") " . 
, 0 JaeoL! anù thy teuts, 0 I"';l'ael!' 'rile \'aìn people tUfllS ih, [m'l' 

· .Michaud, des )Iona<;tères au Moyen-age, t 
erm. 5:1. t Epi
t. 15- 

 Sl'n.J.t, Dialog, Jli
tll1ic )lartini .\hhatis SrotorulH '"il'lI. np, Pez, }-.;ript, Her. .\ust. ii, 

 O.F' F A I T ll, 


towards thc dpsprt, wli ile in 
ecret thought it examinee; attentively the conversation 
of tho,..:c who live 
pil'ituall)', it rai::;e:-i it,.; e)"e:o. tlaat it may :-:ee L..rael."* 
To the vain people, thlls idly engagell, many objections are familial', foull<Ied 
upon thc imaginary or rcal aLm-e..; wLieh exi:-;ted uccasionally in the lUoliastel'ies 
of the middle ages. The
e are vain, a", will be evidcnt, after a calm in\'e:,tigation : 
s, it will be nece
;;:al'y to touch up"n this ground, so a-; to cnùeavor to 
form a correct e::;timate of tbe validity of the charges whicb arc 
ulJlIccÙ agaim:t 
the p('acef111 communities to which Chri:-;tianity gave rise. 
()W, in orùer to dis- 
cover tbe ;lbllses which arrÍ\"cù ill ll1onaitcril's, to what oooks :;hould we refer? 
To those of the monk", them:,elves, antI of the Ulen who loved monastel'ie:o'. If we 
f('atl the .\pology of 81. Bprnanl, we shall fiml that tbe modern unbelievers have 
llothilw to uru'e 
wainst the aou:o:cs of the lUona:,tic :-tate, that wa::; not ex p useù with 
o 0 
far greater' fi>rce by that great father of monks and of the Church. 
" In expo.;;ing- abuses,' says 
t. Bernard, c. I ùo not fear that I shall give trouble 
to tho,.;e who love the order; but I feel :Is;:;ured that they will look gratefully on 
tho:-ie who attack what they themsel ves detest,"t "In all the religious order:;," 
say:; .John of Salisbury, "there are foullù some of tile faithful and some of the rep- 
robate, NOl' i:'i the truth of religion 01' of profe-:,ion on that account obscured: 
fi)r \\"hat profession is there, or what society ha
 eYeL' been read of, !lItO which 
SOIllC hlot did not penetrate?" After a long condemnation of I he vices which 
could be discerne<1 in;, he conclude.;; thus: "This does not rf'fer to the 
men who ob::;er\'e theiL' prufe-;
ion. There i..; no I;f(' more f:.Lithflll, none more 
simple, none mure happy, than theirs within the cloister, perfOl'ming their dllties 
humbly, in all obedien{'e and re\
ert:'nce, in all sanctification and honor, conver:-;ing 
with God; and, as if terrestL'i
d angel
, ignorant of all the pelturbations of the 
world. If tht:'re bE:.: any tbing- ill what is 
aid which may 
eell1 tu afflict them, it 
should be referreù to fraternal charity."! "
ee your vocation, orethren," says 
anotller guide: " to enter a monasteL'y is the beginning of the utmost perfection; 
but to live Bot perfectly in a monastery, is the utmost danmation."9 III the earl- 
iest J ecords of mona:-itic hi
tory some traces of evil men are fOllnd. The de:,ert had 
its Sarabaïte
, those IInworthy childern. In the latter time.
, pretended Francis- 
cans, and pretended Cl
re:;, caused scandal in !tal y, anù gave occa
jon to papal 
censures, II In every abbey, pel'hÚps, lay tlQl+le de8d member, to use the expres- 
sion of the Carthusian 8utor....s, who cites in eonl1rma.tion of it the text, " Yon 
est Jornus in qua non jaceat mortall....;,"
 Speaking of tbe-e nlOnasterif's, the ah- 
 of the middle a
e,; repeat the wordH of St. Al1gn4in, awl say, "I d,) not 
o pretend that my hOIl-e ilÖ better than the ark of XO;}, where, among eight 
men, OlJe rf>probate was f(JUnd,-or lwth'r than the hou:,e of Abraham, where it 
was said, C Ejice ancillam et filillffi ejus,'-or better than the habitation of our 

* Serm, 78. t .Apologia ad Gllil1e1. c, 7, * De Nuda Cnri!\1ium, c, 21. 

 Nuremberg Duct. 4\scet. I. iv, 
6, I Waddin!!, An. )Iinorum, tom. iii. ,. Exod. xviii. 


I 0 It Ese A T II 0 L I tJ I; 0 n. 

Lord Chri..:t, in whieh eleven goo 1 men tolerated the thief and traitor Ju<!3s,-nr 
bdter than 11"a\"('1I it...df, frlllU whi(,h th.. allg-el..; fdl." In a poem rl'!-pccting the 
l'eligiolJ::) ordl'r
, writ 'n ahout till' ('n,1 of the t\\"(.lflil ('l'ntury, the f;ollrce of all 
ùanger to the cloistral discipJilie \\a... tlm:, point('(l Ollt :- 

.. Qui 8unt in clau
tro quasi 
nthan in Pluadi80. 
PlurilUß fslsurnm sunt Vt'rc perkulll frntrum, 
Et venit a (abis f, allÏbu_ omne malum,"* 

Rut th{>re \Vpr{> many 
pring..; from whi(.h tll!' \\ah'r
 (If h;ttt'rnp:-s mi
ht flOfV. 
GllilH,...t, abhot of X()
l'nt, 3scrilx...; till' dt'(.lillt' \\ hidl h:Hl 0('('u""("11 h(.filt'l.lti h time 
ill Ih. IUl/n:I:'\;ic diseiplillt' to the {,1I8tom (lfn'('pivill!! dlil(lren, "ho..c pl'e".'fIl'.' ilHl'O- 
ducl d (':u'cll':-sn ':)"Ì filld h'pldit,\ into tht> unI.'I'. t Th.' unhappy G"u,,('haik had 
thlls heen oßt.'r '(I, by hi
 fathet', COlJllt 13('rnll:" a "'axoll, tù the ahh{'
' flf Fulda, 
wlH're It:rhan :\fallr, ag-ain!':t tilt' 
'o1lth':) 11I('lin:rtion:-, per:,isted in thinldn1! that 
tlw R(.t of hi
 part'nlS hOlll111 him tc) the state St
p.lratt> to God. Gothwh31k :Ip- 
IX':.lled to Ihe Ar('hhishop Ol
ar. uf
lz, \\ho ('OI\Vl'n"tl a 
YIll)(J, to \\hidll':.lmC 
twenty-('i,,.ht bishop...: alld :-ix ubhots; nnd the rc...nlt (If "hieh "3::), that Raban 
t1mmonecl to 3n..wer b .fore the Ernp,'ror Lewi" to whom he addn .... I a 
writing in h:s o\\n dt>fi'nlò:f', t'ntitl"cI " l>t' Oi)1atioll(;' PIIPl"OrulU." of which tlat'ft' ii 
a cop
' in th{> 3hhp)" flf ,r('lk, in Anstri:l. n"ttsch:alk, )")Wt'ver, fcmailled in tlae 
monastit' ,.tab', thou,,.h he rt>ll1o\'eiJ to tIle ah1.,..y of Orbais, in the diocese 
of ::5oi ons. 
Ag':tillst I J.i
 (,lIst,\01, fcmluled upon p3S."3.g'e... uf tilt" uM Tt':-tarnent, hut oftt-'n 
the rf'st11t (If i
nl)ran('(' or IIn\V'lrth
" moti\"f'''' in worl,ll)' par('nt
, h.)tli tl1<' ml/nks 
awl the 
O\'er('ign pnlltiff.. ('OI1lillll:llly raiS{'(J t}wir \"lIil'I'..., TIlt.' mOl1k
 \H're (',Ire- 
fnl to show the imporl:tn('> (If IIl1dl'rtakin!! that hilly lift,. twt thr"tlt!h the ad,"ice 
or inflnenrc of parpnt" hut willindy of t}wir 0\\'11 :l('('orcJ, aud ..(Ill 1,\' fl)m'ed by 
th(' \,o(.:tlion of Cltri8t.t That all 
cr\'ice and !':
('rifi('f' mn
t he yohmtary, i:oo :,hnwn 
hy ontO wrikr of tlw milldle ag".'
 in tla('
,. worclf' : .t E
o qt1id('1U homo !<oHm, non 
:1:-öinlls, lit "pflnt:lnt'tI..: in\'itt'I' ad onem, non comlwllar in\"itll:-."
 To provide 
:1g'3.i n..t the i II ('all t ion.. r('('('!)tion of nO\'i('('i i n m/ln:t..:tcrit.
, St. Benedict, at the 
f;.\'lIol of Aix-l:I.('hapt'II(', in 817, (,:lU"'t>ù it tn hl'dwrPl'<L that thp entrnIH'(, to 
1J(mla not hp mad{> f'n..:y to IIm'iN'';; that, in the ('p11 of tlu> g'l1f'
tlwy slwuM ..('t'\'(' th('':\\I
 a {('w (b
'", fell' Ih,.. !-akf> of prohation; 3)HItlmt, 
if tlwy had an
' prnpt'rty, it was to h(' 
iv"l1 In par(,lIt-,1I r tlalri{'tI:' a(,l'ord- 
p r('lat('
. in his {'ltstmu:, ofClltIl)'. tlt:lt th,. oh1at..-th:lt i
. tire dtildrcn whn 
h:..1 h,'pn offt.rt'cf to the monastf'r.\' hy their par..nt..-wpre givPtl the habit, hut 
that the helwdietion \\as d..fcrre(l until th{'J' :-}lOulll attain the legitim3te age; 

· Senlt'nli.{Brnnc11i de Oròinihus Rcli'!iosi!! sp. )Iartcne. Yet, Script. tom. vI. 
t I)" Ylta Proprin, i. II. 
t Antiquior. {;omuctud. Cluniacens, Mon, ap. D.lcbcr. 
picileg, iv. 
 Pet. Bll.
. Ep. 123. 
I Cap. 34, 

AG E S 0 F F A IT 11. 


t i8, says 
Iabillon, uutil they should be of au age to know their own will j 
for without their own :",p u mall v olJs clwiee, it \Va:; exprcs-
ly forbidden by the later 
canUIIS, to make them lUouks.* At I1ir:;dlau, ill the tenth celltury, nooue uudel' 
twenty wa:05 permitted to profe
s.i .\. chilli, name,l Lambert, bad been couðll'ailled 
by hi
 [tthel' to as::iume the mon:l:,tic habit. On growillg liP, he wi
hl'd to ill- 
berit the (roods of his famil y of which hi-; pareuts sought to deprive bim, l'ope 

Xi('hola::ì 1. (lec1ared his profes.;iûn lIull:t: The Church terribly cUlldculIled tho:",e 
whu eutcl'&l a monastery from any I'tllPr motive hut piety. "Such per:;on:,," sa)'S 
the couu(,il of Cologne under IIerm:1ll V" C( are not SOliS of GuJ, 01' monks, but 
dearly mel'('t:'nal'le:o; j" and the coul1eil of Trent pronounce:; au anathema upon an, 
of whatever quality or state, who should cum pel or entice alJY olle tu take the 
Iabillon ha
 pl'Oved, by the testimouy of Cardinal Peter Damian, 
that the custom of offering children had been abolished, at l\Iuuut-CassiJlo, befOl'e 
the end of the twelfth centurv. So attached to it were some parents, that Pope 
Clement III. hat} fOllnd grC'at difficulties ill lahorillg to extirpate it; and tllf're 
were not wanting writer
 to inveigh against 
l(('h prohibition..;. IIowevel', if it 
ling-ered any where, the decrees of Celestin III. aUlI of Inlloeent III. put a total 
end to it. The youn
 St. Tholl1a.., was :-ient to l\Iollut-Cas:-,ino at the age of five, 
merely to be eJucated with other children, and th:1t also under a seculal' tutor.1f 
Loui5 of Pari..;, in his expo:-:ition of the rule of the Fr:.lnci:,('all
how:-i how well 
guanled wa... that ordpr frolll ail abuse on this fiide, .C No oue," he say:" " who 
is the sllIe ;support (If hi:i parents, pall he rpceive,1 into it. If Ihe parents of a 
friar faB into extreme neees..;lty, he is to sllccor them; if not within the ol'tler, he 
can lea\?e it, alH} wOI,k rOf' them, asking leave from his superior:05 ; and if leave 
shoul,] be refl1..ed, he must still do so, bf'cal1se he is more oblígf'd to thp divine 
and natural law than to all vows: but it iR pel'tain that he can always a:-:
ist them 
otherwise, as thel'/) :Ire never wanri ng ('har-itahle per:-ìol1:": to prevent t bp lIeces:,ity of a 
frial' leaving- bi", order, The hrethren cannot induce, directl
' or indirectly, a no- 
vice to leave his g-oods to the ordel', or to the parent
 of the brethren, however, 
poor. .No one havin
 debt:-; can be received into ir; but if any :-;hould bp so re- 
<.'cived, the ordt-r is ohli
ed to pay the debt.:, The brpthren lllUSt I)ot receive any 
one fur 
ake of f1'Íend..,hip, relationship, or any hnman re:,pet.t; and must I)ot re- 
fuse anyone throngh hatred, contempt, or anv human resppct, ulldel' pain ofnwr- 
tal sin."
,- In the ahbey of St.G:llJ, 
'ollth-; of high nohility were not 
o milch 
desired: as experielll'e proved that tllPY. J)}orp than others, were liable to d(>gen- 
erate, alld introduce cOllfu,.;iou and "to,laxation into ('loister:-i. ** 
 mona..tic exemption:" though grantpd with an pxcelJent intpntion, were 
sometimes a 
,)\Jrce of abuse, against which St. Bernard expre.
sly wrote, in- 

* Præf. In IV, ::;æc, Ben. 7 t Trithem. in Chronic_ Hirsaug. 

 Bibliotb. Hi
t. tle la COII
reg_ de S, 
 Sess. 25. c. 18, 
D Touron, Vie de S, Tliom. 13, f, Expos, Lit, de )8 Règle des FF, 
Iineurs, c, 2. 
*.jr: Eckcbard in Cas, 


)1 U H E 
 (J.\ T 11 U LIe I j 0 H, 

('uleating the (ility of obedieucc t) the 01"(1: 11ar)'. * (( 
.IIUC 111011a
terie,," he says, 
" ill difJl'n'nt dioe('
 ", IH...rtain more irnwt-dimely to the Huly 
 'C, frum till' wil1 or 
the f
)undl'r:-:; hut wLat Ùt'\'otioll gl"'.11lb, i
 OIlC thing; :lIul "hat nmilition, illl- 
p:ttipllt ofslIl
el'ti(ln, ('''lItrin

, i
 aliothl'I"."t TIHI
 II(' writ(...; to POP(' IlIl1ocellt, 
to ddi..'ml .\Ioel'o, archhi..hop of Tn'\'(',,:, ag'ain..t tht' unholy :,Ll>ot of St. 1\la>.imin 
ami :--om(' ('ontl1mat'iol1:-< mOllks, \\ 110, unùel' IH'('Ìl'UCC of tlll'ir immuuirit's, Opptl
the wish of that pn.latt. to n.form thl'I11.: In 1213, th
 Lateran Coma'il delH'i \'f d 
allh('}':"1 of all (>('de
ia,tit'al jllri..di(,tioll to whi(.it tlac.') were lIot in a L1.)ndition to 
prove t hcir clai ms. \ Iwt IH'I" SOUl'C' , of (1e.'
('n(,I"a(,Y of COlli :", "2.. i II tilt' J)lC'n tllC'rn- 
 who emLrac.('d the I))olla-;ti(, srate. It W:lS the.' ("(,III:lrk of Epi('tc,tu
, mltl of 
::111 the old sa!!('", that, to m,'n of 1>3";P lIatlll(...., the !"tlldy of phil,,'ophy \\"u.. rorher 
i/ljuriolls than helll'Íìc'ia1. 'r
H'1I he pt'l'('ci\'('(1 a Ulan \\ jthout c;;lmlUf', impOl'tllllate 
and :"llbl'iou
, (,oI'l'Upt :lIlCll11!o'oh'nt, he knew him to he OIlC who IIHÙCUC.>ù with the 

tll(ly and cli
('ip]inc' of plli)osophy.
.('k:-; to qllf'
tioll \\"1)('tl1cl' :--llC'h eßi:ct!o'('ould he di"c()\'('l'cd in the doistl'l'? 
Doubtlf' there might ht. fOllllcl at til
1t. "'lIml' l'ollntcl'fcir, in \\ ho
e hood that 
dark hirù nestlt'cI of \\ hich n.U1h.. ..peak:--; thollg-Ia 
u('h impo..tors found not ICIng- 
1>(,II(>ath tlwir h:lIld.. of pl'dmi..e the thl'ClII
 hl'lll'atla who waited fOl' th
tllP)' Wl're' sure to l,P 'mlUa
ket1 at "'n
th, ancl clt i\'PII Ollt. Bllt a IHo,'e ..uLtlt' 
mi:--C'hief'd ill thp 
"a,ll1al d..dillc of piet\' in othCIS, \\ ho, iR their eom- 
mew'('mcnt, had :--ht'(l lust I't'. " 'rh
' d, )f1l,: tilt' manna ta 110" i n 
i I}ill is you r 
mouth," !-':I
'S thl' :Is"c..tie to monk.. in thii clIlI(lirioll, "if it i:i not that you 
ha n' rl.tlll'1l('(1 to :--eek t lae w... tc-Iwcl ('oll..obt ion..; of t lae world? Rt'lIIfo'lU h..r 
going out from E
ypt. 1 t tlmr cla.\' of tile.> Lol'cI he fort'ver in your 111('11101')". 
Unqu{'..tionably tht' hanll of the L(11'l1 ":I
 with VCIU, 01' t:l
 you would ha\'e 1'(>- 
m:tilu'cI in the \\orld, "'here> i..;, tItI'n, that :-pi, it. that primitive. fet'\'or, that tirm 
intention, that iIllIHO\'C'.lhl(> 1"I'
ollltilln. tlmt lo\'e :--tJ"()n
 :1..; (1('alh ?"II 
Tile apo':!tatc of El'ful'lh ð:.l)'S, that he rl'ml'lIlhl'r;) wl.II :,ft r prollollßcin h
lIlona..;tic \'0\\ that his farher ('xcbillled, ,. IIe.'\'I>n grant that thi.; m:1\' not ue a 
trick of 8at:1II !" .. \\" OI'cls whi('h slink ..0 II( Pp into m
' 1ll':11 1." he ailcl
, ,. that it 
!-'l'elH('(1 a
 if nocl h:ul :-;pokt U by hi... mouth," TIJP 
('t'c1..; of If'S=" manif('st c\,il (":\,- 
isrl.d in th" natural 01' :1('C]lIir('c1 ill('lIu-t 1llC')' of :--.Htl<' m( n, wI.o \\",mlll nllt 1lull'(.J 
opt'nly rt'IIOIIIH"e tlH':1' pI'IIf('
:-.i()lJ, hut :1:-- i:'\t rll prolluC'(' I'd:n.atiolJ"', Jil",(' that of 
the :--t'l'aphie family to which J blltl alludc',,; .. 1)( ing tnl'ned hack wanl. when by 

parta th('l'e were m:u1<. ('han!!(
 in it.. I'll It" ., I Ip:u'n,'c1 frllm a (,PI.tian 
prud('lIt allcll'('ligiou
 mau," baYS I1I1J!o of:,t. Yidol", ,. that rlal're are :--oll1e kinds 
of mlU who c.m 
(':tl'l.t'ly ('VI'" be r,'taillc tl with ortl"r ill f"(.ligillll. Th('
(' :.11"(> 
, physicians, alld hutfo'III
. \\ ho arc ncc'ustol1wcl to tra\'el through ,lit1crput 
Ien of thi:-, ù,,"eriptioD C.lIJ hardl
' he :--table. The art of psillting is 

 D, rn de Oßìc:in Epi"(,IIp. U. 

 AliI. Gt'!. xVii 19. 

t Dt, Con
idt r.alimU'. iii. . 
I Thllm. ì\ KC'mpi!o, Epi:- t i. 

t }'p,"1. 1"'0. 



,"ery dclightful; for when a paiuter has painted 
t church, a ohapter-room; a re- 
fectur\' ur :111\.' cabinet:", if le
we be granted to him, on being invitetl with en- 
" , J 
treaties, hc g
 to auother mona..tery for the bake of IJ:.tillting, lie paints the 
work:; of ChrÍ:st upon a wall, but I wi-;h he would hold th('111 iu mind, that he 
might know how to paint them in his life and manlier:", The mellicinal art re- 
quircs many thillgs; fin' Iw who cxerci-es it mu:-;t have ablllHlance of aromatic 
plants amI mellicine:". ""hen anyone near the chureh falls sick, he is 
lskcIl to 
go to him, amI the abhot can hardly refl1sf' him permi...sion. Yet he only makes 
experiments on thing:; uncertain. The experiment i:5 faUacÏolls, and he is often 
deceived. "l"hl'l't:'3.:) a monk should never speak any thillg but what is true. 
BuffuoJl:; anù jC:'Iters also, and tho
e who have once acquired the habit of rambling, 
can scarcely ever be content to remain in the cloi4er."* The father
 of the 
cuuncil of Clo\"e:-õhoe in the eighth century l1ecl'pe<l that bi:-õlwps wel'e to take care 
that the 1l1OIIash'rie:.; shou1d corre:-,pond with their name; thar i
, shoulù be habita- 
tions of me 11 laboring for God in :"ilcnceaIHI pt'ace, amI nqt receptade
 of arts which 
llliuisterto pleasure, of poets, minstrels, and musicians, but the abode
 of men pray- 
ing, reading, and pr:1i
ing God; that the youth::; within them should be trained to 
the 100'eofthe 
acred Scriptures, in order that men well learned may be forth-coming 
to the general utility of the Church. :\Ionks and abbots of the middle ages had oc- 
casion from time to time to complain of the introduetion ofhullIan ,'aniry iutothe re- 
treat:; fwm which such pains hall been takf'n to exclude it. III 1281 a general chap- 
ter of the Cistercian... pronounced against the luxury of equipages which the ahbots 
ofCîreaux be
:.ln then to affect. It forb
HI any abbot or monk to mount into a char- 
iot or palanquin, imitating effi-minate delicacy, on pain of being commanded to fa..t 
on bread and \Vat"r. To wllat refinement cookery wa.; carrie<l in some m()na
in the age of St. Bernard appear:-i from hi:" apology to 'Villiam,t "'Vitli su('h 
art," he S:1)"S, " are all things prepart'ù, that when you have devoured fUlIr or fh"e 
dishe..;, you will imagine that you are only bpginning" 'Yho i
 able to de.;;crihe 
in how 111a-ny mod
s, to omit other tbings, eggs alone are turned and tortured, 
with what study tbey are converte(1 awl sllhvertpd, liqllified, hardened, aUtI di- 
he<1 ; IlOW fi-ied, now baked, HOW :ö:tllffed. now mixed, now separated ?-Ill 
some moua:,b-ries on great fcsti\'a1
 wille is mixed with hOlley and the du:,-t of 
pigment:;. Is this, too, fOl' the sake of the stomach and one's infirmity? ...\.Ias! 
uch potation
, when one rises to m:ttills, it will not be a song but a lamen- 
tation, c. Son cantum :"ed planctum potiu:,; extorquebis." Are we to laugh or to 
lament at such thing,.;? 'Vas it tlm,.; 
Ja(,:Hius livell ? tllU
 tltat Ra,il taught? 
thu-; that Antony ordained? tlm:, that the f:.tthel'
 in Egypt (>on\'er
ed? thus, fin- 
ally, that ooint... OlIo, 
Iaïolu-:, Odilll, Hugo helll the rult'?:t ..\
ain, he n.'marks 
that there al'e some men who are no :::ooner monks than thev find the\' ha,-e weak 
stomachs, and who, in-:tead ofheing- clad with the cheapest. raiment ;ccoròing to 

*Hugo de S, Viet. lnstitut. )[onasL Lib. i. e. -1.3. 

t c, 9, 

t Id. c, 9, 


)1 () H Ese A T II 0 LIe I i 0 l

the rule, seek the lliO...t c
; ::iO that 5car
eJy iu our prO\'inces ('au be fuum] 
all)' dung good en .ugh flu' dll'lIl. fhe Illost honorablc. 1'('1':-011:01 ill till \\odd, an 
c'mpcrur hilll
 woul,1 1I0t cli...daill till' 'ral'lncllh whic.h tliey \\car, if aclapted for 
thcir use." 
Some monks, in ddiancc of thc' 
allon-, \\ hidl did not eve II permit tht:lll to kl'Cp 
sporting dog...,* "ere knO\\Jl to inclul
t, in humillg, 
u1l1 Dom .Martclle rdalc::t au 
in:-wne' that tèll under hi..; own ohsel'\'ation: "Ún arri dllg at th
 Jittle ab- 
bey of Brimlll.r, which is in a \"a...t "'lIlitudt'," he S.I)':-3, "tIIC abbot \\a'i aL-elJt, hut 
thf" mUllk charged with l'l,t'l'ivillg :-trall
c I)) received u::) charitaLI}', and while 
\ul.iting tur diuner, led u
 into thl' kitchcn to \\ arlJ1 our:-C'ln's; fur in tlii
try thl.l"t: is not :-ú much ccrcmon}. \r e ('uumed a::ï man)" as tCll huntin
who \\arnH.d thcmo;.; .lvb l'OUHd a fire lar
c ('lIoll
h to rO.lst an ox, it },cing the 
clI...tomlwre to throw "hoJe trt'c
 iuto till' firc. "
e JuanI that \\e coul(llIut see 
thE" lihrar)' ; 80 \\ itllOut lo:-illg time, or tllinkiug tllat. we Just IIIl1c,h by uot blcillg 
it, \\C llloun1t't.1 our horse:.:. mid rod.. on to ;)Jccp at Htatbe.>r,r,"t \\"lal'rc ucla re- 
laxations prc,"aill'd, uedigelll'c anti tepitIit}, were a ImtUlaI l..'UU:-'llJ.UCI1L'C. C '
of HiC"tcrb...cla rt,lat{':, au iu
tauce in au amll
 m:UlUel'. "lleur)', a klli
IH of 
Rouu," he ..a
 5, " 1'3<:.... (1 U Lt nt \\ ith ll:--. A ftc'r he had n>[ul'IIC'<I home he mct one 
day thl' .\hhot Gl.rartl, amI :--aicl, I '(y lord I pray you tost'IlIllt'u :-ÍÆmc 80 mar 
to :-uc'h mid :--ut'h a piIlar in ) our dmrch, alllI I will pay" hatcn'r you a...k for it.' 
I \rh
', what '
l'\'il'C ('all it be of to )'011 '?' dt'1ll3ndet.l the other. ' I will pbct' it 
by my Led,' lepJiI d the kui
llt, 'for l'u
h i" it'i property, that whoe\'t'I' pllt... his 
lam(lnl':lI' it f:lll.. a...I('cp.' Evcl' attt'I'war,I", \\ hl.n tIlt' ahbot ft'lt drO\ysy ill the 
claureh. II(' h;l<I only to Jook at the stolle umI hc \\a.. aW
lkc Ri ever."t 
'- tht'r"fore thc're \\('1'(>; (.11', a
 Daut S<1.)'s," To allgeJ6, wisdom and lo\ye 
are iu one me
I'illre tle.'alt frolll IIim ill whom IlUu
ht ulJcqual d\\eIls; but \\ill 
anti l1Irons ill murtals with unlike wiug:- arc HcJgcd."S But, \\ hat is very im- 
portant to rt'mark, tl1(>.\' wCl'e cxpo"'c't.l; tlac
' \\ c'l'e hlllll'lIt
(I; allll 
1 rl'Íl,rlll :-()ouer 
or btcr wao; tht' 1'I,,,"lt. Thus a (,olllplc.te re:.tolatioll ofclist'ipline \\im>' .d St. 
Germain, 1..' 
\ uXcl'roi.., in 970, S1. 
Iaur tlls Fo.....,
 awl Sl. Dl'ni... near Paris in 
'-1, t)r. Uicharius in CentuJa awl .::;t. \\
 alaric in L uea in 9t\O, t)t. Petl'r at 'Ic- 
lun in 
H)], t\t. A nclrro" in Ylenll" ill 9' -1, 
t. UI)('he in ChartrC'B, 
and St. Bt'lIig11 in Dijon in !'
O, Fontanelle.' in 91jl, bt. .\l'nuJf in 

rar[ill anll 
t. Julian in Totlrti in 97;
, :\Ii(.i in9l'\4, where LeraJd \\"l'Ot(>, 
St. !)ctel' in 
CII":, Lcrins, OJ1P of tlat' earJie:-t ill Francf', ill !'7
t. EJi
..du.. in 
Nnyon in 9\.i0, fSt. (luintill Ileal' l'prt)ßl1c in 977, \\ herc the dtac()n Dutlo rclut
the hi
tol'Y of the XOl'man:; in the !-pil'it of the oM mill:-trcJ
; and ::'1. .Joclocu"i in 
'Vhen Petel', abhot of Cluny, had" 'nt courier.; with leUf'rs t41 all th. hous's 01 
ltit; order, convoking all the pri..r., of En
laud, Italy, and olbcr kingdoms to 

* ConcH. Pllri
, 1212. )I.-mtpellier, 121.. t Voyngc tll. :.?-t>.l. 
 [.j.,. iv. c. ,37. :: Par, 15. 



assemble at Cluny on the third Sl1nc]ay of Lellt, to receh"e more austere rules than 
had beell prcviou"ly observed, Onlelic Vitalis was struck at the fact that no dis- 
t-:('nticnt voice was heard. " The persons cC>l1yokec:1," he say
, " obeyed, and on 
the day fixed 200 prior
 met at Cluny. There were in tlap ahhey that ùay 1212 
monks. They made a pr0ce:-õ:-:iol1, claanting according to the 
iastical rite, anù 
in the joy of' hearts praising God dt-'voutly. I can spc
\k of thi-; with cer- 
tainty.. since I had the sati
f:.1Ctioll of bpi IIg there and of :ieeing thi:-; glorious army 
a:-;sembh-d 1U the name of Jesus Christ."* 
" In Ollr rehgious commllnitie..:," says Fleury, "those which have re]axf.d in 
their obsprvallces, though the ohjl'ct of that rpla
ation was to 
,ttraC't mm'c .lUI.W- 
bcrs, decrease fmID day to day, \\'hil
t the mo:'\t reg III at' anc] 31l...tpre houses are 
filled with eagerl1e

."t St. P,Pl'ltarcJ, aHuding to the wish of the old Abbot 
 to reform his commllliity and attain }>prfel'tion, {,xl)l"e
 himsplf in these 
tt'rms in writing to him: "'Vhence cOIII(1 sncll an ardol' fill' renewing the order 
spring np, but f!'Om a renovatioll of mind? Thus a goo<l tree yields good fruit. 
Your fruits are most pure, but what tree coul<l produce them cleallDt'ss of 
heart ?"+ 'Vith such fruits the doister
 of the micldlt> ages ahoulldt>d. " Theo- 
doric, abbot of Sf. Troll," says Rlldulfus, " loved our order am} all who Iovec:l it, 
in so much that no hl'uther clljoyed his frienc]ship who he dill not know W3S a 
faithful and diligent ooservel' of it:, duties; ancl on thp other hand, if a brother 
had ever so loudly reprehendecl allY thing ill his life, or words, ü\' works, yet if 
it was known to him that he was faithfnl and ,lili
ent, he had familiar and con- 
stant access to him; for he attended to nothin
 bllt the faithfitl discharge of the 
dutie...; impo:,ed by the church; neither age, nor f:.lmi liarity, nor-fear, nor consanguin- 
ity, nor 
ci('n('e, nor beauty, nor lIobility, HOl' p.'ospect of utility, nor anv other 
consideration, hall the slIIa]]est weight with him in oppo
ition to this."
 "'Vhat I 
am going to relate," says Cresar of Hpisteroach, "was told me by a certain aò- 
bot of our order, and by the mOil};: Everhard, of the mona.tery in which it 00- 
cUlTed. In O:-:tburg's Abbey, in the diocese of Utrecht, wa-; a zealous monk. 
On the df:ath of his abbot and the plection of anotllPr, whom he knew to be a 
worldly man, he lamented, 
aying', 'Alas! the di
ciplinp of this monastery will 
soon perish !' and he said, 'Lord Je..u
 Chri:-õt, let me Dot livp longer to witness 
the (]t>solatioll of this h()u
e.' As he coull} not be indw'(.d to give hi
 vote for 
the new ahhot, he 
aid to him with a tranquil mint}, 'God knows that I love you, 
but I know that thp. religion of this housp will be dt-'stro
'ecl by YOIl.' Eady on 
the lIext morning, after sa\'Încr mass , he de
in.d t,>> be anointed thoncrh in I )erfect 

 . ð , ð 
health. On theil' remonstl"anee he 1)(,l'sistec:l, B<'lyin!!, . This VPry day I shall die.' 
Then having placed the mat, IlP lay ,]own and cau:-:e<l tlw community to be as. 
sembled by striking the tablet. After the prayer:o:, a
 death diclnoi !OeClli to come, 

* Lib, xiiI. 
t Epist. 254. 

t Discourse sur I'Hist. Des vi, Prém. Sièc1e
, 20. 
t3 Cbromc. Atm. S. Trud. ap. Dacher. Spicileg. viL 


1\1 0 RES CAT II 0 I
 I C I; 0 HJ 

hp rosc up, 3nd placing on hi
 nCC'k the 
tf)l(\ with which hr gr'nf"ra1Ty 
ait1 mass, 
hc ill\'o1d,tl 
t. )far\', and pbcpd him';'f.1f hd
,re tIlt' altar, in tl)(' IHaUIll'r used 
with t11usc who are ill tlwÏr' agony. Tilt' just llIall':.. prayer was heartl; f()r heex- 
piret), and all that he had prt>diett'd ('alne to p.J....,..;."
 Tur:-tiu, 3rchhi..hop of 
York, ,,'rit .' 3"; r.,lluw.; to ""'i1Iiam, archbishop of Canterbury: "It is knuwn to 
many with \\ hat go"du('..s and renown of virtue the i1Jnstriou..; nlOna
ter)' of St. 
:\lary of York flourished in the eal'R of all men. Hence tht' ridlfoS of tIle house 
grf':ltly incrt'a.,t>t); bm a
 \'irtue sel')orn k"ep
 pat'#' \\ ith \\<.':.dth, 'Jhout half a 
) ear a
f)mt\ of the hrethern, mu\"l.'<l, I belil'Yl'1, by "l divine in....tinet, lx>g-:111 t,( be 
veh('ml'ntly a
itated in mind rt'-p,>(.ting the statl' of tlH'ir ('on\"l.
tion, nud by a 
('ience, no;; thpy t..stifit'() to .;.uffel' intt.rnaHy, t'al'in
 If:-;t they might 
he running in \'ain; f()l' they thmwht it woul,) hc a erinw, or ratI1f'I' ill
mity, if 
t h('
. :-ohoultl hf1ar th(' rn 1(' of .:31. Bt'u('()ict not to :--alvation, hut to jud rnu'llt of 
d(>ath. Thpy di:,cl():,
) their \"ÏPW
 tl) the PriOl' Hichard, "ho, :tft(>r IIllt
atitm, Pllgagt'd to a...
ist tl1Pm. fh('ir nnmlx'r solon mnolllltNl to thirtH>n. So on 
the vi
il of "'
. Peter amI Pall1, tIll' l
ior ltl,'hard, on whom ullll
t the whole 
cafe of the mona.:;ft'ry dc \'l)1v.... 1 , took \\Îth him his 
1Ib-prior Ger\'al
Rome of thp rp:--t, and (lisdo
1 thpir \\ ishe... familiarl)' to tllf' Lorll ..\ hhot, a man, 
indeeò, honorable anI) 
,)(Xl, but too .,implp 31)1) illitt'ratp. fI.... 
huddf'J'('() at thc 
novelty of the thilJ
, ant) <<lenie') that h(' (Aollhl f'hallge the cllstoms of the pla,.e. 
To him the Lor,1 Prior repIic,1 a"Ì:i JparUt....) man, an.i !'llOW('.} that they \\ j..hcd w 
inti O{)II'''(> no lJo,"c1tip..;, hilt on the cont I :U'
', to r.....tore [I... alJ('if'nt mOt)c of Ii fe 
institutell hy their hle!:i.Sl'f) F'atllf'l' Jwnctlict. and aho\'c all, dIP mo..t ancient gos- 
pel of Chri..t, which precedt d all I'tl 1 ('5. "" e >k not to (lispara 'J e allY otlacr 
: said they, 'we pnvy no f,ther
; we know that in e\'ery place we serve 
our Lord; we militate lJI)(h>r onc king': Imt \\e know that the rliflerent ex(' 
appoint('() hy tot. ßCIHoÙict to oh,'iate !o-Inth, the (>n('m
' of th,! !-oul,-SIIC'h 3'1 rp:u)- 
ing, prayer, lahor, industry, ..ilcll('e, and t-tahility, ought to Iw ub...en'NI :w('on.l- 
ing to hi.. rnlp. Therefore, 0 \'cllcrable father, It>t u... recnr tt) c\":mgelical pur- 
ity, to eV3ngclic.."11 perfection, and to l)(>Ræ. If wc compare our lives with that 

t:md:U't), we shall fice how \\e are f:lllen :lilt) ('n1ulell1nf d. Behold how aIi,'e is 
the'l in the Sa\'illiac monks, an,1 those of Cl:tir\":nn, who lah>ly rall1P to n
in whnm sn 
hinf>s the P\'an
('lic light that if it hI' lawful to ..ay 
o, it won I,) he 
mOfe useful to imitate them thall to f{'f'ite the 
o"pd. \\'llt'n their holy eonW'f- 
&"ltion is seen, the goslw1 :--L'em::, to I'e\'i\'e am) t1ouri...h a
in in them. Th('
' alone 
8CCk not their own alone; they alone pO
:;'C:: nl)thiJ)
; the}' alone injure not tlwir 
neigllbor; tll(')" afe content with a nlOth'rat.. ('ultul'e of thp ('arth, ancl th
e of 
cattle, and they do not SPf'k to ha\'(' the:-e unlt'

o Jon!! 21... God>.;., 1)('(':ltI
wheD (;od wishf's them to be taken away, they (10 not daim them hy liti ration. 
They, I believe, on truly Bay, ' Thp wor1d iscfucifieù to u..., 3nd we to the world.' 

lir. Lib. xi, c. 



They may be permitted to say, ( Dimitte nobis dehita nostra,' who have no debtor 
from "hom they wish to exact all)" thing. IIappy race of men, who.-;e habit;;, 
tJod, and entire mode of cUllvcr:-,3.tion savors of the GI)"pel. Their sole portion 
i:; God. As far a
 i:-; pus,.;ible tlr humanity, tlwy fulfil the law of loving God 
and their neighbor,;: for a(lhering to God alone, they huld all temporal things 
ill :;uch contempt, that they desire nothing which call be 3n occa
ion of angel' to 
theil' nClghbor ThereDu"e, 0 father, it cannot seem to be impossible to ob- 
rve the rule of ble:-,
 Benedit't, !-'ince God has given us :;uch examples.' Thus 
spake the prior, hut the Lord .\.bbut Galfrid. <li,l not rec('ive his word.; well; but 
R..; he acknowledged that he W:l:-ï le!-
 clear-sighted and It'arned, he desired them 
to explain more fully by writing what they thought could be enD)rCOO, and when 
this was done, h
 <le.;ired time fin' deliberation, ami promi
ed all all:,wer after the 
nativity of St. .:\Iary. 
[eallwhile the fears and re:;entment of the other monks 
became fo:O notOl'ious, that the Prior Richard, the ::)ub-prior, and secretary of the 
monastery thought fit to ()isclo..;e the whole to the al'chbi5hop, and demand his 
Uemencyand that of St. Peter. Therefore Tur:-ïtin the archLishop, hearing that 
these servants of God preferred nothing to the 10\'e of Christ, feared lest he 
offend in them again4 the grace of Christ if he did not attend to their petition 
an,l pl'Ovid
 for their nece
sity, and so by advice of religious per
ons he sum- 
moned before him the Loni Abbot Galfrid and Richard the prim', with his sub- 
prior, that h
 might procure the fulfilment of their wi:,heð in peace. They ac- 
cordingly protested again with tears that all they sought wa.::; to observe the rule 
in its ancient purity, aud the lord abbot weeping confessed that their work had 
been long required, and promised that he would be no impediment. The tepid 
monks, however, threw many obstacles in his way, nor was it until the exercise 
of the archbishop's authority that the reform was fully accomplished."* 
The influence of the WOI'U upon the manners of the cloi-;ter could not but be 
felt here and there during certain intervals. At one time secular men began to 
entice monks to come fi)l'\vard to 3:,sist them in their temporal affairs. Pope 
Eugene III. tlwn warned the Cistercian:-"; in a lettel' to their general chapter against 
pernlltting them..:elves to be thus persuaded. "Since the children of this wodd," 
he say
, ('cndf'avm' to draw you over, though unwilling, to manage their aff:.drs, 
am) wish to recall you from tbe peace of contemplation and the silence of the des- 
ert to occupations and secular busine
s, fix the eyes of your mind again on the in- 
stitutlOns of your fathers, ami having the prophetic example, choo,.:e rather to be 
abject in the hou
e of God, than to dwell ill dIP h'nts of sinners." At another 
time la
men in\yaded the mona:-:terie..:, and in ordpl' to plnnder them, pretended to 
have a right to govern them. The pnmp of some wOI,Tdly ahbot
 had opened 
the òoor to this almee; Í<Jf nothing couTd ":P('1ll to he secular after this deplorable 
example, "1 have :aeeut :;ays St. Berna 1,,1 , " an :.1bhot prl\cl'eding with more 

.. 81., Uerna.rd, 
plst, 4;S9 


[ u H Ese .A T II 0 LIe J; u H, 

than 1"i
ty hor
'mf'n in his train. If you were to see them J41
 you would 6.1.Y 
that tlwJ \\('re not fathers of mOlla,t 'rics, hut }.trcl
 of ca
t1(.s; 1I0t clire<'t,)rs of 

Ollll'o, but prill(,l:
 of pw\'in('p,.. S".1.r(' "ill tl!t,y (lcpal'[ fn'IH hOllle to a dis- 
 of ft\ur h'agnc8 without tal,iug nll tllPir fUril tll1C \\ith 11 I Pili , as if going 
wilh un army or 
,hl)ut to pa,:) :J dl'
crt, where it "ouM hp illlpu8.':Iible to find 
. Cunltl 110t one vt>:-sd suflice 1l)l' washin
 thc hands anli fi)r ÙI inking 
wille? \\Y oul.1 not a C'3ndle 
i,"e light without "ciliA' in Lr-.u)('II4,
, and tho8C of 
go11] or sil\'t'r? Conl(] not one sll'<'p nuh.,.; ulICl I' ('oVPl'illg-
 of (ort.iKI1 1II:JIlU- 
fat.turt>? Couldllot 0111' 
uffic(' to look uncI' thl' IlOr..(.,.:, UIl(1 wait at table, 
ml<1 pn'pare th. h(.d...."t In tllf' pighth c<<'ntury hegan in France the aLu-e 
of ('('rt
lin m(lm':.;(.('I'i(.
 heing taken po:,
e:-sion of forcihly b
' great lor(h;, who . .i/l'tl 
part of their re\'ennps for tllf'mseln.... The ahho[ of '1 urhart C"..tIlJC to Stutt- 
6'ard to th(' .\ "011(. of the ('OU\"t'lit Utlalril' (Ie 'Vurtpmllcl'
. &, I tholl
lit', "that tlie mona....;[cry of '[urh:lrt h:u] h,'pn f,IIIIHlt,.1 fur monk.. ; hut I now see 
that it wa
 fc)r dogs. )ly monks can JI(I I o 1t1!(' I' p...-fol'm tlit.' Ili\'ine om,,\, .uui.lst 
thp ce:l"'l'lt'
 barkinf!. 81) )()n
 3"; the, arc in my ('on\'('ut, I :-.h:lll r('main lien'. 
The lord \ ,'oué (':m nOlll'i,h 111(' IUIu-h more (,
" than [ C'an hi:o, do

." The 
4\ '"Ollé had ahu
..(l thp right of Bl'rnag p that of IOtI
in!! the lurd's do
s. The 
's hunt..mclI arr"
att'd at dit1;'r,'ut tim..:.; ("..hiu lynmni(,,
ll privil('
",,;, whi(.h 
tll('\' ('xt'r('i..t d o\'t'r the 1110111....... Tb.\, l'1aillll'(] the I'i.rht t,) rt'main 1 hrt'\' (Ian.; in 
" ,,- 
mOllast('ri('... with llH,ir d(l

) hor.. ", :.lI1l1 aU their f.qllip:t
(., alHl to ht. 1Il
during die tillit'. rhi.; alm..c wa, aholi:-hcJ hy king Chad. v. IIavill
self l()(]g('tl with Iii.; hllntt.'rs in l:
(),j in thl' al,hey of Li,.ry, hc ga,"e the ll10uks 

's an inclcl1mity the riw,t to fi't.(l thirt.," l'owille in the fon.
The ahhey of St. Illlhert in the \.rd(.lml.... mi
ht have its (Iistinet r3ee of black 
, called the ùOg'... of St. Huhert, "itllOut an
' aim . r'tmlrin
, but it \\oIlIJ he 
(]ffil'ult to 
Ï\'e an .IIIt-(luate comp<>n..;atioD for the evil that mllst have :Lecrllcd to 
disciplint' from slIeh royal illtru..iulJs" The ling:; of Francc a,..,ain clailll('(l the 
t- of placing one 01' two lI1aim
oJI]it'r.., in ef'rtaill ahhp
"8 whiC'h enjoye(1 
the l"iKht of free election, n...., ohlat.. or Jay brothpfS; hut n.; 
h'pllPn Pa
'luipl' I.t->- 
markpd, thi:, (lp..Dt.(] the way to Krpat ahuS(> on tl1<' part oftht.' kin
,t TIlt' 
of all :11m. ..., hlme\'cr. consi.,tccl ill the appointlllPnt of 
'('ular ahhot"!, whuse 
('rrllHt'nt \\ a.. c1p:"tl'1J('tiv
 of the whole IHona:5tic <lis 'ipline; for the:,e abhot..-s would 
not allow thp monl,:; timC' to perfc)rm tllt'ir utlit:tR; and from tlH'ir cruelties the 
unly \\ a,\' of e...(':q)(' wa..; h.,' ad.]r( ",
 pl't it ion... tn the empl'rOI s.
.\bout th middll' of tIle fclllrtl'Plllh ('('ntlll'\" tll<' End':-h having phllHlprt'tI the 
ahhey of L.Lgny, 011 their l]t'partUl't' th
 hn\l:-" \\:li I('fl 1)Iult-.' tIlt' 
lIarcl of Pt'tt'r 
de la CriC{u p , a most crupi m'lI!, who "pan'(] nl)thill
 that the Ell J'li:-h h:ul It.ft. 
Yt.'t his cruelty could not rc
kt thc patience of the 1Il01lL..
. He \\as touched with 

· Apolog, ad Guillel. 

 Recberches ù
 la Fiance, hi. 40. 

t Le Grand c1'Aussy Hist. de)1\ Vie Privér, d,C, i. 

 .\1abil, l'ræf. in IV, ::5tLC, lkucd, 

AGE S 0 F F A I T II. 


compas:o:ion ; and to repair the evil he hall dune, he laid the fouudation of a new 
and magnificent church, alH! finish.,(! the s:ulctual',y.* In later time::; there were 
installct'-; of these ,..cculal' nubles being app.,illiL'<l by the state to govel"lJ mon:\Sler- 
ies even wilile minor:;; as when Clauù.. de Saiut-Silllon wa.; maùe al,bot of J 11- 
 in his twent ieth year, during the regency uf the ùuke of 01'1. am;, who 
ga ve him tllat diO'nit y which he eXt'I'cise,! to the ruin of the moua,terv and the 
o , . 
oppl'e"5:-,ion of the poor. )Iall)' similar' illstunces might be produced; but it is 
great injustice to rt'present sllch men, who were the cnemie..; of munk
, as their 
repre...entati .."es. 
III the mi{I.lIe agC5 the deposition of evil sllperior
 alw3J5 a matter of 
COl1r..e, \lnle..;..; when mona5tic liherty wa'l" d hy the 
ecular power. In the 
}--eal' 810 the monk,.; of Fuhb bein
 prevented from npplying to It-'arning by the 
uppre..;sioll of their s
\Yere ahbot, R:\t
, irn'eig-Il{'d against It im by \'ariou
blems and facptiou-; deviC'e
, of which one repre:o:ellt<.'d an nhhlt mounted. on a uni- 
cOl'n ri(lin'
 over some she
p who ßt.d bf'f
))'e !tim, He wa... filially a{'cllsed, con- 
victed, and depo5ed. t "It is to be observe(1," says l\Ii('h:md, "that the monks 
who wrote chl'Onicle.s of their order or monaster
. were C'aI'eÎul to melltiol\ and re- 
cor.l w!Jene\'er an irreligiou,.; or, as they called him" an unhappy ahhot ruled; 
and w!Jene\rel' the monks forgot the 
pirit oftÌteir institute, by Hying to them:-,eJ\"f's 
rather than to CIII,ist. They ne\yer fail e"pn to mention at what epochs (li
was ill the lea...t relaxed, a:' when the monks w<.'l'e too milch atta(,hel1 to the refec- 
tory, when they repeated their office too rapi(lly ill the Church, and when there 
was no attempt to correct them." Ku\V the !òaIDe wl'itel's, we mU5t remem},er, 
generally des
ribe the mOlla...;terieS:13 being-a spiritual garden, an.! a p:II'adi::;p or 
perfe(.tioll. Tht"Y al \\'ay
 designate a time of rt'laxø1 discipline as an exceptional 
period of ealamity; a
 in the chronicle ofSens. where we read, "de Adelardo mi.;- 
ero abhatü Senonien
iet de rnÌ8eri:l ejll...;dem lo<.'i,"! The misery W
\ß a decay of pif'ty 
and a life of plea.,m'e, .And \Vh'lt wa..; the condusioll? "The time of mercy 
from God arrived," the monk, "ii)r there wa..; in the monastery a :youth 
namell Rambert who de:;;ire<I to tollow 3 holy life; so he fled from the hou...;e, alld 
rep:til'ed to a neighboring monastel'Y whel'e the monkò were holy mpn serving 
God, who receivel! him with kill/lne
... .Aft
r a time , bei I}('" full\" in
trllcted in 
l"> , 
the rn)e
 of di
cipline, and inv

tt.jd with authority. he returned to the deg.>nerate 
congregation, and lai<1 before tlwm the Il1l1de of life obsen"e(l in the hou:o:e fmlll 
which hp came; bitt finding his exhortatiolls ill vain, he use<I his allthorit
., and gave 
them their{'hoice eithel' t., adopt a holy Ii fp or to le:l\'e thp rnon:lstery. .All 
1I bmit- 
ted but fonr, who 
Jl1o\\'ed the wa
' of (leath, an. I Jeft th
r. The rp
t rpsol n
to li\.
 to God; and ill a short time Ramhert became the ohjeC't of theil' love and 

.. Leòcuf, xv, 47, 

 Cap. 18_ ap. Dl\cher. Rpicileg-. Hi. 

t Sch:mnat. Hist. Fulilensis, P. iii. 3. 


I 0 RES U.c\ T II U LIe I; 0 RJ 

Several in4:m('C.. of the ë:ln1(> kiwI IwC'ur in tilt Bllnals of Corhy in Saxony 
 rt'aJ, "III tht> )"t'ar 1101 th,. school of [hc lIl o Uastcl')' (l..dill("(l !-adl
and this 
'I'ar. 1IUU, tllP author uf the 
\'il is pUlli
h 'tl by (joc.l."* Agaill, at 
tilt.. .Ia[l' of 1.t 70 Wl" find this llotiet.., .. rhe' ..tate of oUt' monastcry was tleptol able, H) 
that bwthl"r I1Pllr)' .'01111'0:'('11 HIlII 
ung a publit' lallll ntatioll in tllf
 fl,rm of a 
litan)'. III 1-171 he wellt with li.'clI
.'of slIpt.riors to be JIIa
ter of till' lIoviclS'lt 
IIl'rosvetd. In the mean time ma
 God ha\'c mercy upon Corby, \\hen' piety 
and It arnillg exaltt..J our order, \\ llt're )IIXUI'}" ami 
Ioth now dl'pr
s.. it. Thi... is 
h fi)r th wi:,t.':" with whieh word5 the annal.., t.'0lU'I11lIe."t At :5t. Gan thE 
RlllH.' imru:-,iun hy :-t."('ulal' nohlt:-; tllol.. p)aC'e; hut .Iurin
(' IJOrrihl(' time s 
of die lIIonks rt'lIlail1l'd imlllo\'t a1.I('. Thl' abbot, FraIlJ, \dw dil'.) in 1:>2!), alllid
all thi:) dt solatioll, was a 1I1al
 uf the pur ...t 111:1I1I1er:" lovillg grandeur ill th,. .Ii- 
vine wor:-hip, :-hulying thr ancit.'ut lw,tor
' of his oountl'Y, and {':!u:;ilJg to b, writ- 
ten O\1t some lx-:mtiful honks. Of Friclulin 8i..h fJ who, at the :-3me timP, \\ rl,t
t;P\'cfal \\(lrks rp":Iu.(,ting the()h.ine olli.'.>, the annual')" (lftl1{' IJOU
NI)':-I, " Qui in 
cUll('ti,. allgn:-tiis IlIIju
 tt'mpori.. penn:m!tit ilJ1l1lOhili..." I II f:let it was a rl'mark 
m3.tIc in all a
c.:) uf mnnastic 11i
tol'\', th.1t during the \\"or:ot iut 1'\'31:;, whcn 
there W3S the')t dl'ro
' of ,Iil'iplinl', there w('re always in 1I10Ilasteri.. some 
(,r\'ant., ofGo<1, \\'ho
l' piety \\3"; t1w ('oml"lllnation of the other
. Thi.. \.heil- 
lard fOUlHI to 1)t, [Ilt' 1'3
 at St. 1>, ni
 h(>f(,r(>th(, re(()flll 11:11) I.('('n ('f1t.cted by Su- 
 ami ht'III'(', while rt'pJ'ovill
 t.'vil nlPn, \\t' alway... finll tllo",<' \\ hu 
OUorht to re- 
ÍI.)rm the manßel'S of :--neh h'III,' .' condutliD'! in words like thu-e of Peter of 
, who terminat.... one :-('1'01'111 tlm.., " \\" PlIo not 
ay tht. . thingo::" dt..3rest 
Lrt.'thrt.,u, on ac('onnt (,f you; fclr :unon
-t \'011 th,'re are lII:tII
' who excel ill 
 ; but }'pt there are :11I101l
t yon, a... the> 
ay:-, many who arc 
weak, allil mall)' who :--1('(.)>, fcH' :.... )"('t tllP tart'... 
r()w with th.> \\ht'at."t The 
condn:oion al'l'i\'('tl at by thco fa:lll'rs of tllP 
) ul)\1 of TpUllo, Ulhler DrluFo, bishop 
of 'letz, after speaking of the C'ontlitioll of the mOlla...t..rie.-; in their addl 
 to Lo- 
thairp, I
. and Chal,h....., i
'P{I in th '.,e remarkable words: "If the 

lOnli:-; at thi-l pn's('nt moment should h(> I,...s p(,ffpct in )'('t
nl to divine rcligoll 
alld to the tilitv oftlu' rt'IHlhlil' tl.(')" :-holllil hI' eirlll'r corrccrcll, or helter Illen 
substituted in theil' plal'e hilt I(.t not the oul..,.. o( J't.ligion, a11l1 the mo"t 
pl:u..'(...;, 011 a<: '(IlJnt of tl.e wi('k('t)nl'
' of tbe 11<,1'1' t\'t tI, he committed to tho..t' to 
wl)()m it Ï::; uot lawful to commit thcm; SiI1f'(, tll(> S('ripture dearly :-IIII\\
07'Ull \\a... 
trlJ('k eJt.:uI fi)r \\ isllin
 to rai:-t. up the fall('fl ark of the' Lllfd, \\ hieh 
was not law I,ll ft)1' him Sit 1111)('1. as tu tOll<'h,"
It cannot he deni..tI Iml that the !!)"('at PO\WI' an,} privilp!!('... \\ ith which king-s 
chO"-e to in\' '4 the :,uperiors of some rt'li
iolh hOll:-;'.s. up >ut..tI tl... \\ay to 1U1l1.h 
' on tilt' palt flf the !oot-<,ular administratioll. It \\ lIulel h..loll
 :11111 III'edlt";
to tl'lI of t1)('
p, Thl' abhots of Fullb had 
I)\'('r('igll POWCI' 0\'('1' tl"IJ Stluare mil<'S 

· Ap, LdbnitL. ::-'cript. Bmu:.. ii. t 8enu. Ivi. : .\p. llcumsllu. tIe Re Dipl'IIU, ii. :

AGE S 0 F F A I T H. 


roulld the abb,.y,* The bn,ìed pos.;e.;
iolls of tht> mOllks, by the fcudallaw J 
jected them to the duty uf military :,en'ice, to which even COU\?
llt:; of uuns were 
boulIlI, ål.':) in the in
lallce uf that uf our lady :1t SUi-hUll::). t l
illgs tuo very often 
chose to have theil' prisoners placet! in cOllfint'111ent withllllUoua:;tcrie:;J amI hence 
oll::ì were often attached to them. It is true the plan may have originated in 
the preJominallt piety of the age, which sought to identify criminal
 with peni- 
tent..., who ollly thruugh that gate could pass to peace; but still the snrprise with 
which oue ohserved .;urne abheys fortified like castles, coult1not exceed that which 
the strangel" eXpt.rienccs when he hears that there i" a pl'isun within them; anù 
still mure whell he nulls it such as Durn )Iartene de:-:cl'ibes when he says, "...\.t 
the ahbey of 
t. Xicholas-.1ux-bllis, three leagues from Laon, in a fearful solitude, 
we saw the royal pri:,olls, which are hurrible to hehold."
In the Fourth BO'lk we refuted the accu:,atioll hrought by SOlûe modern authors 
against the monks when charging them with cruelty; alld we ob
erved what was 
really the mona:;tic dis
iplille ill regard to the plHli
hment of offenders, The hor- 
rible e,'ent of _\.l)a:-:ta
iu:" a Pl'iest, being buried alive in an ancient crypt among 
the hoJies of the dea.d hy order of Cantinus, bishop of Clermont, a tyraut amI 
usurer, allictl with Jews, in revenge for hi:5 refu:5ing to give him up some charters,
may have led to the :-:trange reports from which such authors took th
il' idt'as, auJ 
to which Cardan :;eem:; to allude where he say,.:, "To be buried alive and suffer 
atrocious pUlli5hmen[s either never happfIls in the rnona:4ic onlet's, or more rarely 
than tù be impale(l or sawed a;.;;under by order of secular judge:;."!i Still, in 
the theory of the criminal jurisprudence, the meùiæval church, as a modern his- 
torian ubserves, "havin
 fully adopted the \vise beneficent ductrine that pun- 
i:;llluent i
 to be inflicted by filllible lUan upon his fellow-creatures, not in terror but 
in lm?e, and impri:,onment being cou:'iequentIy con,j(lered a;; an ecclesiastical pen- 
ance, not thunder'ed in vengeance fm" the :,ati:;faction of the statE', but imposed fur 
the good of the offender, in order to lead him to repentance and mercy;" the mlln- 
terie::; were deeme,1 not unfitting places for being made the :5c
ne of such con'ec- 
lion; and, in fiwt, the policy of tho
e who have transferred criminal;:, el
seems nothing else but" to drag from heaven the unrepentant 
ou), which might 
have quenched in reconciling prayers a life of burning crime..;." In the nJO)>las- 
teries of the ruiddle ages, therefore, one sometirn
:i fUHm1 men impri
olled by ecele- 
siastical as wf'Il as by ruyal sentence. Thus Gottschalk, aftel" being degF:lde(1, 
was confined in Jlautvilliers 11lll1er the Abbut Hilduin, who allowed him the u
of pens and ink, tholl,
h Rahan :\Iallr considered thi5 an improper indulgence, 
and in reply to Pope Xicholas, whose)ove of justice was !lot greater thau his love 
of men, amI who remonstrated against :o;uch severity, thought it enough to 5how in 
his own excuse that he had taken care to have him supplied with" all nece


· Schannat, Hist. Fuldens. ii. 1, 

 Gallia Christiana, ii: 241. 

t Hi
t, dc SOi8
OD5I. i. 
 Voyage Lit, 48, 
 Utilit. c\. Ad vcrs, iii. 


:\1 " H, E 
 U A T II 0 L I U I: 0 It, 

In pri...un, ho\\en
r, there11c died, withtmt rdradioll awl \\ ithout the saeran1t'nts.* 
Some dark ::'I)lemll men that were kllo\\ n tu be \\ ithil1 III II 1Ia.4"I ic..., "w.rillg the 
aspect of pri:;oner
 by th(' chains rounù tlu.'lr bo\lic:" \\ ere there, huwl'\"(,I', bv tllt.'ll 
own dt'sirp. Do yon deUlaDti the l'eru5011 of :--udl uII!'writy? :\Iy an"mer may be 

horf:. Biomi hath b{'ell 
hCtl crc nO\\ ill tht' 01111'11 timc; a
', :11)(1 :--in('t' too, mur- 
dt'rs have Let n pl'rfOl'med. [n 0111' time-, whcli the brains are Ollt, m('n dip, ulld 
thl're is thollglat an cud; bllt ill agt's of faitla tlw)' I
e ngain with Í\\t'nty mur- 
ders on tht-'ir cr()\\n
, anti pII...h('II the sh
'pr from hi.; :--too1. Thrll \\"11('11 gr.u'c 
procured contrition, tlwre \\,('re fearful 1)f'I1:tII('t>
 (>mhnl"Nl, till ill the (,loistpl' the 
OIl<'C proud crupi ('a:'3tdhill fouwl P{"aI'C, Thlls in :111 e:I1"ly 3,rt' w('rf> 
('t'n, h
p Sf:. 
.Tolan Clim3('IIIl!ooo, 
ollle in the 1U0lla-h'ry of tll{' IWHitt>lIt'" wh.) 11..;\'(1 to {'ntrt'at that 
they lIlight not be lopsed froUl theil' ('haills {'\,ell in their 8t'I)III<'hl"t''':. Ie I 8:l\V," 
he c;aY'::, " what the c\ e of the IIr
ligrnt hath lI"t 
1'l'1I, alltl \\ JUL hath not ('uterp<l 
into th
 hC'lrt of thc Juxuriou
 lIIan to COlu't..i\'t--tlle tlt'('tls :Hltl \\()!"tls ",hit'h ('all 
do vinlpl1(,p to God. f'IOW I :-aw who p:l'''' \\ h"le ni!.;'I'b ill prolyer, pro...:- 
tmt · on a
, On all ...itlt'
 I lit'l1,d 011',\' :-illC'h ('ric.
 n... the-e, ' \"',e, \':., mi...erum, 
rue misPl"I111l ! ju..t. jn-te, ]):11'('(', p.U'('t' ntHllin'" :::; line ('riNI, "1(!lIo ", ignO-..æ 
Htlmill(', si po...,iblc C=:t.' Uthers, a
 if at th.. 
at.... of I..'a\"t'n, ' .APl'I'i lIobi... J ud- 
ex janllam. . 
\p(,I'i lIohi", PX qnl) ill un lIohi...ip
i... p,.r pt.'('('atulll ..Jau...illll1...'. Oth. 
, · ü:;tt'IHIf> f:1t'it'1Il tllam t:mtllll1 (.t ...;.'lhpi erimll...,' Oth.'r:-,,' Appare hi... qui in 
tenebris ct ulllhra morti
 8(,(lcnt ' "t 
The hl{
1 n"lIlini('u:;, 
lJI'II:UllC,I LoriC'3tu..., of whom Wt' hefon' Rpoke, died in 
the ahht'
' of )[onte-(:a!-:--ino Oil tilt' 22ud of .Jaul1ul y, 1U31. To that abht'Y 
nl:-'I) 11:1(1 ('0111(' Count R:l{lt'('hi
1 bOIlI..1 with a hll
(, t.h:till t) his n('I'k, who, after 
killirlg Grimoa1d, hat I 1)('1'11 Ill I Þ\'t'tl to I't'nl)l1l1l"(' thp worlel, anti thlls he ('ame to 
emhrat'e a life of" 311stcre pell:lll(" ill that 111 III:I:-;t(' 1'." .t ;:;lll'il \\"('1'(' the e
ampl .' 
whidl the monks propo
t'(l to thqsc who \\"pre ('ollimiUt'd to tlwir cu-tody, fu) he- 
iou... to the \"PIIg'f'3IU'C of Ihe law, to wllidl ('la q the pri",oßí'l"s that tme 
fOl1nd in nltma,t{'l.ip:-! 
{'nf'rai)y helongt'fl, Iw:n!! pf'r-on.. C'oufiß(.d tllt'r(' by ol"(lf'r uf 
the kil1
 or hy th.' :--(,lItt'II('(' ofa pO\\P('r wholly -('('111:11', oft(,11 barbarou
 311(1 dl''''potic. 
Thus \\ c meet with :i I'('rtain Gf'rlllan wlu",<, f'YP'" had htlf'lI put nllt :11111 righ 
halld Cllt ofT, leading all artluou
 life in a ct.'illwal' tllP ahh..y uf Pmnpo
a, to \\ horn 
Ibimhaltl, a hilly 
'ollth, was appuinted to mini,,"r 
Tritllt'mill'" IIIcntitHl:-' a mllst curions ('irC'ulU,t:I1l('P I't'
nt.('tillg' a man 010 t (',.Ie- 
bl'3ttd \yho fpH inw thi
 C'olltlition.'r <1(' \"'iIWi:" "','y:-. thi... ahhot l wa... a (;"1'- 
nlan, the C'11
1ß('('1l1ll" of Fr('(lt>'k I r., a ('un II in!! m:m :111 ( I 1"3 rllt.d, \\ hn defc..n.IPtI 
the illju:o'ti(.t' of" thp cmpf'l'Ur a!!:linst tlU' pop" with all tlU' fort.'t.> of his eIU({llCIIl.'C, 
arltl ('xcu...,'tl hi:, rt>I)(,lIioll 3 rr ain...t the <<'IlIIrch \\ ith :,ul'h ahiJit\, thut nrt'(rOf\' IX. 
:""II , 0 . 
cx<.'laimeù. " 0 quantu... t''':
 fili, :--i te, ut Imperium, hene\'II)C'ntNlI hah..ret 

$ Staudenmaier, 
C()l, &c, 

\nnal. Camlllt.lull'n
o Lib. xii. 

t Grad, V. 

t Chronic. 
o \(.In. Cass, xx. 

.A H E S 0 F F A I T II. 


Ec('lesia J" Afterwards, by I know lIot what mean.." he incurred the rpsentment 
of Cæsar, who put out his pyes :md 8l'lIt him ill to a monastery, where, blind anti 
wretched, he liveel in the bitterlle

 of hi
 heart, :lnd hy long affliction compen- 
satcd for whatcvcn-ill:-Ò he had been gllilty of agaill
t God and the chul'('h. It hap- 
ned aftcr a few ycars that the emp('rOl' b
illg excommunimted, dcst'rtee1 hy the 
princes:md despised by fì)reigner
, ha\'Ïng no means ofpayillg hi:') army, re:,oh'ed to 
have recourse tu Petcr, his old chancellor, whose prndencehe knew r-;urpasst.d that of 
t other men, So he came to the monastery wh
re he livf'd, and hping admit- 
ted, said all that he could think would IlwIlify and appease the blind recluse, ask- 
ing his pardon with loud protpsmtions of remOl':;:e, alld promiping immf'u..;e com pen- 
:-:atioll, and in fine, addillg, cc I know that yon could give me good advic'e in these 
straits." Peter, who coneeale() hi:, milld under a placid countenance, revolving 
nothing but immorlal re\'eng-e, ath'i:;ed him to take the gold and sih"er vesse]s 
of the monastcri
s and churche.o; to melt them duwn, and with that to produce to 
I>ay his troops, and then to in\'ade his enemies, after which he coule1 make resti- 
tution, The advice plea...;(-'d tile emperor. So he phmd('re(1 al1 the chur('h
promising to restore w!.ate\'('l' he took; hut he never returned any thing. From 
that day he never pro
pcrt.'d more. The ahbot of the monaster)" is said to have 
asked Peter, on !!paring that it was he who had given sueh advicp, huw a legist 
alld a wise man Jike him could have recommenae<l 80 nnjust a measure; to whom 
the other made no 
ecret of the 
uhtle v(>ngeanc'e which had ro;uggested the idea 
to him of giving sllch counsels. * The victims of political C'on\"ul:-;ion were oflen 
fi)nnd in mOIl3,:-;tic ('onfinenH'nt. 
, king uf Lomhards, aftcr the battle of Pavia, was led prisoner into 
Gaul by Charlt:.magne, 3S all the annals c1ee1are; but tlwy do not mention the place 
where he spent the remainder of his life, nor the m:lIlner of his death. :\Iabillon 
discO\'er('d the:-:;e particu1ars in tÌle manuscript of an anciellt monk, wherp he 
f.llllld the=-e words, " In the yeat' 772, Pavia heing taken, Desidel'iu="" and hi
Alls'l were hani=-hf'd to the ahhey of Corby, and there Desiderius pel'sevel'ecl in 
vigil:" and prayers, mal fasts, all(1 many good work
, till the day of his death." 
Of his being tlm') confined ill Corby, the monks of that ahbey, when l\1abillon 
wl'Ote, h:1<1 lost all tt'adition. Down to the Frelldl revolution vi:-,itQrs to the ah- 
bey. of St. )Iedart) at Soissions u:-,ec1 to be 
hown a cdl which was said to ha,"e 
been the prison of Lonis-l('-Déhonnaire where he was confined by oròer of Lo- 
thaire. "Tlte ;!o()e) Lredwpu," 
:tys that poor pmperor, "had grl1at compa<;;sion 
on my g1'Íef, antI they comfiH'tpcl mp mnch. The)' praye,l ft)l' HIP, and as
rue that if I placed all my hopt'
 in Goù, I should soon ha\"e conso]ntion and 
reco,;el'Y from my sorrow:o:," By order of hig sün..;, sf'r
1t}t.;; \\,pre placee) about 
the pri
on to guard him; auel that ablwy ill particul:u' \Va:' ('ho=-en, bflcansp know- 
ing how much he Ifwe<1 it, hi.. sons hope(1 that he would willingly resign his 

>> In Cl:ronic. IIirsaugiens, an. 1229, 



"L'{'ptrt. amI clllhra('c the mnna..tic hahit.* The monk Ot)ilon ba:i I'('corllcd the 
Vl'r)" \\ord-; of tile unhappy t:mp(.ror's lamcllla.tiun. Thi.. goal bdt)n
C(1 to tilt: {i:--c, 
to the rO,yal palace, amI not to the abbe)'. It \HI..'i near tht: ll-a
ili('a of th > Trinity 
OD the north p.lrt of the cnclo!'urc. One ..till bt't:; two halt:'bliLtcl'ralwous CE'll:, to 
the l}orth-{'a...t of the crypt of tIlt.' Gn'at C'hnr('h :1IIc1 to t1J(
ollth of the site of the 
ili('a of the Trinity, whi('1. :lI'P 
ait) to IJavc been die prison of Loui:,. 011 
these walls ODt: can traee in (;otl.ic Idtl-r

.. lIéll\.:4 1 je suys hit'n prins 
De douleurs quI. j"cDtlure : 

urrir me convlcmiroit ; 1& 
Peine me ticnt tlure " 

Rut these lines, written no (lo111>t by ;iome pri
lmer, are po4crior, bv 6()() years 
to Loni:-:.t 
SOll1l.timc.-:, 110\\'c\'el', the Sf'cllla'" powel', in ('olllmitting prisollers to tlIP ('lI
of mOllk..:, only complil.d \\ ith their ('1 1'1 mil''':, whic-h were of1èr('tl in a 
piìit of 
tIll' h"llth're
t charit)'. Thus Cæ of ílcisterh:U'h foIa
, ".\t the time wlwn ]
Otho \\,Pl1t to RolltP to he ('m\' II('() emperor, le'l\'ing the go\'prnnH nt of the :\10- 
F('lIc to hi
 hrolhel', I1t'lIr}' Palatiul>, :l ('(.rtaill n"hle \\":1
 l'OIull.roned to death fi)r 
illg. Danil'l, ahhot of Sc:'omL\'ia, hy hi:-; praYl'r
, pardon fill' him on 
condition that he would !'ati...(y God {ìlr hi..; ..:in.. in thl>'l'('ian orcJer, Thns 
did he f'smpe c)f'ath and final pf>r(lition; allt) I h:lVe l1('al"(l of many \\ ho similarly 
ohtailll',1 (1 .livPr3I1N> h
' th(' intl're
 ..:-:ion of C)llr ortlf'r,"
Duke He'nry, thl' 
a'\.()n, f:atlH'r of tll(' crnpc.'ror Otho, h:1\'in
 put ont the eyeq 
of a cPl'tain nohlplltan for hi:i crinlt'
, G"d uf hi
 ml'rC'y conv('1 Ít'tl tlmt Pllnish- 
I11pnt into a medicine; for he g:1\'C him 
u('h ('ontritioll that he u",(>d to b. alw:ay:i 
in thp l'hnreh of the abbey of 1 Ii1tlerllf>m mOllrllin
 fill' his ",ill
, alld breatlJin
af:er tit,. l'plp:4ial {,oulltry"
 Tn the <lllnal.. ofCorh
., at the ùate ofl189, \\e find 
thi..: hri('f Jwticp, " \ ('PI tain nohl(>lItan is SPlit illto our mona!'It'I)" for thp 
ak(' of 
penance."1! In thp E"cllrial i.. a ch:llnh..r wllf'r(' tlap tr:lc)itioll of tllf> mOll3stery 
atte."ts that thl' unfortunate n'm ("arl"5 tf'1'1I1illaÍl't) his c1a
":i h)' r('fusing fooo. 
Evpn 1'\1) bte as tllP time of Frand..: T. we fint) it 1I..,lIal to !':t'nl) ..t:ate pri
onE'rs for 
cOllfìllC'lllt'nt to the ahhf'Y of :\[ollnt St. )[ic'h:I('1. TIIt
 mn,i,'C', lao\\"en>r, ås we 
\)('{ì)re OhS1'I'\'('<1, callnot hut he e:.;(,eemCt) most worthy oftho...e who loved aIll) fol- 
10wPt) pf'a('('. 
nut ha\"ing now pl'cified "nme of the cJai{>f :ahll-;(,S whidl ('r"pt into ttw monas- 
tic in
titlltion, at the 
ame time guarding- tlu> r,'a()f'I' from llri..t:lkill!! for abl1
"hat W3S in rf':llity laulbhll', nnel 
1I!!g-('!'t(,l) the I'f.fl{>('t;on
 t.) whi('h tlu).," ollVht 
to gi\"P rise in mincl..: IIl1prf'jllclicl'(I, Ic.t II": oh:-:{>f\'p \\ h:at ('vid,'nN' m:1\' he ('ol1ed('<l 

· Chroniques de S, Deni
, i. 

 Id. Lih. ii 36. 
,. Raoul lIist. de )Iont. 
. )[icbel. 

t IIi"t. cie Rois.
onQ. i. 316 t 111ust. :\[ir.&C' Lib. i. c. 31. 
I .\n. Corbo ap. Lcibnilz. Script. ßruns, Üj, 

A (j E S 0 F F A I T II. 


from nnill'peachable witllcsses, who lived in the mjddl
 agl's, to prove the vir- 
tues and perfeclion of ùi:'}cipline which existe(l in the Illoua:-.terie:;; tbat we Illay 
not depart with 
uch all crrolleous impre..;::;ion a:; tllat the evil had counterpoised 
the good. The lauguage of the::;e wituc=:;ses i
 that of prllllcucf>, a5 well as of aù- 
miratiull. "Of the 6allctity of many, llO olle can judge more truly than the 
· Searcher of heart:-,," says the munastic histuriau of tbe Ci::;tcl"{'ian::;; "yet we speak 
w!rat we have heal'll and known concerning OUl' abLots,"* Let us Ilear, then, 
what wa:; the result of their knowledge. "If there be any p{)rfection in thi:; 
world, it can be founll ill cloister5 :"t 
uch is the evidence of Hugo of 8t, Victor. 
"Tl'Uly," says St. Bel'nard, "you can behold, in almost all congre
ations of 
 men that are fille<l with cou-;olatiolls, ahollndillg in joy, always cheer- 
ful and agreea.ble, fervent in 
ph'it, IlH:
ditating day awl ni
ht on the law of Go(l, 
frequently looking up to heaven and liftillg up pure hands in prayer, careful ob- 
servers of their con:-;cience, aud devout followers of good works; to whom disci- 
pline is lovely, filsting 5weet, the vigils short, manual labor plea;;:ant, amI the whole 
austerity of thpir cl)ß\'ersation refre
hillg."t " I 5ee in cloi
ters," says Pctel' of 
Blois, who was himself a secnlal' priest, "celestial men, or rather earthly angels, 
whuse conver:,ation is in heaven,-who, with a certain nohle }>ride, despise the 
honor:.; and riches of thi:, world."9 Hear how those who kllf'W the mOllks per- 
sonallv S l )('ak: ,. If anv one 3S1\:S me" Sa ) '8 the .Ahbot de Hancè, :,peakillg of 
- "' , 
Brother Euthyme 111., "whelh
r this lllOUk ha.-; or Iws not:-,inned since he came 
under our direction? I answer, by the principles of faith, he has sinned, 
the Holy Ghost teaches us, '
on est enim homo qui non percet. ;'11 but 1311swf'r, 
by my own kllowled
e amI 3c('or(Iing to my oh;;.ervation, he ha:-: not sinned."
Odelil'Ìus, coul1..ellol' of Ro
el', pari of Shrewshl1r
', h3s immortalized hi
by his eloquent exhol't3tions to that nohle-man, in 1083, in prai:-,e of monks and 
the monastic discipline. "\Vho," he exclaims, H can wl)lthily relate all their 
vigifs, hymns, p
almody, prayer
, alms, and sac I ifices! \"'hat denial of their 
own will for the Jove of our Lord Jesu
 Christ! \Vhat shall I say of the chas- 
tity of monks, of their silence, of their modesty, of their obedienC'e? Such an 
abundance of virtues confounds my astoni
hed intelligence, and I confe
s that my 
tOllgue fails me to expI'es::) it. From my tender youth I have long been admitted 
to the secl'ets of monks; ane1, by fiunilial" relation..;, J have learned thorough]y 
what wpre their manner:,. In consequence, when I con
i(l{'r the ('onduct of all 
mortals, who inhabit the earth, I spe that thev are aJl in theil' }h'e..; inferior to 
-, , 
monks who li\"e canonically according to the rnle
 of theil' orcler."** 
Ri('hal'd, :l1'C'hbisho I ) of Canterbury in the rei(Tn of Henr y II. writillO' to the 

':- , 0 
CistPrèian order, says, " .Among all the orclers with which the SpolJse of Christ 
is adorn{>d, there is nnne more fra
rant with virtue, none Bwpeter in Chri
t with 

.. Gasp. Jong. Notit, Abb, Ortl. Cist, Lib, iv, 16, t De C1austro Animæ, ii. 17, 
t Id. In Ascensione DO,m, ::;erm. vi. 
 Epi8t. eii, B Lih. 2. Reg, vilL 
'Y"Relat, de la )lort de quelques ReI. i. tt* Orderic Vital. Lib, v. 


M 0 H. Ese A r II 0 L I (1 I; 0 l

thc odor of a holy rqmtation, than 
," Yet he Llanwl" tlu'lll for 011(' thing,- 
" kl'au
e tilt' lands" hid. \\l're :-u},jl'd to titlll'!--, Ld
,rc t}w)" pO

"I"'l',1 tlwln, are 
l1Ia,lc exelnl,l by the fact (If cOining illto thcil' hands,"* P .ter of Bloi:i bl'arl) a 
:-illlilal' tt"t imouy to th(' Cistercialls. " Ther('," he <;'l,P", " is a 11I08t appruved 

('huol of rdig-ion; thcre one fìll(ls the pral'ti<:e of tIlt' utmo!'lt IlIO(ll'
t)", rl'
(If m:umers, tht., af1t,etion of fratf'\'IIit)', IW:Ll'C of mimi, tl.l' 1'0JllnUmi(":ltioll uf all 
, mutual 
t'n'i('f', rigor of ,Ji..;cipl i lie, the lo\"t
 of ol)('(lielll'(" tIll' LOlld of ( 
it)', the 6ub}:clioll uf the fle:,h, tIle t'xerei:3. of hO:-'l'italit)" lihel't)' of f.tud)', the 
oNer of vigils, th. caIrn of mt.diration, the .Il'votion of l':-\ahllody,"t To the 
Carrhu..iall order-\\ hi,'h, in flet, 11:1:5 Ilt'n'l' r\'t.uirt'd reform to the PI' o.;Pllt da)' 
-he 1)('al":-; the !-':UlW. "Thl'ough all land..," he 8:1)':0: "hy the gra('{' of (;0<1, it., 
fame hath gOllc forlh, an<<l the 0,101' of it.,,'s.., hath n':u'hl',1 tu the ('JI(I
the earth: fi)r it is the pI:Ultation of (;ud, :UIII th' vinc of th, Lord of Sal,auth ; 
tlwrefore now h..tS its fl uit Dlultil'lipd to all imllil'll:-OC ilu'rc:JhC. r 'hold huw it 

tn'h'Jlt's t'rth it..: branch.. now ('\'t'li to tlu.> 
\.a, :111<1 it..; ollt..hoot..; :IS (II' a.. Eng- 
]alld !"t ""ouJd YOII ilHl'li1'(, no\\ ('Clw'('
lIill 't''' du' laml':-Ith:at Fram'i.. aJUI j)"lninic 
h"d amon
 the way \\ hl're w\'11 tlIt'J' thwvt>, not ..woIJpu \\ ith v3l1it), '?'.
ay:;, "he t('lIs of hoth, \\ hu (tnc comlnt,..dl'th, \\ hi"h of tllt'rn buc'cr he 
taken: their dC\'II... \\l're to oue PJUI.'"!1 COl'llt'liu..; :\ Bitontillll
that tilt' \\ url,1 W:I
 }"(,fi)J'lIIl'.] hy t Ial'
e h\ 0.. nom iui(. :111<1 F rnll('i
. In t he h('
nillg' of tlIP l'\"an
(.li(' an II 01ll)('('1I1('nt, 11f> 01.:0-"1"\'('-, \\ Ilt'n du> wor,) of tIlt' Lon) wa..; 
prf'.acJ.C\1 to the Jl'\\":o' u1I<1 (;pntilp..;, two Wt're ('110:"'>11, Pdt'l' awl Paul. 'rht'n 
the \\',,1'1,1 hall n.lup:o-t d to ,'i(' .s, :m,1 tlu' T 01'.1 in 1I1l'J('
' wi..JIt',) to l'(,fOrlll it, ll
u:!ain (.htH' Í\\ n,-tllt' olle <'ilel'llbi(" t h(' ot Iwr ..t'I'aph i(',-two h. I(lit..." hut Ollt> mind,-. 
Pupe TTrh:m I\
ryJ(:", tIlt' onl('I' of 'limn" "tllal fi..IJ of \'irtUl" which the 
Lurd hath h
(':-,S('(L"** E\"('II th.> ilWidf'llIul t..ilH1tp l'uiclto it h)' a \\or!tHy poet 
will Le to some no Ie' :);ui"[If'tqr} i:l
 \\h,'n O,.ta\'it'li fI" 
aillt-(;dai!<i, in hi", 
"Noli I' d'IIollncnr," \\ hi Ie clf'''l't'ihing tIll' vanity of his (.ady lif", ami hi
 [(':11' of 
ligllh'nillg'. :U'knowICfig'f'S that \\hile in thathtate, wht'ncver it thumlt'rc(1 he \\i..hed 
to be n l

"--pour iors c..trc convcrs 
011 contelier chautt'lll h
 c.t 'c'r,. "tt 

Thp lcarl)(1(1 .\Iberhl:o' 
3rtillnl'nsi:o: havin
 r('('t'i\'c'cl from his friend, Xic!.olas 
Niccoli, a mordant invt'ctivc against tlu" f:,ther
, of tltl' oh:o'('I'\'alH'{, writtl'll by the 
famoll..; Pog
io Hr
l1Hloìill(), "ho..e ellmit,\' nro..;p from a fllnlily piqu(', wrl,t( n 
f..rmal ("I'ply, wi..;hing' to (lPf.'lul, 11(' 
3Y:':, th('se 1110:--t il1nO('t'l1t l11el1, wit!. \\ horn 
lIP Ila..; ron\'I'I"
('(I, a
 11 hl"tltll('r, (luring- ftHlrh'''1l Yf'.U'S. ",roil rOl1..;i,ll'l"," Ill' "'a\'s 
hi Po!!gio, ":1" 110t worthy of the hi
t bon Ir, thll
p who, in m
" (
pil1ion, detcct 

· Pet. Bles, Episf. ....:?, t lit, 
ì. t Id. 86 
 Dantc., i. HI. I PM, xl. 
.. \\'adl
in!!. AI\parnt. nd .\nnn). .* .\p. 'J:utene, Y\'f. 
('rlpt. ii. 1
tt Goujet, ilibliothè'1U1' Frallc,\ist', 10m. x. 2"

AGE S 0 F F.A I T H. 


s weH , -who are greatfn1 to their friends, pacific to their eDf>mie
, c;nlicitous 
for tll<' danger.; of other:-:. ami lIot negligent to their own,-who, ea..;ting off all 
p<JUutiou..; of the world, condemll what they once were, aud love what the" are to 
be in th. flltUl'c life, make themselv
c:i (.f own \\audering:"!J exult in 
 es('aped from the di&l"it-'tlHles ami tewpests of the world, '.11)(1, wilh minds 
fm' above it, 
llperiol' to al
 earthly pOWl'r, (]ev(lte them..;elves to virtue allll jus- 
tice ft,r'''ettin'J' what j-; h.hind ami 
trPlchlll!! fOl'w
.l1d8 to what i
 beforp , tlunk 
lifè tt'di HIS and dcath most happy:-whosc ('are it i:i never tc yipld to vi('f', hut 
to :mbJllc it,-who deplore dIP pa
sioll:-; of the profligatt-', having rp
traillf.d thpir 
own by di...ciplinc,-who. thr'Hlgh evil rp}>ort 3tHi good rl port, in ('IIId :lnd pov- 
erty, p\ll':
Hll' thpi,' steacly \Va", "tjoicing m H'e than the vulgar '].\ld fooli
h multi- 
tude in their v:\nitie:i,-alld, what i" auO\'c all, who Sl) cumpletely slILje('t amI hu- 
miliatc ani I twglect thems..h'c..; tn' Chri
t, thaI they brin
' into (,:lptivity 
hL tc- the ubcJicllt'e of UhrÍ:.,t, alhi fcar not to be cuunted f.,oI'3 for his sake) 
s3ying \vith the .\.pù..;tle, , If any 1IIl(' spem to he wise in thi,.; world, let him he- 
come a tlOl. that he may be wi:-òc,' -I,>! thi" is what I think of these IHPII : SlIch 
I know to be the pllre :tlill pxeellent live,; of many of them j such, at least, the 
innncllOIiS char:ll'ter of t.he rest."* 
.; liS clowll to an a
e of gl'f':lt de
eJ1Pracy : yet, let it be observ{'d, that 
there is :-;till a dOli.! of witnc..;..:e..;, who give the :-iame evidelwP. Oh",en'c what 
learninO' and s:lIJctitv the celehralell Amhro..;c Trayersari of Camaldoli fi>und in 
o . 
the nl1mprlHl-; mOluste,'ie.s of his order in Italy, when, as prior-general, in 1433, 
he illadp. hi
 vi"itati')l). Again, on hisjllllrney from Basle to Yît'nll:l, in 1435, 
he Sa.\'R, (, many mo..;t nohle mona...terie..; '\-'e f(mnd on the b:mk..; of the Danube, 
ill wh ich t lIP mOil ks Ii vt-'II It}O"t relig-iously."t 
In 1415, au I'alian a,llIhol' thus 
,wak:-,: "'Vh:lt shall I 1òay of monks, of 
which thl' numhm' uf I11l)st holy 'In,l leal"H'd seem" almost Ínfinitt.? \Ve cannot 
den. v tlut now an. I 
)\'IIIedv thcl'e have h'ell b"td men in that habit: but who 
could number the 
ood alill i11u..;trions"? \Vho so mall a..: to think that if men 
wishell to he evil, thf'Y \Vllul(l <'1lOUSP sn('h ., life a:-; this? Trnl.\', lung :--Ìnce, all 
devotion of CIll'i...tian..:, and 11f-'arly all l'plig-ioD, wonl(l ha\'p perishf'd} if the:,e 
holy men ha(l not, hy their doetrinl> and f'xample of life, protf'cted thf' f:.l1th of 
t, (>ontenc]ing f()r it, a..; 1he Apostle 
ays, 'thrf)u
h evil report :md good re- 
port.' l\Ien are (1isp,)..;pd to ('ritici
e tl1f' l'ondnct of monks widl lIIort> ,,;pvf'rity 
than ju"tice; and thos!' are counted It}()llster
re dete('t('d falling in the Ieaojt 
from the rille of purfe(.tion. I think it often happen
 that man
', desirous of 
);ating them hp{.)\'e the vulgar, say things of Ihem which afe fal' from 
true, as('rihin!..( their poor habit, gl'a\'e !':peech :111(1 aSIW('t, to hypocrisy; their 
pre:l('hing, to vanity; their cI't-'f'dhlln p ..:!,:, to s('lll"I'ilit
. ; thuir jtl..;tiee, to el'uehy; 
thcir care to lweserve the rights of the Church, to aV:lrice ancl rapacity' for 

Ap, Wadding, ton\. x. 

t Annal, Cama.ld. Lib. lxii. 


)( 0 R.K 
 CAT II 0 LIe I; 0 U, 

all things are full of calumny, and thn
 did men declaim agaiu.,t the apoðtle:J .md 
again;;;t Chri:-<t."* 
In 170
 and 1718, it was fl'SOlved, in the general chapter at 
rarmotltier, to 
depute two monks to tT'.l\'d, in on.)cr to vi
it the ar,.hivc:-= of different ahl}(')"5 in 
Fr.lllce .lUl) Germany. Dum 
lartl'llc and Dom Durand proceeded a{'C\)}-dingly 
on this visibtinn ; alld their testimuny & to the pelfection which then prevaih.d 
with few exceptions, io the religious hon -es, is to the highest degree delightful 
and C()nclll
ive, t Even the arch-suphist of Fiance, in modern times, beat!:) this
timony :"It Cànnot be denied,"he 
y.;:,Uthat there wel'e great virtue::, in the cloi:"ter. 
There iR hardly still a mona.5ter)' whil'h does J1ut l'ontain orne a(lmiraule bouIs,"! 
If, now, from tht:
 general sbtelOcnt:;, we pas., to the e
aminatiun ufmore par- 
ticular evidence, the re-mlt will be no I
.; consuling. \r illiam of 
lalm bm')' 
says of the abbey of Thurney, Wfruly I might C'.lll tbat i
land the ab('d
cha...tity and of all virtu"8, .l.ud a ,,
h\)1)1 of (Iivinc philo:if)phpl'
abbùt of R:lm:;p)", was a lUan \\ hI) ..ought rather to govel'l1 by fPar than 100'e, bO 
Lhat th
re were of [en o(''C.l.:;ions o( har:-:;h returts. On one of tll('St', being grt..>atly 
pemted, be weut to Actllf1ric, tile bishop of the diOl'(':Ò", and &lc('u..;t'(l the monklo\ 
of insubordination amI di
01'dcr. Th.
 hi:-hop, who hall becn cducated in tl1nt 
hon..e, W
 inclined to give no cr
lit to the aec'usation; for he could not be1ieve 
that the men who..,e piety he h:1(1 kno\\ n when a boy L'Ould so soon have falh'n 
from the 100'e of di
cipline. Therefore, con..oling the abhot with BOme general 
words, and sending him away, he ::'ccretly rl'
lved to visit the ahbey in disguise, 
to judge with his own eyes 3S to the justice of the charge. b'l, coming to the 
island, anti lodging in the npi
hbo..hood, he nrriv('<l vcr}" early in the moruin
ill di
guisp of a tmvelJer, and l'nterc,1 ihe ml''ry us if fcJr the 
ake ofpr.lyin
and, as every place stood Oplll to all c()mer
, hE' hqp1l1 to {'xamine all things Cdre- 
(ully: then he 
w sume at prÏ\'ate altar:-;, devoutly C'l'le1Hating mas.s; other
ing around the high altar j others sitting in thick orllel' hetwf'eo the pillars ofthp 
cloister, either reading in profcmn(1 silence, or el
 wl'Ïtillg or emplo)'{>() in some 
otlwr useful exercic;e. A fter a while, one of the bl'ethrE'n, obSf'rving the curio":iity with 
whidl he examined every part of the hOIl
t', bpgan to wonùer at him; and at length, 
lliscovering him to be the bishop, hastened an(1 il1f()rmed the ahbot, who came forth 
to receive tht' gU P 4. But Aetheric reproved him severely, and adlUoni
hed him to 
be less su
picious and morO'ie in hig 
ovemment of the abbey, and reminded him 
of the expr
 injunction:01 of St. Benedict on thi
 head j and tilen, concluding- 
with word
 of peace to thE' hrpthrpn as well a
 to the abbot, he departed. But 
the abbot, reflectinn' on hi.; own f:.1Il1t
, and the oh
tacles occa,ioD(1d hy the violenN' 
of his temppr, resigned the ndmini
tration of the ahbPy, nru1, taking leave of 

· BeoecUct A.ccolti Aretlnl De Præstantia Virorum sui .ßvi. Dialog, Thesaur. Antlq, Italiæ, 
t Voyage 101ft, de Deux Bénédict. See also Vet., Script. Præf. In tom, Is. 
t Volt, Essa1 sur lea Mæurs, &c. i In Lib. I.,. De Gest, Pontif, ADI' 



the bl'ethren, ::;;et out on a pilgrimage to Jel'11:-,alem, Æthel..;tan was elected in his 
1)1 ace. After a year, 'V ythmann returned; and the fame of his approach reached 
Ram:,e\' at the moment when ..iEthclst:w, with the monks, were sitting in the refec- 
tory. Immediately, he ordt-'re(1 the lector to stop r
md, putting on thesacl'ed 
vestments, they all proceedt'd with great reverence to meet the former aLbot. But 
he, remembering his fault:;;, humbly refused to re,as...1Jme his authority, and chose 
for his residence a solitary plaee caned Northeya, which is but a's throw 
from the church, but inacce
sible, excepting by a boat; and there, with one monk 
for his companion, anò two servants, he sppnt the remainder of his ùays. 
To such monasteries our 01(1 English pl)et tllU.; allu<les :- 

.. There was an sncieut house, not far away, 
Rcnown'd throughout the world for sacred lore 
And pure un"'potted life; so wel1, they say, 
It governed was, and guided evel'more,"* 

England, in fact, possessed many such. Lyùgate, while lamenting his own dis- 
obedient sensual life, f.,llowing the rever:,e of all that he was taught, and taking 
littJe heed cc 'Vhat Christ Jesus suffered for his sake," acknowledges that thedis- 
cipliue of the abbey at Bury wa..; excellent: 

CC This holy rule was unto me radde 
And expounrle in full notable wyse 
By vertuous men, relygious and sadde, 
Full well expert, dyscrete, pI udent., and wyse 
And ohservaules of many goodly emprise. 
I herde all we}), but towchyng to the dede 
Of lhat they t:aught, I toke but Iytell hede," 

in the twelfth century, when Sugar was abbot of St. Denj
, the two Cistercian ab- 
beys of Rivallix and fountain", in the dio('ese of York, were in great reputation 
of sanctity. Of the latter, Gasper Jongplinus say
 that it drew its l1ame from cer- 
tain fimntains, which were a happy presage of its future holine
8: :fi)r truly, he 
add" there were there in abundance the waters of celestial de
ire, and of living 
piety, which spl'ing np to Jife eterll:1l.t But let us look elsewhere. S1. Peter 
Damian visited 
Iount-Cas:;;ino, and thlls dpscribes it: " An here were either aged, 
or young men rejoicing in tlw de('ornm ofyonthful life,-\\"ho, as sons of the proph- 
ets, were fit to seek Elias through the desert; or truly, in the flower of youth, 
like the Apostle John, to overcome the wid\:ed one."
 That was a fine tribute 
to the virtue of the monastery of Septimus which l\[ar:-:ilins Fi('inu:,; paid, in writ- 
ing to Francis Soderino, bishop of Volterra, wlwre he say
, "I know indeed how 
you ] the:;;e monks; tho
e pious men, whom I also not only love, hut wor- 
 Scardeoneo, a secular prirst, !'peakin
 of the convent of St. 
Iark at Pad- 
ua, adds this testimony: "'Yhidl to thj
 day flouri:;;hes in the highest opinion of 
sanctity."11 Ermenric, monk of Ricllllau, in his epistle " De Grammatic3," thus 

* 8penl:!er, ii. 10. 
t Epist. xvii. 

t Notitæ Abbat, Ord. Cister. per Univ. Orb. Lib. viii. 5. 
ti Epist. Lib. xi. I De Antiquitate Pataviæ. 



speaks of the monkc: of St. GaB: C( There I found each mor{' hurnh1p and more 
paliellt than till' other. .i\or i- there allY biupr ('al Ulllolwst tbl'UJ, ur maliL't', or 
envy; but dmrity alone rciglls there, along \"ithjustil'c. Lov(', the mothcr of vir- 
hIt.!" amI Concord, it, d:uwhtPf, amI 
ill1plicity, jt
 uttt'n(13l1t, h:t\"c there, \\ith- 
out dllllbt, theil' propt'r dwt'lIin u '."* "-\dalhl'fo, hi:-hop of Verona, (:ame to St. Gall 
fi'r the SJke of pra)"t'r. U The 
race of this pla<'t'," saitb bt', "is greater than it. 
fimw: Lt're i
 l'c1igion willa learning, !--e\'t'rity with di
ciplille. \\'h:tt otlH'rr- lDay 
thillk I kilo\\' not i but I \\ ill .1t.dare my impft':-:-ions. I c:tm' here 6Hli
t'aint, and a dead one i hut, sooth, I fOllllll lllallY 
aint-, :lI)CI1i\'Ïn
 UIle8. lI t 

lan'y of the brirf noti('f>:O; of dIP abbot., of Corb,y in t'.lxoIlY, givt'n in the allna1s 
of that ahLe)", indicate a h:tppy state of religion a-lJrt'\'ai,ing at that tinw. Thus, 
at tilt' date of 876, we fl ad, "UUf .Adelgariu=-, dit"C1, allJ 1-0 ollr IIltltllt'r \\Roo.; a 
wÏtlow; Tallcmar', n l!4.>od faiher, 8IH'O,'t <llocl him. III FSO, \ VO (1iH1. \\llrth
' of a 
]ollg('r life; Bovo, a lIIan cirl'um
pt,(.t, HII'l'Cecll'(1 him. 111!)} 8, \... olhmar, wLu 
J'(>stort'd the dlllrl'h 3., w{'11 3b he could, \\
 a good f:uh('f of the family, untl re- 
ligious abhot, beloved by nil, but wh"81 (
od rt &'I"\'t'd for horrihle tim
::" on ac- 
COUllt of public evilo;; therefure, to pra}"l'rs alld tl'.\
, his :-oll'on

t nrm
, he ex.. 
hortt'(lus :-eriClust). ."t 
 to Frallce', tbe only tlifficulty is to ('hoo:#' hC'tween t<t':4imoniC8 of pqual 
fc.)J'{'C, ill proof of the 
, \\ hi(,h ('xi
t('(1 in her rt'li
ioui laoUS(':-o. FiftY-liine 
s Ir:ul go I\'l'ruro tbe ablx.')' of ()airmarai,.., fruw II-IO to 17no, tò wholll we 
113ve this h}stilllon
' : (( Thl'Ír('c)I),lrll't \\'asex('lI1plary iu tlae interior ()ftlae c1oistf'r, 
worthy all,1 honorable to\\a.rds other nlOn:u;teri('
, to"al,(Js tll(' hishops of the di- 
occC'e, to\\ ards the St'ignt'tlr.. of the ('ount.r)', ;lIId, \\ e nel...)lIot add, towards the peo- 
 Gllibpl't, abhot of G('mhJour, Nl)'S (If thE' monkc; of ::5t. 
rartill at Tours, 
in hi
 lettel' to !)hilip, al'c'hhi
hnp of Colo
n", ., Xor hill
 i... there und i 'iplincd, 
nothing inor(linate ; all thill!!
 art> quipt, ('"n!"OIl:l1It; nothillg !wing I1I1(ler, noth.. 
ing oVt'r done; but all things, by (I i!'po!'<itillu of wi:-o,1(1m, at e, in II1f'a"'lIrp, \\ eight, und 
numher, as tar n:3 is 1)0 ' it.le to hllmall infirmity, 80 that they S('t'ß1 lI1elllbt'15 of 
that Chllrc.h ('o1rerin
 to it
Jf, 80liC'itous to pl"('
rve the nnit}, of tile Spirit in the 
bond ofp"ncp; the whole hody <,ompaC't is cnHuCf,tetl, amI e\"pry jlllwtllre ('PIIlPnted, 
and every lli
lI)(-e appe.l!'('(l : tllf're (1\\(,11... tire \\oJf"ith tire Jalllb, the Il'npard 
with the kid, and a C'hiJd cm ](':111 tllf'm; tlr..t Child, I n)(',I11, of wi 10m it is \\ rit
( Pupr n:lte.. 
t nnbi
;' and in that hol
' hCIII:-l' of God, \\,)10.." plac> i!i mac1p in 
pea("e, tlwv dWt'lI (>tln('or(lallt and unanrrnol1s."1 Lupuo.:, abbot ofFHrllf;", in his 
lettE'r to the mon k., of 
t. (;NI11:tin at \ uxerr<'. 
'''', " Trlle charity, indl e-1, al- 
's ßUllrislll'... in tl)(' inh:thi1antR of our' IIIOIt:I
, hili I1f'Vt'r Ir:ts it elt dared 
its !!r('atrlt'
 hy 80 lIIallY ('ertain pronf- a.. in onr tirnp,"
 Cluny obtairlt'c1 thi.. 
\\"ell-dt.'Sen'e<1 prai..e fmOl St, Grpgor
' ''''1 I. at tltf' g-eneral ('onn('il: "That, 
through th grace of God, under holy :md piou.. ahhot..., it had attaincd to 

* Ap. Heumann, Dc R. Diplom. ii. 187. t Eckt.'hard Ilc Cßflibus 
. Gß1li, r. 1, ap. Goldast, i. 
tAp. LeibDllz, Script, Bruns, iii, 
 PieJ'8. lib:, des Abba}e::. (I
 Wßtren. et de Cläirm. 1M. 
I Ap. 
lcntene, Vet. Script. i. Præf. ,. EpisL. 116. 



dignity and r('li
iolls strictlless, that, ill the sen'i('e of God :lnd spiritual fervor, 
it 8urpa
sed <Ill other communities, ancient allli modern; and that no abbe)' jlJ all 
the world was to Le comparetl to it : fi)r there had lwpn no abbut there whu \VaS 
not a saint." Of Cîteaux, Pope Eugene 111., in 1152, 
id that it flouri.,hed in 
the fame of sacred religion. The third abbot of thi!'; honse \\'3.;3 St...phplI Hard.. 
ing, of a noble English family, "decûratedwith tile gr ace uf emillent !'alJctity, a 
lover of the desert, and a mo.-;t fervent (>mulatol' of holy puvcr'ty," :IS he is 
in the book oftheorigills of Cis tea II x, III tlH.' archivt:,s it is said uf him:- 

.. Anglicus hic Stephauus fulsit velut Angelus unus 
Sacrsts veste Bernarù um vestiit Iste." 

The three daughter
 of Cisteanx,-the abbey of La Ferté, tlutt of Pontigny, 
and Clain"aux,-were all tl'llP sOlll'ce
 of :ò;piritnal life. Peter òe Roy a, who 
sty les him!"elf, "by the nH'l'c
' of God, a novice at Clairvanx," writes a... fclllow..; 
to the snpl?rior of allotlwr house: " It was not strange that I should heeume 
thonghtful aud solicitotl:', when I I't.flectetl 011 the mallner of my pa4 life, not 
having lived a moment from. my childhood without pedi'H'ming some work of 
death. Greatly I Im'ed the a
 of \'allity, spectacles, jests, iùleneðS; to ut- 
ter falsehood, to swe3r, tl) commit pCljl1r
o, to flatter; all thesp, from long daily 
custom, I learned to consider not sins, but, as it WP1'P, certain agreeable ornament.!, 
ociety and mundaue prohity. Yet I kllew that these 
ame thing:", causing, 
separation between God anll man, were vanities and lie
. I omir grpatel' thillgs, 
-elation of bPart, emulations, hatred, di:,sell:,ioIl8, detra('tiolls :- but the Father' 
of mel'cÏes lwd compa...sion on nlf', and at lellgth vi..ited and drew me to his Son. 
Thus was I saved from the waters of Babyloll, and mercifully placed in Clairv<lux, 
at the fountains of the Saviour. For Clairvaux, thougb 
itnated in a valley, has 
its foundations on the holy mountain
, whose gate., the Lord !oveth more than 
the tabe/'llacles of Jacob, Gloriou8 1 hing:; are told of the!'e, because of them. 
IOl'ious ana wonderful God worketh glol'iuus and \Von<1el'ful th i ngs: for 
there the inveterate return to their heart; and, though their exteriOl' man he cor- 
rnpted, vet the interior is re:;;tort'd to life, aud rene\Vell from day to day in Him 
who created mall. There the proud are humhled, the rich impoverished, the 
pOOl' evallgplized, and the darklle..;s of 
ins tl'an
mitted into light. In thb house, 
theref, Ire, though the multitude gat hered f<)gethel' fro III the ends I)f 1 he earth is 
immen:,e, congregated from all regions and lIations, Yl't i
 there only one heart 
and one mind; so that of thi.... house we may truly sa,", , E('ce alienigellæ, et Ty- 
rus, et populus ...Ethiopum, hi fueruut illic.' Thi
 is the hahitatioll of all these, 
rejoicing nut wilh \'ain joy, But as fin'm p , the more diligf'lltJy I ('xamille these 
poor of h]e......ed life, the mOl'e thoroughl.y alii I convinced that they folk,,\" C'hri
in all things, and that they are true ministt'rs of God. For, while at prayer, speak- 
 to God in spil'Ìt and in truth, and while J h:I\Op Pfln\'erse.) pJ'ivately 'vith th('m 
in a familiar manner, and when I have remarked t"
ir humble mannel' of conduct- 


\1 () H E 
 C.\ T 11 U L 1 (' 1; 0 1:, 

illg them..d\"(':i. it i:o- plailll
' evid<>nt that tllt'Y are the f:uuili:ar fri"D(Is of God. 
"Thile praising him ill tliP c!.ot'al p:-,alnlOd
', tlat' whole ..t:lte uf theil' boJ
', ill all 
tl.c fi'ar alld n'\"l'I"t'IJ('(' flf Slilctitr, 
lul":; hl)\\ purt' aud Low fcn'{'ut i
 the af}t.c- 
tioll \.f tlt{.il' milld. 
(lh'lIlIl t'ulilieiatioli. :11111 1II01OSt' tJistill<'tioll, in 1Il00lu- 
latillg' tl... P
:alll1", sltow.. lum :-,Wt.t't ill' m"IIt1I:O- an' the WOI'tIt
 of (;()(J. \\llclI 
I ob
erve thelU ill tilt' diurnal huurs, :nul in tilt" lIo{.turual \'i.rils lIIitlllioht, 
till prime, with on])' a :;hort illtt'r\"al Lct\\tt'n, So holil
' alld illdt'fatigabl)' Sillg- 
, they 
t'em to me indt.(.t! littlt, l(:-,s thall tilt' an
d.., Inn II1I1('h more than men. 
Sildl {' alaerity, :uul SIIt'!a t'lldlll'aIlCe, \\ itll 811('h ft.rvor :111(1 IIwrit, ('an ollly 
L. from a {livine gif1. \\'hil
t re:uIillg tllt'Y 
"em lightly to .Ira\\ tI.., \\ of 
, \\ ith silclI("
 flowing awl gll
 lip to denial life. Tlwir di"pu
itiull and 
!aabit demonstrate that thf"Y are nIl tlis('ipks t,f Olle 'last 1', te.lchin o ill their 
laeart:i, :u1t1 
, 'Alldi I..r:ld t.t t:U.t.'lIt.' fliPY 1Ire silt'lit ; amI they hp:u', urad 
Jlwy bel'ollll' \\ ito'l'l". If \\ t' rt'J.
:m.l th,'m ill 1Iit' t.'
e of mallual labor, thl'ir life 
\\ill appt.'ar nu Its.. happy. [II all tlu'
c \\urks, it i"i t'\9itlent that they are It.d LJ' a 
di\'ine ::5pirit. 'Vlth :'\tlt'L a I'.ltit..nt mi tI, :--uch a I'la('id and im01o\'cahle counte- 
nance, \\ itb 1'uch :o-Wl"t't and hol
' order, tlwy do all thi II
, thouJ!h lahor 
is gl"(>at, yet they 
"':tr{'t..l.r :-('t.'m to nw\"(>, 01' to hl' oppn'''!'' d ill nn
' fl'''l)(>d. A- 
4 tltt."t' pour I llllt)t."r:4alltl 
omt' 31"(' hi
, other:oi ('011....1:-;, otlwr.. ill..
ru.... uf 
Tl'at'l1cP of digllity, othels 
'outh:i uf 
Tt'at hirth alld hop'. ; h..t 1I0W, 
Ly the gr:u't' of lìud, :111 :u'('eptntiou of per
()IIS Lpinrr t'fadi(,..ltlil, th. hi
her 3n
one suppllst'<1 him...df an the worlù, thL lo\\er (k he make hiUl
df in thi:oõ liltle 
flo('h. TIH't"l.fore, \\ Iu'n I h,.llt.ld thl:--C mt.".. i.. tlae g:.rdeuH \\ ill. tlwir rak(..... in 
tL.. Illt'ado\\s \\ ith their fc,rk
, in tilt' nt.ld. with ploawh
, in tl1<' wood.. with 
theil' hatdal.t.., while (,o....idt'ring \\ hat tlwy \\cn', I look 011 their pn:' ..t 
their \\ol'ks, im;tnlment.., ahject pt'r:-;nIl:Ö, diSI,rdered and \'ile \' ,..tml'Dt1'. 3ccordin
to the judgmt.'l1t of the e
, tlu'\' :-t .m to m. not II1pn, bllt a fcl{)li
L. raC(>, a nHttt', 
...llUlluoful fl(l('k, tluo upprobrium of ntt'u, :11)(1 tit(> outrn,ts of the p('oplt."; but a 
!'iutmd :uul faid.ful intell('Ct proclaim:"! to 111t', in tll(> ht'3rt, that their life is hitl- 
(1"11 in Chri
:-:t tlit'1I1 I t"t'joit'e to "'t.'t' Gaufricl Pt'rulwl1..i:-o Rayualtl :\101'- 
ineu:"Ii:oi, \r aller ell' 111..(1 la. aaul anotlwr, \\"110111 I k lIew 011('(' t laP mo
t il1\"eterate in 
the old mall; but no\\, h,y the 
I ß('(' uf G, HI, not evell a vt'
tig-p of that an('ient III in(1 
r('IUain:o- in th{'m. In th (1Iclman, I 
new them with au t'xalt(>tl hp:lrt, wall
; hut now 1 ....e tllt'lIl humhled une).... tile nwrt'iflll hami (If 
God. In tlap olel lIIan I knt'\V tlll'm :I": whitt'nPlI sPpnh.hl'I-S withollt, witllin full 
of dt'ad men'... hul1(....; hut now I h..IInJeI rllt'lI1 a!' \'p..
"l.. uf the Lord, whi('h al- tl.P.\' may appt':!r ollt\\ardl,\' dp
.(.t within art' full ..fCt'It'sli:,J pt.'r- 
, "lIPD, therefur.., thif; cllmrmmity i..: :-t'('l1 J!OiD
 ont to its 
iahur a1l(I l(>tllrniD!! I'. gularl
. Qln] ..imply one after anOt he.., a.
1. p:lt-ifi(' ho:;t 
\\l'aring- only tilt' arm
 of ,){>:.rp, lllll...t Bot the nBg1'J
 of (;0,1, !oof"eiB
 them tlnlS 
roo'\...., "0 r1t'\\'I
' cun\'f'I'h.d from tlarkrws..: to f'h..i,.:t. 
iB!! throu
h joy 
UllI3tiou? The eXt' demoll is c'onfouucl,.d aud fillt.(1 with 
rif'f, bt' what 



I trust }lP m3
Y :tlway,.; s('(', tl1(' resurrection of the
!Ìn.g no mo(leratp de- 
:-tru.'tillll Oil ui,., 0\\11 killgd'llll. Again, what think Y"II IllIl:5t be the illlpres
c('ing them at table at the app"iure(llimc..; for f
lC)ù! Trllly, tliPY evillce :-tlch 
tlch holine s ...;, that they mllst appear to everyone what they aJ'p,-just 
men ami fearing God. Here they recei\'e the spiritual food for which they hun- 
ger,-the ".,. ord of Life; here thpy revprently pal'take of the othel' gifts of God 
plaee(] before them, not exqui
ite delight..;, but of the lahor of their hands, vege- 
labh'8 an(1 grain of the earth, Cycler is their drink. If they cannot han' thi
tlH')' r(:joice in simple water. Rarely tile)' use wine. In a word, obediencp i/'Ò 
the rule of their whole life; which they so faithfully observE' in all 1 hings, that 
there is not a singh.. moment of the day or night which i:-; Ilot offered up tll God; so 
that I firmly believe by every step aud movement of theil' hand,.. they gain re- 
ifln of sin, or incl'ea
e of the cI'own to life eternal. These few thillgs con- 
ct'rning the poor of Clairvaux I :öend to you, ac('ording to my promise. Thel'e 
f(,lllaill grt.'atel' things; but to df>seribe them I am not suffieit'nt. All my desir{' 
 to be a:-sociatE't! in body anti spil'it with the
e pOOl' of Christ. Gild willing, on 
thp Sunday after the _\sct.usion we are to rect,ive dIP armor of OUl' profe
by the grace and benediction of Jesus Chri
t, whic'h, hy the merit
 of his l\Ioth- 
er, and your prayer:" may He grant to. liS, AlIlen."* 
Inll11 mel'ab1e hOIl
es retained the fervor aud re.r'IIJariÌ\' ofm()Jla
tic life down to 
ö . 
the late
t times. The abbey of St. Jean-des- Vignt'
 at S01
, founded ill 1076, 
by Hug-lit's, Seignenr de Châb'3n-Thierry, had never wanted refi)}'m down to tht' 
year 1718, when DOIII :\Iartene \.isite(] it, and fonnd its di:õcipline so perfect,t 
Hourdoisf', that model of tlt(' s('{'ula' cler
y, in the reign of LOlli.... XII!., descrihe:; 
ill glowing terms the edification \\"hic,h he recehoed from visiting the ahhey of 
J nlllÍpge,
 which, down to the Reyolution, was a blessing to the COHntry. " On 
arriving- at Corby in SaxoIIY," says the two Bt.'nedi('tine travellers, "we were re- 
ceived as brother
. The abhot is vet')' humble; and, only for the honor paid to 
him, one would neveI' suppo:,e that he was a pl'ince, and had the prerogatives ofa 
so\'el'eign. \Ve were greatly edified by all persons of t.hE' comm1Jnit
found the ahhey of Prum retaining great discipline. The prior is ei'teemec1 a 
!-aillt :1n through the country; and the monks are most devout aJld mortified. 
The onl
" charge ad\'ancoo again.;t thf' pl'iOl', is, that IlP livt's too retired, 31)(1 that 
he cloes not see str:lng-'T
 8l1ffieiellt1y.1I 011 arriving at Trpve...; we desl'eJH1ed to 
the ahbey of 8t, l\Iaxilllin. where we were rc('!.iv{'d with the utmost cordiality. 
\Yt> can say confidently t!tat God is well served in this hOllse. All the holy prac- 
tic(..... ofreligioll 3rf' admirably obscrved. Tht"ir chant is majestic, their ceremollial 
\'f'lIer:ìb1e. Although the apartment:- for guest:5 31'e 1Il3g'llificent, tho:,e ufthe ab- 
hot are simple, and contain on1y necessa1'Ïe;o;. During our stay we 
aw nothing 
hut whai was m04 edi(\'ing,

.. St. BernHrd. Epist. 441. 

 Iù. i. 231. 

t Voyftge Lit, 24, 
lId. 273. 

t Vie de Bourdoise Liv, iii. 246, 

 Id. 21',). 


)1 0 HE:::; CAT II 0 L I C I; 0 It, 

Ifthc..e testimonit
 are nllt "'l1ffi('it'nt, I know not what wOIIM '-ati..fy us. 'Ve 
um up the ('vidl'lll'(' in th.. \\"lIrd... of a Frcw.h historian, and I'a)',-" III 
abhey..., tilt> Itig-h id(':11 of th.' middle age.-. wa... rcalizl,\l."* ßpyoml thi.. it \\(Illhl 
not, methinks, be po""sible to find tt,rm!' that wlluld ('pnv('y praisf',--of C()Ut
c, sub- 
 lhl-'Itl atlùr
t.d to per,..tHl::> ('omp .(cutly illstructl'ù. 
nut nllW, having' 1)('('1) fi)r :o'ome 1Í1I1(> under tht' lwl}' roof, let u
tihltt' an in- 
quiry \\ hi(.b thi,.. ullu!'iou to tilt' ap:l1"tml'nl
ue...':o. may natllra1Jy !'u
gf'!o-t :,lIId 
(It.maml. - "
h() an' the lUell tLat comc {}(,"t'usiunall,y to v tLt;:ie t-anl'tuarics of 
God anù peace ? 



 AXY come to the ahl
\'. 'fan\' from pa('h of thp ,'uriou!': conditions 

 [ ", 

 IIJtO \\ hidl i:, divided the I-o('ial lit
. of IIIUlI. They cume all at once 
r J ill II1l1ltillldC>! on .by- of 1"II1
 f. li,'a!. Tlu'
' cu", olle "." Olle, 30- 

., hy "h.al1h, beE-king to a-
t> the intolerahle thil,..t \'thich 
f?! )'"."" " t h.,,,, \\ i Ih '" I"'. . Imp" f....m lb. fOil II rai u, "f p".....J. -p, \\ Ii ich 
th..y know, or at 1t.a-t,.t, are opt.nt'c.llwre. út U;:f }war ill:'tan- 
ces J'(.laICt) h\" tile witm'
" who t-a\\ tlwll1 c.'ollle. 
. ., 
" \\ e inhahit the \\,O()(I..; an,) ,h" l..a(\" "O\'t'rin rs oftrpl'S ßn> more fillniliar to 
Uq than the stolle wall
 'If hOIl :0'," &1
'3 hrtlthel' (jisl('bert, writillO' to Pt.ter thp 
velJt'rahll' abbot of Cluny; "
'('t \\(' al'c lIot hermit.. 
. as to Tb3f'mhl(. the 
!Oparro\\' alune on thp hou:'t.-t..p. Thtlll
h \\l' )Jan' pt'I1('( !'aft..) into Ihi.. va..t for- 
e..t ft)r thp Bake of Sc,littult', yet Wp (Iraw afwr u:-' !o'lwh a cr()\\"() of ntf'lI, that \\p 
:-een1 to have constru('t('() lather a ('it." than a herlltit.l
e; f"r to ..a\' nothill
that tumultuous multitude whi,.h H"ck here from IllJ tIlt' bUI.rolimling countr)", 
in ,)1'(1('1' to ha\'(' dic:pute-:: :-t HIed, and di,,<,ol'd
 apl'('a,..t..J, ßlHI judicia) 
nt 'IWt::) 
moc)iflt'(), tllP p:lrts of the f'a:-:t 1)(')'oJltl the :0-('11., :lIIcl thp trall""alpine nations of thp 
-nd ..\1('h ft Immix-I' uf emi'a-:-
 to \1"; that it woul,1 r<'ql1i
 mClre than 
tlap care of the gnate4 kilw to gin. an :111...\\('1' to tlwlt) all."t TIIP dignilY of 
this act of makin
 pt'..Ice \\"a.. then dt'cmt"ll worth thi' audil'lJ' llf king-; anf) prin- 
, who ofrt'n ath.>lIdc,) un t hc
}{o,ll1lphl1"" (I. !"f'I'ihill!! tlw ('OnCOIII"1;" of P('op)" that u...t'(l to the :Ihh, y of 
St. Tron, say..., " 
1I('h :I crowd of pel':-oll
, 1I0hle..., and farmel's, anti pt'r-(}"
Loth &fxe.... n
(>(1 to dirl'('t tllI'ir rollI'S{> to 0111' 
at(>..., alon!! tllP rll:ul-. :11111 o\'er the 
field:-" and throu
h the me:u1ow:-õ, t'''pe('iall
' 1111 solplt1l1 da
. alld (h\(.lIin
" in 1(>1)f\
tf'nt... and tabernacles of hark, 1'01' 1111 h"U5"- ('quId ("ontain t 11(>111 , the wholp place 

.. )1 i(

t Oi ',lint II. ('11111 ili(,(' 11 ' :--(j:3. 

AGE S 0 F F...\ I T II. 


seemed besieged, Then there W:.t:-; the ('!'owd of ruerchant
, who could scarcely find 
horse:-; alii} chariot
, carts and animals, to ('any 
l1('h a multitude of str:m
Then how shall r òescrihe the oblatiolls at the altar? I :-ay nothing of the allimal
horses, oxen, heifer:,;, rams, ::;heep, which useù to be offpred ill an incredible mul- 
titude; but also they lIsed to prt'beut heyond all weight and Humber lil/t'n 
anI} wax, hl'ead anù cheese; and by the time of ve!"-pprs the guarlls in the cl(Ji
e(l to bp f:,tigued in receiving alld ht'apiug up the piles of money, though thpy had 
uothing else to ùo."* 
In the annals of the abbey of Corby, in Saxony, we have this significant notire. 
"In 950 a dOIlHls mercatoria was hUlIt for the ac('omlllodatinn an(i 
e(,lIrity ot 
merchant!". C'oming to the ft sti\'
,l ,)f St. YiI1l6." Throll!.!:hout the whole yeal' 
crowd:-ì of pilgl'ims u
ed to VI
;t th,' abbey of Ein-ieddill, .A writ(.r ill 1373 :":1)':"', 
that there :,tra'lIger,.; wcre continllally arriving 'lU({ dl'pa:-ting, In 13.j0, on ;he 
14th of Scptemhf' I', that ahbey re('eìvl-'d one )mud red deputies from the ('itizel1:-; of 
Basle, alld seyputy f('OID those of Stl'asbuurg. Twu year:-, before, )Il thE, vigil of 
St. bi 111 on and 
t. J lIc1c, the 
IÍßllence from all part..; of Europe \\.lB Sit great that 
the cantons of hllri(,h and Sdl\vitz took alarm, In 1636, the town ofUberlillgt'lI, 
grateful for its delivenllll't' [('om the S\\"f>des, 
ent to it a deputation cf 550 pe1'- 

OI1S; and man)' other (OW 11:; IIsed to make ,.otI\"e pJ'O('es",ions to ìt annually. In 
one )"t'ar the 11U1I1ber of pilgrims allloumed to 180.000;t 3tHl a1l1Ol1
 these kn
iug youths, t!wse boy-travellers, whose stainf'd :",hollldeJ's bore m'pl'es,.; 
)f the load 
they \tad eanied o\.el' the l110tUltaills thr"n
h dIP slIltry da
', might he d ,:-,tlll
often the fervPllL dis('iplp,.; of far-dlsbnt schools, son:o: of tile 110biest honses :n 
Europe, thlls pl'epand h)' lahor:-; Jike those of Ihe pour to ta"'te tbe sweet:; with 
whi(.h illnocence \Va,.; in ,;.neh places filII d. 
Tht're bt'ing g-rf'at indlllgt-'n('es 014 the aunh'el':o:a1','. of the dedication of the rhnrch 
of tilt' abbey (If Riddcl'
huseu, in th(' duchy of BI'IIIlSWlCk, wluch fen OIl the 15th 
of JUlie, that ft'stivity wa", changpd a.fwr eighty 
'ears; for' the crowd from the 
neighbOl'ing town 
md viJIaO'f'í' , 
a\'s the Abbot JonO'f'liIlIlS, was so great, that the 
corn lI
ed to he trodden dDwn, and the crops injured by the multitude, who l1:-'e'd 
even to cut (lown the :-:lighter trees to erect booths Therefi,re to remO\'f :"ll pa.use 
of offending man and Gofl, thE' \hhot Eggdiu
u,:, with C'ol1:;e"t of the 
of tllP Cistercian order allil of Pope Inuo('put VI., tran
ferred it to thp Sunday 
after St. 
u'tin. as a le,""s g"f'nial se:lson.t 
""hen the new church (:f :\fonllt-Ca"'sillo was to he C'oní;ecratpc1, Hi],h,br;md, at 
that tim,> archdf'a('on, cardinal.:, :11111 pril'st
, ani 1 magllat
, ('ame tllere, ",ith bish- 
, abbots, monks, clerk:"" p,'in('f-',.Ij nohìe
, and cinzPlls of fin ('olldltion, with 
wonwrÌ also from all p:lrts fif Italy, ill such ('1'owels that it would be e
lsier to count 
tne stars of heaven than to enumerate tllPm all. Xot only all the con1't:-; of the 

* Chronic. Ahhaliæ:S, Trndonis, Lib. I. npnll Dacher. Spiclleg, tom. vii. p. 3:>6. 
-: C'hroniqne d'EinsiedelÏn, t Notit. Abb. OnL Cisler per Lni\'. Orh. Lib, iIi. 


;aùt ) 

)1 u It E:-, (' \ T IT () L [ l' f; U H, 

tery, bllt th.. wholp mountain, from tl)(' f.,ot to the '-Ulllnllt, ami evell the 
field.. aroulld it, WPI"C c'o\"crHI \\ ith the lIIultitude; alld llurillg the three IH'l'(', ù- 
in; Ò a
's, \\ ill"
 hre.ul, ßc
h, alld fì!-'h we}'e givf n in such alnmdanc,', that lIot OUt> 
OIl of that Pl'ocligioll!<t IUlillitml,. nmltl complain of Hut ha\"in
 rcccl\'td ..ufli- 
cient. TllPJ'
 were pn....'.I,t kll arc.llhi..llop
, forty-tllnt' hi:o\IJOp", Hi,'h:u'd, prince 
cf Capua, with hi
 SOli, anti IHotlier (;i,..ulr'u,.., prim'(' of 
all'rno, :IlId hi
La.ndulfu.., prin 
 of Benc\"t'utllm. 
in.. duke of :Kapll
, with "J'giu
 (1lIkl' of 
:::;orentum: alld a-i tll' tliP other prim"'(',, all(lnllhl
, hoth It.<llian and Xurman, it 
\voulll be impo
..ibl,. to namc tlllOl. 
o tht, dllUdl \\a.. duli,.atHI, in tI\l' 
1(\071, with thp utmutìt dc.\"otion alld joy. antI honor, 
IIJ(I J!lory. TIU' ('w\\d ('011- 
tillued durillg eight clay:" ('eHlft':--
illJ! their sills to gain the illtIlIlgt'Ill'l', awl thell all 
returned W tIJeir hOlllt s ill !!I', at .ioy. 

o Nt.C' muclu. 1'
L populis co(!untibu8 81!mlna denøo, 
.Nc(. !"equip8; properall' in luccm A nOi'te, diemque 
Expectalt' plget." 


hJlß rrnfnnden8 aa mænla c,.ls, CSiilll. 
Vincat ilt'r durum 
, nllwr, t't Benedlctl. 
Vi licit d ahn
, ticlu præ-clIs ,ie ..muibu:. i"tic 
Creditur, et f'Ulumi ßl ncdictu.. glMln ChristL" 

III fille, 
dl one would han' dt'('lnl."(1 him..('lt all illfl,It.1, or most wf('tched if at 
If':l..t he COllltl nllt hU\'e ('Ome in tn' tilt' l,tltl of !"oue'" :1 ...ol(.nmity.* 
Pope.., t'/IlptJI"UI":'. killJ!", pl'ille't'
, uncI J! lIoblt'm('lI, \\ f'!'t. oftl'1I ill tl1. li:')t ot 
\'Isltur"t to abbt.)':- ill tilt' lIIid.I1(. 
Ig' S, ,\ h,'n the 
olemlliti,,:, of rt'li
ion '",1 
tl1..lI1. VlullY and 'Iollnt-( 'a..:-.inu could boast of b:l\'II1!,! often I"L -ci\'cd to ho..- 
I'italiry tllP vicaa:'\ of CIII,j..t. fllDt \\a.. a IIlt'morahle 
"l'IIl' whi(.h 1'''''11('(1 in the 
chllrch of th
 I:tttt'r ahht'Y, \\ JIt'II Pope ..\(Iri:m I I. 
l\'f' .J.llsllllltioll tll tll(' emp('wl' 
Lothdil"t', who, with al1 Ilis t'ollrtiprs, ('ommiut'Cl P('IJIII"Y to oht
lill it, allel So partook 
"f (11':\th, re<'ei\"in
 the l'C'nHIIUllion to jUt1J!IIH'I1t. \\ hie'lI ",.n alrno,..t 511(1<1<'nl)' IIpon 
tIlPlIl ! 
Tn tllf' H,.n. (Iic'line abhf'
' :It 
.\'rr.lI'a I 1'(.,1(1 an in,,('ription, !'talJll!! how P"pc 
Pin... \' I., Oil hi=" 1'f'l1I111 fmlll (;f'l"lImny, h:1(1 st"PPt'(]w that al,i...y, amI!!htl'cI 
the monks \\ ith hi:-. ('hl>('rfill, an!!t'lit' ('Cllllltt'nam't', alii I hnman l"Clnw'l'Sltion. 
In the ('arthu
i:ln'r.', Oil tht' Homan way, thn't' mile.. from Florence, I 
wa.' ',howlI thf' ('('11 ill whi('h thp :-ame holy pOllliff )o(h!"('(1 in darker tiuH's. 
fh:u ('\'t'lIill
 all wa.. :-,ilf'l1t ill it=" 
.Ilf'mn ('()rri(1I1rt'
, ..:t\'t' that tlu' voi('p' of the 
mCinks ('halltill
 \'f !-oJ)('rs ill tilt' (.hIH'(,h, wen.
' IIt':uel in the cli..can '. The 
solemn ('OIlVf'lIt of the nomilli('an
i,'nna is :-:otill 
tallelin!!, whie'1. OIH'P ("f'cei\'(!(1 
within it 
t. Thoma... of _\(Jllin, 
t. _\ntoninu.., hIe....t ,1.\mhrClJ!i ll . :lIul Gl1ie)o Lu...- 
i!!Il:III, killK of Cyprus. lIen', ill I-tf)
, wa..1H'lel a g't'I1f'l"al ('haptl'l' IIf tifì, en hun- 
dretl fÌ'1ars. and here, in I-H)-i, Pin... I I blc-
l',llh(' '-;t:llldartl of the Cru:-aclers. 

.. Chronic, C8SSincn
is. LilJ. Iii. c. 22. 

A G Ii S 0 F F A I T H. 


I II thp :111f'jflnt mona
t(lI'." /If (;rofta F{,ITata thf>I'f> i.. a 
()lemn painting, to rep" 
1'(''':('1)1 Iht. ('1111"'1'01', Odio J 11., arri\"ing tllt'rt', awl 
to Xilll
, with his m()nk
pro('('('ùillg (.'1'111 to met:'t lIim, That l'mpt'l'Or, tl.rouJ!h rpUlorSf for havlll
the rebel Cn scentiu8 to he lwlll'adcel after liP had ('apitIlJatec1, h:l\"in
l'd har('. 
}ot to tIlt' 
all('tl1aI'Y (If Sf 
Iì('h3t'1, un :\Ioltllt fbrgano, pa
pd a whole L('ut as 
a pl'nitcnt ill the moua""tcry (If ( 'JmN', r It t lIat s(>a
OII it wa:-, common to find 
crownpd lreaeI
 I1nel('r die (.I()i
tt'rs \If St. tiplledict, Thus we find kiug Charles 
the Ihld pa....;sing the Lent alld Easte
' fe
tinll of the )'par 8G9 in tlw ahlx-.. of St. 
Dellis. * 
III the 
reat ahbey of Sf. :\latll' de..: Il'o:-:sés king Henry Io tt'
tifÌt"c1, hy a c1larter 
of tit.. yeal' 1058, that lit' u:-:ef) IIft('1I tn Col1W thel'e JO pray. LOlli:-, .YII. c:Ime 
there ill 1168. PhiJippf' Al1gu
t(' 1()(Igf'd 1I1l'l'e in )Iid- L,.nf in 1223" St. Lf)uis 
\Va,.; t h('re in 1229 amI 125-1. The emperor Chadl'
' IY. (':lItlP there twice ill 
13i7 to pcrf<II'm Iri:-; cle\'otiolls,t OrlIeric .Yîtali:-, :o;ays, that when Boemolld, 
after lll
 d,.li\'erallc(', had left St. Leollard-lC'-Koblet having müdc Iris })rayel'
the tllllih of the holy c{)nfe
...;or) Ire !'}J('nt the Lent in rravenin
 through FranCt', 
makmg hl:-' 
fl('r:-, at lIIallY :ll1an.;, Ire had grpat l'eu:;ol1 to njoice in the mOll3"''' 
teries, where hp wa.. reeein.d with open anus, allll he returned thallks to God for 
the hcnlgmty of the western Christ ialls. He \\"a:-, acco:'llpallieel by the sou of the 
emperor Dio
elles, :IS \Ydl a" by mau)' otltpr illusu'ious GI'ef'I

The elll}wror Le\\"i", 11., celehratillg Easter, in tl}P a1>1>('}" of Ful(Ia'" was heard to 

ay, " Q I wi:,h tlrat I might always remaill in rhis court of heaven, and die in 
it,! "That can be eIt:.
ireù lllore delightful and profitahle ?"
Ordf'ri(' 'Tilali
 tlt:lt COUllt Richard, 
Oll of Hie.hard J 0 of Xormandy) 
used to hold hi..; I.'oun at Eu
ter in the mona
tcry of F
camp, fOlJl)(Jed by his 
 and make offering-s :11 thc solemnity hefore the altar of the Holy Trillit.r. 
The same clay, after ma,,,, b...fore goin
 to his court and (lining with his bar(1)"';, he 
""l.d, with 111:-i two 
OIlS, Rie.hal'(1 amI R..bert, to rppair to the rf'fecto)'y (If the 
mOIlI\:s I and the two youth.., ta]iing the dí...;hes from tlH" kit<.,hen window, used to 
nt them to f:llIlt-'r, a
 the monks 11""('11 10 do; and tllPn he used to pIae.e 
them, first before t.l:K. :Ibbot, and then bpft)1'l' tllf' mOllk
, 'Yhen lie I.ael so dOlle, 
with humility hf' ll
ed t" I'r
!::It-'nt him
f'lf to the abbot, :IlId obtain permis.. 
sioll to depart, :111<1 thclI hI' \\"f'llt ill th,. t'Olll't g-aily with .1. l'ontc'lItt d 111':11'1. One 
day Riehar(l came to Jllmi(\w" :md pa:-;""('.1 tIlt' !light tJwre, The nf'xt J:lOrnillg, 
aftel' saying hi.. pra."l'I'.", he "b('t"el 011 the altar u Iltlle IHee'p of wood, \\rl wn he 
was withdrawn, tl.," S:IeJ'i
 :1J)pro:I(.hed tht
 altar', f'xpec:ting' to finel a mark, or 
all ounce of gold, or somethill
 ..illliJar. Finding unly thl"" littlp pief'C' of wooll,- 
they \\"(,I'e a.
tonl...;hee1. At length tll(.
Y a..,kerl him wll\' he placed su('h a tbillg 
un 1111' altar. IH' told Iltelll rhat it W:1:-, YllI1outiel', fi certain mallOI'" 
which he wislH'e] to g-ive rhe'm for thf' salvation of I,i

.. Lt'hfP1Jf. Hi
t ell! ()in('
se de Paria, iii. 
t=- :3('h:1I1I1<1I, Hisl. Fi.tJdem i 

tIeL v, 135, 

t Lib, 


M 0 R K 
 <.:: A T II 0 L I <.:: I; 0 H., 

Independent of sueh \"i:-;it..:, many rdi
iou" hOllst's wcre vi
itl.d on certain oc- 
 b)' a kind of ,Ionll':--tic COi.H't. The IUlIulrl'\l knight... attacht:'d to the p..- 
tatt'..;, of tht> ahhl')" of 51. Ri(Jllicr composc,1 a rl'tinue aImo!"t 1'0)'301 at CIII'i-;tlll:l"', 
tl'I', awl P.'mc('ost. fhl' chapter or gl'lIpral a
t mbly of th(' J..llighh of 

\[i('ha.'1 was Ill'l(l c\,pry )'car iu the hall vf the knighb, in the abhc}' of 'luunt 
[it'hael, IIU tilt' 
9dl of S"ptt.mbl'r. 
Iu 1113, Hellr}', king Ill' Englalld, aCt.'ompanil'(l hy mall)' prin(,l'-i aud prl'latps, 
came to th." nbb.y of Onche..; and l.'ell.bratt.>tl till' Purification of 
lary. lie re- 
mailll>d a long timp in till' cloister of the mOllk:--, ('xamiup(l t}1I'111 carcfllll.\' dUl'in
 rl'}):lst, alld h
t\.ing cOlIsilll'r('(1 the ('OIl\'t'lItllal t.'u,tom
) pi ai..p(l tht m hi
Tilt... lI('xt ..lay he euh.' I'l'lI tilt' dlaptl'r-room Ulul humbly Llsonght the lIIollk
grant him the favor of Ull'il' a"':-;'I('iation. * 
King Cmmte, with (!Ut.t'IJ Emma. ani) th. gralllk
'. of hi
 kintFdolU, propo:"l- 
ing to cl,lcbrate the fc:--ti\'al of till' Pllritil'ation of St. 
Ia..,Y in the aLh('y of Ely, 
dt'd tiaith('I' ill hoat.... t'i d,P
" apl)I o:!(,hl cl nml', tlte killg on)t I' '<1 tlte 1'0\\- 
t..... to rest upon tllPir oar:--, t!.at hl' lIIi
1 gaze IIp,,n the ('lHIn'h whi('h "0:--1' ahm"e 
the hank. Then it \\a..; that lit' 1)l'3111 thl> ('hallt of the 1ll Il nk.., wlti('11 fille() him 
with snl'h jO)., that he hroke fc.rth in &Ill> 
ung, ")Ierry "Im
l'n &lit' 
llIll('hll" of 
Ely," whi"h was ever afterward.. a ('OIllmon :ion tr , anti pru\'crhial in Ihc.' cuuntry. 
TIIPII landing', he was re(,(.j\'1 cI at the chun'h pl'Ocessional1)' hy tilt' ahhot and 
monk:-;, ac.'Col,ting to tile ('u
tOfll of r('('t'i\'iIlK great fIlcn. Tlti.. kiD
timl'''; to be (11':1\\11 in a slc'CIg:t> 0\"('1' rhl' i..,t' to Ely, when it wn..., nut po:-\...iLlc to 31'- 
pmach it in allY otlwr manner. t 
In thc alllla}.. of Corby, in S
tx(my, we rp:ld at the datt> of dH7 a.
." Lewi.... tl1l' 
rel' maclc hi... de\'otion... in uur l\1oua.,tery, prai...,in r till' di-.cipline 
()f uur hrc>thren, alld :--a'yin
 that th('I't W.1:; IIQ happh'r lift> than that of monks 
!llw:ty cIIII\'cl':-,ing with God, Fro... ('orhy It
 \\f'nt to IIt'ri\"OItillm," Again 
ill 940 "the Seigneur cle 'roltlt'nht'rg e
mw \\'oundt..l to till' mOlJ:lSIt'r
', ''in
to pa....... the night in pra\'cr and f:,:-;tiIJ
 near the rt:'lic.... of St. Yitlll', II.. \\ 3..; h..t- 
tt:'I' n,'xt tlay, and 8110n qnit
 cnn'\l. lIe \\'3S gmt..fnl. In 11:16, I"....othal"ill.. An- 

lhtn.. stayed in the mon:lstery :--OI11C time, In 13;8, man)" nohl. \\ere \\ ilh liS 
 summer, and l'ach wa
 gra('ioll..." r T II the ahbey of ElOsicde1in, arp rf'('(m)oI 
ttt..:-;tilig the alTi\'al of di4ing'l1i",llC'd pil
ril1l:-l, Thpl'e wc rpacl tbat t}1(' Emperor 
Oth" tht' Great, all(1 cit. ,\elt.laid,. his wilt., ('amf' t}WI'f' in !1t):); 
t. (;PI'o}I). (Ink.. 
of ;:::):.l\.OIlY, in !172 ; King Chal'lf' IV'. :ttt('mlf'11 hy a ('l"Ow(1 of 
ignPlln.. ami In"f'- 
latt..s ill 1:1.')3; thf' Ernppror Si
i..mon() in 1-117; "'''t>nlinand 1[1, t'mJu'J"()I' oftltt;: 
, in ]442, 1)f'si(If':-; a nmhitwl" of pl'il1(,(, and nobl p s of tht> hl'st hon . 
uf Gf'l'rnany, and many am ha ....aaOI.!", I'Pprf'-f'nt i ng thpi I' rc....,wcti \'C ...)vcrf'igm;, 
King COllrad being at ('oll,tUlwe on Chl'i..trnas-,lay, ant'r clilllwl' t1tt> hi..hop 

* Onlr'ric. Vit, Lib. xi, 

 .\p. Lt'ihn;tz, ii. 

t I1i..t Elil'rl..i
 Lih Ii. c. 27, al). G:\lc Ilist Brit. tom. i. 

 U F' F A I T H. 


ed the p)'()C'e
siolls at ve...;per
, whi('h took pla('e during those three da
's in 
our abbey, :-;ays a mOllk of 5t. Gall. " 0 I wi
h that I \\'prf> t!lpre!" exelaillwd 
till' king, " why !'houh1 not we go my friclld
 to that ahbey to-IHOITOW lIIornillg ?', 
BnalS Wl-re accordillgly prepart.d, .md l'arly at dayhreak, the king embar1
(.d with 
th,- bi
hop alld all hi.. court, and at mid-d:,y l'ea('h('d our 
, amI was re('(.i\"ed 
rt'at jo
' into OUl' ltIona,..tpry, where he remained three nights, It would Le 
long to say with what (It-light the days and uight:-; wert-' 8p('nt, admiring the old 
mcn ant1 y"uths in the {'hoir liI
e So many angel..., .At the l','ocps..ion of ehiitiren, 
the killg ordered an apple to be thrown on the pa\'ement; and when he sa\\' that 
1I0t one of the least children wa
o milch as to look at it, he wOIH]er,.d at 
thc discipline. On the king 
ayillg that he would dille in the refectory and 
partake of tÍle common fare, the prefect 
aid, " A Ia
. it is unfin'tuU:ttp that you 
will not wait till to-111OrrOW, tì)r theu pel'lwps we shall ha\'e beans and bread, 
whit,h Wf' havc not to-(lay," Then the ('hildrel1 readillg in order, on descellding 
from the tft'sk, the king sellt gold tl) be pllt into tht'ir I1lOuth:.;, alld whf'n one boy 
:-pat it out, " This one," r:aid he, ., if he live:" will be a good monk." Theil ri!'ing 
fl'om lallIe, he tumed to hi
 men and said, "that ht' had never before dilled with 
sUl'h pleasllre." 011 the morrow he (>au
e<l him
elf to be e/lfolled as a COI1- 
seri pt brot hpr, \\" hen 1)(-' ga \"e the pl'ice of a ve
tBlent to each of 1 he monks, and to 
the boys he grmllc 1 I three days' play. Then ellter1n1! tilt' oratory of blessed Oth- 
Inar, latt.l." eal\ollized by Roman authority, who IHHI beel! per...;ecllted hy hi:-i own 
fhmily, he ()ti
-recl gold and silver on tll<' altar. Thai day al...:o, he said, " he 
llPd to dillt' \\ illl the hrethren a... a ('on,,;c'ript bl'otlwr," atlding-, " that he \\'o"ld 
fill'll i
1I !'('ppel' to st-'astln t heir beans." X ever hefore was ther,' seen 01' heard 
a fea
1 in that refectory. There W:18 the smel1 of meat, the dance, and thp 
', The ki/lg marke(] the gra\'er brpthren, alld smiled to spe their darkelled 
('()llIltf'llalWeS, as not liking the unaccustomed thing, but through l't-'ioìpect for the 
king- they 
aid nothin!!'. On the f(mrth evening ht' df'part
.d, thp hrethl't'n thanking 
him with teal':', to whom he promised that he would be a bent.faetor as long as he 
Ii \'1'(1. * 
eha1'(] tIlt' f.lIlrth, in hi..;:. henediclional S:I
'S, that when the Empre
s Gisela, 
and hCI' hw.;hand Conrad II. with tlwir son Henry I II. came to St. Gall, and 
had thpm:o-eh'e<; recei\"ed as consC'ript memher's of the ahbey, they he
gpd from the 
.-\hhot Dil'lhald. tlw hook of J()b and the P
alter, wl.ieh :Kotkel' Labpo hall first 
trallslakd into Gprman. 
Thp o(>casion of 
omp ro
'al vi8it
 to mona....;tel'ies, a..'i we have alrt-'acly Oh-el'\'Ct], 
was t!lC pa('ifi,'atioll of (1ifferE'n('e
. Thus the m!IJ1:t4el'Y ofR:III...ho\"ell Ilt'lwld the 

olem\t intpl'\'i,,\\' of Fl'P.]f->I'ic, (]uke of Anstria. and I he emperor Lewis IY". when 
hy the interventio\t of the arC'hhishop of Salzhonrg tlwy were reconciled to each 
oth('r,t The custom of court:, gave ri
e to others; a
 when the kings of Bur- 

* E...k,,!umi 1)(' ('f\!':ihu
. Gf\1li, c. 1, 
t Anon. Chronic Lurl. iv, Imp. np. P,'z. 
('rirt. TIt'}". .\n<:1. tom, ii. 


 t'ATIIOI.ICl; o H., 

J!lIlIdy, wh(k)(' ('apital wa
 (;t'IIP\':t, 1I,{.d to lw ('rowlll'd ill ,hI' ablx'y ofS,- 
in th,. \Yalal:--. \\ïlt're fficli had "I'Cllt Iheir 
ullth a..:;chular" it \\01." :'\H'cl todie; 
ill tllt'ir sickl!
, th,
're, 01" \\l1t'1I wOlluded, killb" u:-'l'd lu b,'cunn'Yl.d tll UWll\tll1- 
astt'I')' ill \\ hieh th..)" had I'l't'li t dUl'au'tl, or at ka:--t to 'POll' n,ll
itJ(h hOIlf'f'. 'nil I:' 
wc h:n'e ,..cell how LOlli..-lc-gro
, titillkillg hi::: ('II(I tu lx. lit aI', 1't'lIlo\'l'tl tll tilt ahh"y 
of 51. Dl'lIiri, :lIId w!ten lie 1C<'O\','rctl, :111 thc I'lolIgla
 ill the fit'ld., I'olliul tilt' nl,hl'Y 
were dl'SI'I'Ì,.d, a
 SlIgt'r "a.'":', t lIP p<,oplc flo('k i IIg tugl'tltl'r to hai I Ia i III 011 It i:-- Ie- 
tllrll to Pari.., and (,Ollllllt'lldillg him to God for having :--0 long pn'S(,'rroo 
thcir peact', "'Thl'1I \\ïlliam the COlllIIlCrUI" ft..11 frolll his hOI&', ha\'illg bt
n ('ar- 
ri 11 to ItollciI, It.. \\,a,.. rt'lIw\'ßI to ,he prior)" of 
I. (;l'I"\'ai.., to ht' Ulult'l" the care 
of tilt' .A1>>hot \10Ilthanl, who f.H'i'R3W from Iht' fil
1 tltat IH' ('0111.1 1I0t I't'('o\",'r. 
'111t'1't, IIC dil't1. 
o a
ain it. \\"a,.. in tilt' mOlllL"t"I'." tlf LOII!!POIlI, Ihat LOlli:--, of 
Fr;II1('p, !-itln of K in
 Philippe-lt.-I1:lHli, t1il'<l. th.. da.," :md honr Ill' who:)!' ,1f'- 
('('.I-{' were l':lreflllly IIl1ted ill tlte diary of the ho\.U:)c. Bill nIt'1I of all cla....
. 111 
tIlt' fir,:-,t 
hock of l':damiIY, u
(.,1 tn tlll'U tY
:::> to \\":1 1'\18 tilt' (''l',:-u that 
th.. romall(',':-; of ('hivalr)' \\ h{,11 they 
,'"t th.. \\'OIlIlc1l't.l kui
irillg to 
b. carril,<l to 
lIme ahlw," in the lI{.igllbtu'hIJOtI,:lI" tltihfill pit.llln.... of tllt' man- 
ncrs of thc ag-e. Thu wilen (;ymu-Ic-('01ll10i:, Iyill
 011 Ih.. J!'IIIIIHlllt'al' the 
Ítmnlaill in the f.,r('8t, aft<-I" I.i
 ('omhat with allutlwr kllig-ht, 
h:' " \\ hcn' he {'an 
havc n'I)('
'?" hi
 \"nrll't r,'pli(':o; In him, ":;il', npal" h"I'(' is a hllll
' (,f religion, 
wllitilcl' klli
}II:illftl'1I rf'pair, ulI,1 knit" Ihat tiU'lm.thl'('1I in it lahm'vt'r)' willillg- 
Iy, :lIlI) do Ihe hllllol'e to all 
tran,re knifltl8 \\ ho ('(1111" tH tl1l'm, amI 
 011 lItay 
rl'ruaill there at YOIII' c: ., :IS iOlw as YOII wi
h."* Ili..tol'Y pl"t'''f'lIt
' in
of i II list rious IUcn of the t rllc Ilt.'roÎf' :,tam p, \\' hu t'xPI'l' '-h' 1l'l'ail't(] to mouaster- 
i{'... in or<ll'I' to prcp.u-c for tit'atli. Thus ahe 
reat COlillt Hi('h:lld, of :-'t,llunirace, 
\\ 110..l' n'l1111val from tIlt' worM 
IU'h joy to Et,(,f'lillo, (1it.(1 ill dll' ('Ollvellt IIf 
th,. DOllliuic,"ls at Bn'scia, tit which II(' \\a.. hUl'i('(1. EVt'ry ollt' 1m.. 11I'anl oftl.l' 
ll"lliollaJ Iq
t'ntls \\llidl pn''1 the" I', tllrn to I,i!-. ('OUlltl'Y :11 a futlll't. day, of 
h{'ru whose memol"Y i... ..till ill 1){'1I('Ili('tiuII. \\"l.ll, t \'t'n tl... 't' att.,!-ot the pr('tlom- 
illallt ill('lillatioll (If th" IlPloi(' mind; fi)1', if YIIII hdi{'\'(' tlwm, it is lIot in tlH' pai- 
nt.'. or at the' 11l':II'lh, tilat I... \\ ill I'p.appf' II": it i,.. ill "Olllt' ahl)('}" rlwt ile 
will I1r:)t hf' tli",('o\'f'rt.(L A('('onliltgl
' \\ 1ll'1I thl' Portll
ul''''P tItOIl
!tt t!tat J)"n 
ti.lIl had at'llIall)' l'f.tlll'll".1 lu Portll!!al, it \\"a
 a culI\'l'nt of Fl",'an.. that 
tll,,)' bail! h
 wa..; '
u tl' t'nll'r. t M ona:)teril' orkll n'('Ci \'(',1 C'''
lt pt'rSllnaLre,s 
withill gates 3S \'isit4)rs, who nlll.\' son
ht n rdi
ion... I,(.treat nl" mom
refrt'..h 'II PII t. 
lngnlphll"'.... that in th )'<'31' 1-1'j4, in whidl King Edward IV. W:lS mat.- 
1:tr!!al'('t, Dllt'h{'...
Olllt'r..('t, \\ idow nf Dnkt-' .J (lhn. whn was alwa."
f:lvorah:E> and hl'ni
n tu the mona-tpn' of ('I"o.dawl, ('3.1111' 11wrf', all(1 \\ a.. wi1liuJ.{ly 
ceiv. d 
tS a skter into the ('haplt.r, I II tIlt' grt'at Ci..tcrt'ian monastery of du 

· }o'. 285. 

t Bier. COnt!"b1
!!:1 tic P\)rtll
. ct Caslel. Lib, ii. 

AGE::, 0 F F A I T H, 


Val.Nôtre Dame which !'tood in a deep valley, :,ix leagues lIorth-\\cst of PUl'i:-:, 
the Killg Philippe-de- Y uloi
, came to lodge for some time in the yeal' 1333, and 
King Charle:-, V. lodged tlwre in 136ù, * It appt:'ars froID taLlets of \\ ax pre- 

cl'vcd in the abbt'Y of St. GCl'lJIain-dt's-Prl's, Ihat ill 130ü, King Philippe-Ie- 
Bel ('ame to the abbey of Va\1x de Serllay, \\ith 3ll hi:-; ('o\1rt.t T}iÏ:-. 11lOlIarch 
oft(\H visih'cl tllP ahbey of Longpollt. It i" marked on tahlets of wax that 
he was there in Septembt:'l' in 1 ;)08, and in Dl'cember in 1304, Alrn()
t e\'('ry 
yeal' :'onlC sO\'t'rcign \\'a:'\ lodged in the abhey of ClullY. Dom .:\Iartelle was 

hown in the abbey of Royall Ulont, the place where the King St. Loui:, l1:-ed to 

leep in the dormitory of the monk::;. \rhell IGlig Childebert, ,,'ith his wife 
and court, arrived at a short di
tal}('e frllß1 the IHPnastH)" of Oueht':', whi('h he was 
:tbout to visit thl'Ough desire of seeing tll(-' bles..;pd Father Evroul, wh(l
e reputa- 
tion hall reached his eal'S, he alighted from his IJor:-õe and ordered all his company 
to prepare for appearing wot.thily hl.fore the 1lI0Ilk
.! "'I' e rt:':lù in "Id Spanish 
, that King Ft'rdinand coming- once to the Illonastery of SI. Facundu::;, 
ining in the refedllry, (.'ontent with the comll1OI1 fare of the mOIl}.;::-, alill ob- 
serving all di:-:cipline like a brothel', there was hrought to him a glass vf>:--:-pl, and 
while recei\'ing it from the ahbot's hand it fell to the ground and wa'i broken. 
The l
ing, lamenting hi:, own Iwg-Iigenl'e, call8pd to be brought to him a gold ves- 
:-el adorned with gem:', and ofl't'l'ed it to the ahhot in compen:,ation.
In the rnOll3stel'y uf the Holy Cro
s at Ratishon, the emperor uSl'd often to 
tlin(' with hi:, cOllrt, WhPll hunting, I II the mOlla..;tery of ,Monl:-PITat, then' were 
('crtain ('ham her:' set apart for I..dgillg 
eparately, kings, duke..;, marqlli:-:es, COllllt:'5, 
and knight..;,\1 In f:u.t, all high pprsolla
('s used to spend cprlaill intcn':lls within 
religious hou
es. The count., of Champagne, whenever they mille to Lagny, :tI- 
way..; hnd their lodging in the abbpy. Stephen, th{l most ancient of tllf' Sei
de Baubigny, WM known ill the ahbey of St. Denis as a knight and g.entlemall 
commell!'òal of the Abbot Sugar,"; Co
mo de :i\Iedicis being received all exilC' at 
Venice, with every mark of hig-hpst honor, cho..;e Íi}r his place of residelH't' the 
monastery of St. Georgt', where lie afterw:lrd..; erected a supel'b library, which he 
ellril'hed with many lIIanIlS('I'ipts, to expl'p
s hi,.: g-l':Jtitnde for the hORpitality used 
towards him b.\' tlit> fl'i:lr
 011 that occa!'òioll, III Ihe fir4 eoult ofCamaldoli isan 
tatillg how the piolls prince
 of Tnsc:II1
' ha() visite() thar wild wood 
and sacred cloister" alld how theil' prt-'sent..; had pxhilar:lte(l tlIP monks, "?alTiors 
on thf'ir PXlwdition..; sometime,.; df'malldpd hospitality in ahlw.\'s, Thp hisJorian 
of Eh )'("alt',;; an instan<,p: "OIlP tiI1lP," he say:.:, "wlwn tile vf'lIerable Duke 
Bl'itjllll.d. of 
()rlhllmberland, \\"a" advancill
 with a smal1 Íi)rce again:'Ì a 
army of tll(' Danes, on approaching- tbe abhey of Ramsey, he sent forwards to beg 

* Lehæuf, Hist, òn Diocèse òe Paris. iv, t Id, ix, 168, 

 Roòeric. Toleht.n. de reb. Hi
pan. Lib. vi. c. 14. 
I LuC'ii Mat"Ínei Siculi <ip rf'h. Hispl\n. T.ih. v. 
-J Lehæuf. Hi!'t. du DillcL:;(, de Paris, tom, vi. 280. 

t Ord, Vit, vi. 


1 0 H, K 
 V A r II 0 L I () I: 0 l-t, 

h. ,:,pital it)" . bllt the 

b"ot Cl
io :-t'nt ba('}.. 3/18\\ er that tl1(' pI3('(> \Vas not 
tù ll.cci\t
 :-1I1'1J a JIlllltillldt, bUl Ih:lt he \\tlul.1 gbdl) t'lIt
naill him and -('\"L'U 
cülllpauiolls: tu \dlClIll tilt' duke I't>pliecl, .. Lt,t tilt. IUf.1 nob'll kn\l\\ thm I (I . Ilot 
h to Slip alonl' with"ut', 1)(.'(',II1:-l' I :Hn not aLII to fight alonp without 
them ;" ami :-0 ,.;:lying he P:IS"l-'t) on to Eh', bt'lJIìin
 ({H'wat'\).. to tdl tilt' .\hl)j,t 
, that hcalld hi... :U'fll)' UIC,.lIIt to :iUp wilh him; \\ho retnrnCtI :.lIlS\\t'I', thJ.t 
" in the work of eh:u'ity he wa
 afraid of no 1IIIIllIx'r",; hut that hl' ratlwl' ('01\- 
gratnIated him 011 his cOJllin
:' s.. ht> wa-: n.('(.i\'l'tl h\' the m"nk..., :11111 \\ ill. 
"':tch luve amI sel'\'Ïec, thaI he ('\'('1' aftPI'wal'd.... ha,1 a gn'at atli'dion for th.. plal't.. 
tc.jlifyiug hi:-: gratitucle the l1t'
t (lay, hy givill r to t!.t.. ahhey thl' mall"r:- of
{.\\ich, Trumpillgtoll, Fulhourll, :111,1 mau.\' otlwl''', an') olll
' 1)1' !!in
 in I.('turn, that 
if he 
h..ul,l faJI in h.lule, the)'. \\ lIuM ('any hi.. 1)0\10. thl'l"l' to Ix' bill j..c1. fllf'n 
C,)Jl)II)t'IHling him..df tu tIll' I'raYt'r
 of tht' hrl,tht't.n, ht' prl)('("(>,lt'Cl 011 hi... t'
tion, ill whit'h after fi\rhtillg t'(ml':l.rt'Ollsly f{II' f.'UI h....n day.., on tilt' fiflf'l'lIth a... he 
tÙI', he fell, \\heu th. V
IUC.'" c'llt uff hi... ht a.l alut (.'arri..d it 3\\1\)' \\ith tht'lII. 
rhe Abhot of Ely, \\ ith :,oll1e monk..., h
 th\. t>\.l'nt, (':l1ne to tlIP field ofLat- 
tIe and ha\yin
 fOUlhI hi... ho(h-. hrutl
ht it ha('k to tilt' aLh t ,), :lIItl hUl'ie(1 it \Vith 
grl'at houor, pla(.illt! IIpOIi it a gIol}l' of wa:\ in pla('(. of tlw 1H':u1. This piou..; :11,<1 
brave m:m tlollri..tlt.d ill tht' da
'b of Kill
:tI', ami of Eclwar<1 till' :\brtyr, :uul 
be clil-'C'l ill th.. f(mrkl'IHh year of Kin
 ..Edt.IJ'{'(1. IIi. wid..\\"'ltit'da 
..t"ver-..ll m:lIIO!'''; t.. the :,Lhey, and al..... a \'cil \\(}\"eu nn,1 pailltl.d, rt'p'" 'Ilting the 
d &1::; of her hu...h:lIul, in Jllf'mlll'y of hi... \\ortb.* 
Tile rl'(,ol'll of tIle \, of gr(.'at hi!ooioric.'ul ('hal':U'h"" to the f(.ligiou..; hutJ...l'
ill,l,l-..I vcry iU!(>l'c..tillg. [Jt.t th tak,. f
.r l':\:lInp)(> that \\hieh tlt'..erihc.. the 
stJ....lIgcr.; who came 10 Ih.. ahLey of )1 \III IIt-('as...i no, to \
hich such cl'owdi 1"- 
!-urtOO fl'Uffi tht
 ea.')t US \\t>1I a:-;. f.'om dll' \\"t'
t, t>ither to vit>\V the chllrf'h or to C011- 
e with the illu,.;triou:-. \l>l>ot Dt>..jclerin..., \\ ilh \\ hoIU ,'mI)(>rtlr
, alltl kin!!-, allli 
('1Jt"CIiS corl'eSI)omlecl h)' IcttCI'..., in whieh tl)\'y ('OlUlIll'ndt'(I tllt'm-e1Vt.s to his 
praypr.;,t lIirlll'r caul!' till' ElIlpl'l..... .A'.!IIP", witè of IIt.nry 11., from tilt' f:lrlhc...t 
limit.., of G"'rmarl\', to ...t'C him, like anutlwr '-\.llm to "'l'e an )thel' "'ololll"n. Iler... :-hc 
remaillPI) six m,mth... ,.ellprating the bredm>n, Hither C"clIDe Rohert, ('011 lit of Lallf('- 
tl'lIo, with hi.; klli,!.!ht, in .Lent, for tilt' sak(' of p1'3\"(>r,t lIitJlf'r (':lIl1P Oth" I I I., 
Pawl ul ph 11.. of p,.'llt'\'('ntllm, tilt> Em pt>rol"s 
t. IIt'III'Y. Conrad 11., and I fl>ul'Y I II. 
Ri(.ilanl pl'im'e of Capita, Rolwrt Hlli..(',mJ, ()uke ofCaluhria, tht. ElIlpt'rol' Loth- 
ail't O , 11('111'.\", duke of Ba\'i.\ria, al,,1 It >>ht'l'l, prinep of Capna, in ('t) \\ ith 
St. BC1'IIar.1 awl many :\orrnan ma!!ltatt'..,
 Tltp-\, \' of kin!!.. to 1Il01l:1!'terÌ >
wer... :111 oCC'a..ion to thp m.mks of ..ati...(vin!! tllt'il' prl
t't.t-:, lIot of :lmhil ion, bllt of 
. ; 3,..'; whcn tile vpn(\rahlt> IIartn1ot, :lhhot of t;t. (hll, a\'aiI",l himd('If of 
thp visit of the em\}PI'or tn that m,ma-tpr,\Y (')11 hi
 rptllrn from I raly. to ohl:tÏn p('r- 

ion to al)(licate amI I"('tirp from a pv.t of a IIthority,lI r n (Y'Plwrai tllc mOllks 

.. Hiqt. E1if>n3. Lih. it t Chr.mic. Ct1.c;
inenq. Lih. Iii. 32 f iv. 
 (list. Cns...inens. vii 
I Rntpert de Ori!!ine 
Ionnst. S. Galli, cap. x 'Ph f:.oltlRc;t. H('r. At j, 

 0 F F A I T II. 


ht to (,ollw>rt sl1ch vil'it
 to the spiritual wclf:.lre of tlreir guests, who were a1- 
\\ays addl'I.:-:....L'f.} wilh 
olelllll \\'()l'd
 of a(}rIlOllitioll, :IIU} conùlll'ted ill tire first ill- 
:-ötarll'e to tlJ() dlUr('h, tlrat they lIIig-ht 3(}QI'C th.. hlessed !o:at'rallleII t. * 'VhaLP\'er 
might be their stat.- or eharact('r, thcy were ill\'ited to adopt thc out\\'ar(1 forms of 
the pt':weful on ('nrerillg the III onasteI'Y , The mOllks of 
Iount St. 
Iichad ob- 
tained the royal s
lD('tion to oblige ('\'cry one who vi!"ited that ahbey to lay aside 
his 3rm
, ('\"ell to hi,.; dag
er, at the 
:lte, t In the abhey of St. Gall great men 
of the wnrld were only admitted into the interior of the cloi:4el' on condition of 
putting on a cowl ovel' th/.il' tires,.;. Eckehar(1 IV'", 
aw on'r ùay (.i
ht ('ounts 
in cow]s 
oing in procc:-,sion with tire monks, following the ('ro:'i:-', with youths 
and o]d men wherevf'r they went, an<l dilling- \\ ilh them at mid-day.! The con- 
yel'!'atioll of the monks on thebe occasioll:;, a..; we 
hall obsen"e presently, was de- 
signpd expre
sly to win their guest" to a sense of religion, and so verify the }>I'O- 
vedJial Myillg', that no one returned from a holy place the :-:ame as he went. A 
hol't words from them, uttered with that tone an<llouk of cqllviction which 
80 peculiarly uelong:-; to their ble
:;ed ordcr, a simple admonition such as- 

.. 0 gentlemen, the time of life is short, 
To spend t11at sbortness basely were too long," 

fell not in vain upon the stl'angpr's t:'ar. " Thou art an adppt," he would exC'laim, 
"in tlte diffi('ult lore of the sch"la.;;tic wisdom of Gl'eek, !)I:>rll3ps, :md Frank phi- 
ophy. Thy :,pil'it i.
 present in the past, and sees the course of this old world, 
and how man can fall and rise.-It is much 

c I honor thee, and would be wbat thou art, 
Wcre I not what I am :- hut 

.[oreover thou disdainest us, and ours; 
Thou art as Goò, wbom thou contemplatest.''' 

" Disdain thee!" would thp !)Jouk reply, "Sot the worm beneath my feet I 

· The Almighty has care for meaner thin
Than thou canst dream, aDd has made pride for those 
"rho would ùe what tbey may not, or would seem 
That which they are not, StraDgel' I talk no more 
Of tlwe and me, the future and the past: 
But lo..k on that which cannot change-the One, 
The C'II born an(} U ndyiug,"

TJmf woulll speak thp monk to hi:oi stl'auge gupst, and hi
 strong word
ne\'el' pa..:;:;: away; fOJ at {):tch syllable he uttered, it was a new fihrp of the olh{>r'
sou] .drat hl laid bare, 
". r }'ead that 3 ('{>rtain nooll'l1Ial1 of Old Castille, who fill' hi:, prodigalities :md 
dehauchery wa!' ohligpd to fly frotH his Iwuw, p:rs:5ing- the mountain..: of the :3ierra 

. B0113vellt. Spec., .8ovitiorum, ii, 3, 
t Eckehnrd ill Cas, c, 16, 

t Raoul Hi5:t. de :\11. St. Michel, 210. 


)1 0 H E 
 C 6\ T II () L I ( I: Ú H, 

lort'lla, (ouml Fat}wr .J"lm of the Cro..:
, who wa..: thclI prior of the mon:18tt'ry 
tlf Cal\'ary. 1I
l'I\ to him his ullhappy state, alld the holy 1II:llllllat\t'liim 
1'1 tk't.'( ::to well un tli
::) of hi') ::'Ufl
'I'ill:-:S, tllat he wa:-. ch:m ell into a dit:. 
llt man, and lameutc.t1 Ilothiug Lut his former illlpaticlU.t>. "I from 
t'xpcril'lIcP," -.aill this 
elltlclllan, "Ii)r though my 1"'00TO\\ S \\"crl' \'l'I')' gn'.lf, his 
(li,,('otm..e callset\ IUl' nllt onl)" to bl'ar thl'/IJ pati,'IllI)', hut e\'t'll to njoi<.(' ill what 
1 suffi'r.,d; a [1(1 I tlliuk that I :,hollltllll'\'cr han' heell a1>l(> to ha\'c emlurell lilY 
mi,.fuI'tlllH's if he ha,luut COIllC to 111)" c.I')...i
tan '..." (( "'1mtl'ver pnjucliCt.s a stran- 
ger might havc agaiust mouks," s.I)"S Bllurgoi
u, "lie wOllllln'nOUIlCt. tlwm afrl'r 
a vi,.it to tllP lIieroll
'mites ()f tl1. E
;t'uri:ll : 11(' \\"oul<1 hr ('ouvin<,(.d tliat lIuII('r 
that h:.1bi1 the t;p:miarc.l d,)t}u'" lIuH.h trllt' g,)(.dlkS...., Tltel't,11t' is n'(''II with 
ho:->piblity, 10a(lc,\ with killdu,'", amI. If illl.lim...1 to It,th'r
, all the trt>:noiUn" of 
tht! libml')' art' :.1t his dispo
I."* :5oUI(' glltsb \\t'rl'!ooo eh:lrIJlt'd that Wf' fiu(l them 
 sevcral ) ('

 in mOlla;;tl'ri
 TIJII" in 11 
t7 \UU'rtll:-. i.. ft,tllld ch".l1- 
iog in thc mOIl3."itl'r)" uf 
t. \ wllt'w, in 'falltua, \\ itl. tile ulltIl'r:-talldillg th:.1t 
he should neitht.r ot1i..r him;o;t'lf, 11..1' \\(':v tIlt' lIIulla
ti(' lutbit, 1101' IH"l)fl''':- (..Ihl.' 
('lice tl) th" abhot, bllt should have free lih,.rty to 
u tl) \\ hat '\,('1' re
ular or il'- 
1I1<1r place })t' might ('lIoos' with all hi.. hool,,&", alia \\ itllout :18killg' th.. abhClt':o- 
penni:)::jiun, aCl'ulllillg to IlHltual (' I'tra('t malIC' "..t \\ It'll him 
u)(1 111(> abhot. 
TheL't! wpre also rl',.i,lill
 then' n,ll1ioltll:-ï :11111 B()
, Rllli othl'r:-, lil"l' 6\Il)prt, 
not bouud to tlu' hou:'f'.t 
) in tile allllais of COl'h,\. in 
' \\t' I't'ad, " r"i
)'('31', 9:H, C, lIe PI'YIlt>, IOllg a hUlltel' of ('

tlt..., amI 3 "rav(> kllight, for the I't':-.t 
of his "0111, (,1.0:-'" hi
 habitation, hi:! \\ if. IH,iug, in our lLlooa..H'ry, allli thollc!h 
lI!)t ma.le a monk, Iw ,\"(.t liw.J (l
\'olltl)" :I('('onlin
 to ClUI' rl11p 
11111 onl..!"." XI'\'('!"- 
 these \'isils b,"t-ame oftl'lI a 
I)UI'(.'P of 
J"('at ahl1:-öI', of whit.h tIll' din'dol's of 
the cloistt>1' complaillt>t1. 
l. B('rll:ml \\ ritillg to 11 UgH, a III1\'ic'(', who hl'(':une 
:If((>I'\\'<1I'(I..: an :abhor, ...;ay,., c. 6\
 Hlllch a:"\ 
'OI1 ('au, my !"on, u\'o:d the I'ollvt>r:-,atioll" 
uf gm.:"\t,., whil'h, while they till thp ..aI', t'mpty tilt> lIIillt1."
 l\lt'n \,110 t'3me 
through <,uri03ity to li:,tcu with learm.d rather than I't.'ligioll:-' caN were not 8111'h 
welcome \'isitors.
Rt. Stt'phl'lI, Oil bein
 electtd ahbot of Citl allX, upplyintr him...(>lf with gn'at 
zl'al to prt'scrve that fel'\'
nt ('ollJlllullit.\, in th.. 
pirit of po\,('rty an(l . -elusioll, 
 othl'r pre<'alltion..; pro\'id,'tl :I)!aillst the ,'i:-ir:--. of straJ)
t>":o'. This 
the (luke of ßur
uIJ(1.\', "ho wa.. in the habit or I,olcling hi.. court in tllc abht>y, 
anù in COIISf'qUt'IlCC he \\'ithdre\\ till' alms wllil'h had hl't'n it.; only "ul)p"r , . TIll' 
holy ahhot howe\'PI' pel
.'\'('rell \\ ith ('Ot1Jll!!f', and \\B..:; nt lell
tll ablllldantl,\' l'OIl- 
:-iol,.(1 h
' the arri\'al of
t Bcrnarcl :11\11 hi..: ('ompaniolls. III Italy tile vi:-,it... of the 
rich hf'ramf' "'0 IInrt'a..lln:tl,l" allli tl'()1J1,lp"ollw. th'It nn ahhot writing to ppft'r of 
Blois expre.sscs hi:. illtt'ntion of uhdit'atin!-{ hii offi('c in rOIl
eqllence. (( Qui(l de 

.. Tableau rlt' l'F....pRl!ne, I. 2:1
t Epi...t. 32

t Ann'II. ('."nnlftul(,lI
ium. Lib. xxxv. 

I'\'t'r I>hlnc iii. 1 

COLT J-'" , 

A (-ì E:; () F F A I T II. 


ho.;pitalitate dicam, qnæ Ilwrito h(l:-5tilita
 pOliw:i qllam ho
pitalitas censeretm '?"* 
Pdt.r of Blois, however, in reply, ad\-ised him to think no more about aIJdil'3t- 
iug. out to put a stop to abuses, alld\'(
 moderatioll. The rule of 
rauhI says, " If the king or ql\cell, the dauphin, or lltllt'r rural prince... 01' [.,ul1(l- 
houlù (lesil'e to ellter the IIlonastery and 110 entreaties can di,.suade tlH'1l1, It't 
tlwlll ('uteI'. hut with a8 ft.w atl('U' :anr- as l'o--ihl(,.: hut ](>t I ht,lIt rwt uttt:'mpt to 
pa,.,.. tilt' lIight within, if they wi..h to i.t\'oal thl' -t'lltellce of excommullicatioll."t 
Th.. 0111 king:-; of France l>ping n-ell to I.old thC'it, e.,"rt at bt. Deni-, \\here they 
Iwd a palacf', at the four solemn festi\'als of Ihe Yf'ar, Kin
l't promi,..(-'d Ihe 
nll'uk:-, that hencefill,th lwithpr he nol' hi
:-:oI'S would celebrate the great fi'sti- 
"als thcrf', in urdt'r not to lli.;tlll,h tire ,..f'rvice of the mon ks, who used to he tro(\b- 
lell by the pITs"nc(' of I heir {'ourt
, It appears :tlso from a cl,arrer of Hellry 111., 
connt of Champapw, ill 1271, that Count Thiballd, one of his }Jredece
sor:", had 
n up the right of gilt> in tÌle abbpyof L:rgn.'-, ill ordel' to ph..ase the monks, 
wLo paid him ill rt'tul'll the anuual slim of ont' hlllltln.d liv res,::: 
Examplps, nlorpovel', were not wanting of the vi
 of great men to lllonaster- 
 with an intention of IIngl';ltefldly l'eqniti'ig their ho'pitality by plundering 
them. Hf'rll1in, (.h:llH'eIJoroftlw dllke ofXol'lnalid
', awl H:loill de Traci, callie 
to ()1t('lw:-:, andl'eccived hospitality in the ('pnvPlIt of the cOllfn;:<or St. Evl"Oul. 
"Iu their simpli('ity," says Ordt'l'ic Yitali:-:, "the monk,.., o\'eljoy{'d at tht> arrÏ\'- 
al of such great per3<Hlages, rendered to them all mal\lIer of dlltie:<. They led 
them familiarly into their chaplc,.-, and oratorit->:"', ancl private chamber:", and showed 
tlJPm the :<hl'ines and relics of the 8aint
, which were tiB then prt'seryed jn 
s!'crct. The;;e lord
 viewed appal'ently with reRpect the sacred objects, awl 
withdrew after making theil' pre.-;enb and pl'a)'ers; out 
oon after, a
 tht> Chal- 
da'ans ill Jeru...;alem, they returned with a truop of brigands, and cruelly ('aITitd 
off the vases, books, reli(.s, and all the precÏoui-; objects of the church of God,"
Christierll II., king of Denmark, wa..; I'eceived to ho:-,pitality with all kindlle."'s 
into the 1\10naste1'y of :K.'"c1alf'lIlÒ, {'ailed .x ewvale, 011 the da
' of the Purification. 
He took occasion to :-cizt' the abbot, witla ðe\'en monks, after they had 
aid mas.., 
and tying theil' hands behind their hack
 he cal1
ed them to be flung into the river; 
al1l1 w.hen the abbot by natnral ..trellg-th su<'('ct->ded in breaking the cord
 and in 
g ,inin',!" till' shol'es, he W:lS .;bin hy dIP king'..; .;arpllitPs,1/ 'Vhat Cicero said ofa 
whole province, that "if the Roman..; wi,..hed to maintain utility ill war atHl dignity 
in peace, it should he defended not Olll.\r from c3lamit
, bl1t P\'Pll from the fear of 
<,alamit.\"", being gel1pran
, admittec] :IS a pril1ciph' to g-uiclp :tn lIat-ions in regm'Ò 
to ever
' separatp relidon..; hOH
p. il f()]1l1wpd thai mOllasterips. during- times of wal', 
rp{'eivèd l1ut11bel's of fug:iti"....; who ';'t)n
ht all a.;ylum, "Xnt to 
pp:lk of the uu- 
 population :lttraf'tC'd pPI'manpnt]." by the peace which reigned round them, 

.. Epist. t02. t L
 Rt'i!!'lt' (1t' PonIes. c. vi. 
I Olai .Magni 
epteut. Hi
t. Lih, viii. C'. IS, 

f Lehænf, xv. 71. Lib. vi. 
f. Pro .cf!e 1\bniliR. 


l () H K 
 CAT II 0 L I V I j U H, 

01;,1IIY towns and ('\"ell citie., owiug their origin to their nl'ighhorhllod, we rou:-t, 
ll't', mak
 mentiou tht're of the gue:,18 who calllP to tllelll for u tinlt' to (....l'ape 
tll(' dC:-iulation... of WaI'. The :-iite of mona...teril'
 was uftcu n IH'Olt'clion, 011 the 
iu\"a...illll of tht, nalJl'
 iu 10] ;3, the abbt'Y" of Crtl)" laud, Tlwrnc)', amI Ely, o\\'ed 
their prc- 'I'\'ation to the hea\")' rain.. whil'h ha(I laitl the country round (lm}"I' 
water. Ordel,jc Yilalis says of ThOl'uey, .'Tlwre ib a COll\'ent of mouk.., :o-t'pera- 
ted frdrn all sccu I ai' hahilation, huilt in honor of 
t. :\Ial')', ",hidl i.. ct'lehratf.J 
for the purity of wor..hip which Goc..lI'l'C\,j\'C'S then>. 
The vt'nt'rable 
\tlt'h\u1d, hishop of \\ïnl'he:-ill:r, huilt thi.., hOl1 in the tilll(' of 
king Etlclred, after the ma:""bal're b
' tlw Dane:,,>, in whiC.'h the hI ,-..etl Edmund 
..uffere.) marryrc}om. lIe transferred to it the hody of St. ßCltlllt
 a l )hnt of !t'ht:u- 
ton. In thi;, oh.wure a.;yllllll the m01l1s \\'('1'(.' ill ..aft.t." whil,. ("llIIh:aliug f:.lith- 
fuJly for G'kl."* Ulu)..'r tl..... ('arJo\'ingian-, tlU' ahht'YI" ht,ing- f
lrtifil(), tlll'n. wa.; 
danger of kings eonn
l"ting- th(,111 inlu 1"0
':II I ab...t':- ft'l" Ilu,ir pt'rm:uH'nt ahu{)t,: ; 
but wllt'11 thc abl)t'Ys wert> pill:L1!'.,tI by the 
orlllan-, wllilt. cilil':) wert. able to n'ôi..t 
them 8U('(' ,.....fully, kil1
" ftmnù tltat tllt.
 \\crt' mÚrC
l.cure illthc latter, :md thel' 'C- 
forth their only eonst:lllt inhabitant.. w<,rt,thl' mOil I;;;.. or till' (, a.. :It ::5t. Deni:o:. 
Against or,}illary \\ar:-;, howcver, the mun:l:""h'rie-; pro\'('(), in 1111/:-.1 in
taIlCt''', a 
l'ure a:;)' 111111. 
 thp. dreac)ful insnrrection of th 
 north, ill the r(.'i
1l of IIellry \ï,. the 
/Ui)lIk of Cro,dallù dt:S
ribe5 the alarm (If the mllnks in that lUon:t:-;t\...y Ilt'arill" 
of thl' tl"\':lst:ltiOIl" ('onlluitt
) "0 lIt'al' th"l1I, and 1)C(-:.ltI
t. the C()lllllr
' pcopl,. had 
Ixollgln all, h',.a..un.... with th..m 10 Croylal/Cl 10 l'e in gl'l'atl'r:--('Cllrit)", whil'h 
mad,.. it a 1U00'
 lik,.ly pr,'Y 10 lite illnl.I(.
, nil' pr('('ioll'" \,t......d!--, \\ it!. tltl' ('lIal'- 
ters and ffi. )/HIIllt'nt..., \\"('1'", tllt'refllrf', :tll c;.tl"('fu II." hi. ìdell \\ ithi n \\'all:-" 1'1'0- 
t,t':-ision.. issued daily from the conn'nt, and ('\'('ry ni!!i.t, :lfrCI" matins and laUt)s, 
praycrs al/(l t.t
,lI:o; II
( a 10 be pOIlT'(\l) out roulIJ th.., tOlllb of the 11111-1 holy father 
(;uthh(', the lutmn ofCI'II)'lau,L \ w,ttt-h \\a
 ..('t :11"0 at C\""'I".\' g-at' ofillf> tOWII, 
alill I/O onc \\ a.. allo\VPt) (.i tllCt' tu t'ntPI' 01' dt'p
".t \\ itllllut lean'. TIlt' :u)ja('t'1/ I 
way' were oh..tru('t ..) hy t... PS thl"'\\ n ar. 
 tll('m ill I/lauy phlcl':-i. tilt,.. ,.d 
I,p God we wel"enot 
i\'en a IH't'Y t.. OUf em.mif''', till' that ."t\'ag-c al"my pa:o".d 011 
aCh'r h:ivil/
 been within ..ix miles uf u
. 011 onto "llf a-lOll the t'OIlVCl1t of hermit, 
in thp desert of ('am.tltloli rlln a :,.ill J!I','ah'I' I"i!-ok; till' on tilt' p.l!--a!!(' of a ('('rtaill 
arm.\' we ",,'atl t h:l tit \\ a.. 1'(,:,,,1\'t'c) to :--<
I,d a (1,.tat.ll1m...t t ,) pI III .. It. I' ii, h, ,
U1:""e a 
quantity of corn :1111) ut..' h.u) 1)1'f'I) !-C'nr th..r,' fill" S:lf('ly hy tllf' pcop)f' (If Ct.s- 
('n:l. through feal' of tla(' army. 
)/Hf' of HIP hl'rmil
 ill t..,.. 1'0 I' were pl't'pal"iu ,F to 
fly O\'t'r Ihe hig-h I'o(,k... of tlte ffi'llmtaill" : hut one oftllem, P..tru.. Tt'lItflni('us, 
of 1Il"..t holy I iff'. ..xhort.,d Ih"m to r('I1I:1in, :111') make a ..olPlHn ...upplirntioll, 
IH'O('p,.djll!! two h.\' two. witlt tlte <'r.'s- pret,(>(lillJ! them, \\hell, ]()! sUl'h n den",:> 
and frigid d:u'kne::;::; eame ()\'er tlae tle
el't that the day was turned into black night, 

.. Lib, X1. 

A (:; E S 0 F FAT TIt 


o that thc :;oldiers who had bt'gull to cutt'l' tht' fì))'t'4 fell into C'ollfllsi()n alld intH 
the utmo!'t borror ; and it \\ a...; lIot without great (1 iffi('uIty that the)' retunlt'd to the 
l'arnp.* In 1-106, wben John, Duke of Burgundy, gO\'ernt.d the t'ountry of tlH" 

rorin8, the English Ita\'ing mac1p a 
all." from Calais, in\'aùed t hp frontier,.; o( 
, and on tlte eve ofSt. :\[artin rav:lged tile suhnrb,.; of :5t. Omer, made pri:-:.. 
oilers thE riehest inhahitaut..;, alltl finally 1'II:,l.e(1 imo the Dominican (,OIl\'C11t to 
pillage it; but the superior, whu wa:, a'llt lIIall, went to meet tllt'm, and 
ceeded so well with his prayers tllat lit' mo\,.-.d the heart..: of the soldier..:, so that 
they abstained from every ùi1:5order. Thp ...n}>f'rior then re(.pi\"('{l (hem gl':lC'ion:-:ly 
into the hOI1:,e, gave them to eat and drink; alii 1 t\\'o hog:-:he:Hl of winp which 
Count John had Jately 
ent tht'm, werc gi\'en to them to make mel'l'Y on tlw fe:l:-t 
of St. 
lal'till. Foul' days after, to te..;tify tllI'i\' gratitude, they sent haek to thp 
convellt twelve goJdlloble:-; {'aIled of the l"O..;e, whi{'h was equivalent to 131 {ra1l<.,':;; 

md, moreover, for thE.' s"kf' of tlte good monk, spared the vIllage of Bosselart, 
which they had re:-:olved to burn to a:,he:"t 
 tht' middle ages many 
uch scenes occurred that might have reminded 
one of Uly:-ses giving wine to the Cyclop

KV/(,ÀuJ1þ, rq, rriE OlJl'OY, l1tEt tpåYES aJl'ôpóJ,aCf. Kpla: 

Take compa
sibn on ns and rage not so madly, 

ov ôi J,WíYEctz OVkÉr' åYEKrroS, 

Thus did barbarons !'oldier:, reeei\'e :nul drill k the ll1onks' wine, rlDel rejoice 
greatly, drinking it, and ('all IIpOIl them fill' more, 
aying, "Our land indeed 
produce;;;. wine, but thi:-; is an emanation of Altlbl'osia and Xectar,":t: Thf" con. 
vent of St,. Catherine, near Diessenhoft-'n, on the Rhine, hall a narrow escape in 
1-160, when the :Irmy of Sigismund of Áu,;:tria having lwen def('ated in hattlt' there, 
some of the 
oJdier:" who fled into that hOI1
(" pl'Opospd to set fire to it, ...<\ 
pious soldier, shocked at the de:o:ign, threw hins,-,lf on his kne..;s before a crucifix, 
and aftel' a short prayer, turning to the wal'rior..:, spoke to them with such effect 
that they desi..tetl from what they had beg'un; then, aftel' great exertion, he SI1C- 
c<<*'ded in st(\pping the flame.;;;. This 
oldier was Nichola:" who 
uhseqllently he- 
came the I}prmit so celebl'at(d lindeI' thp appellation of .Yon del' FJuë; anI) tht
cruf'ifix hefore which he prayetl may be seen to this day in th:1t convent.
some pions :,oul was alway
ome impres;;;.ion of awe was 
ure to be awakened 
in the most ho....tile breasts, Sl) that many plempnts then conspire!l to pre
el've the 
peace ofmon3sterip
. 'Yhilp the world \Vas acritatCil with a t.hf\I1
'1ncl di:,ol'ders 

in con:ieql1enc(' of tilE.' de<:'omposition of the empire of Ch1rl p mag-ne, tlw ahbey of 
Corby is described hy one who inhabitCil it a
 a place like that Paraci i
e from 

* Annal. Camalrlul. Lih, 1xvi. 
t Piers. Rist. des Flamand
 des Raut. Pont. et de Lyzel, 97, 

 Weissenbach Leben des 
c, 26. 

* ix. 350, 


'{ () I{ E 
 CAT II 0 L I (' I: () R 

\\ hit'h man was pjecto..l by the en\.y of thp sl.rp('l1t; "'11('11 \\a-- the pf'ace, ami ord- 
er, aud allgelic tOIlC' of the "'deiPlY.* 

II U who with "'peech ur wlir Rnd woea 
\Vould wish tu brcnk tlle huh lepose 
Of such a tuwquil 
('enl' ,.. 

Yet SlI('h "pl'f'('h did penetratp ('\'t"1I into tilt" t'IIl'iO..tlIl'" "f religious men j and III 
om' of tht'it" oltlt'hroui(.If, tht.'I(' i.. an al\l.("(lntt'rt'btt"ll whi{'J. pI'P
t'ut:ol in a \"e..
\lIIir"ul and strikin
 m:tllut'r the ('(lutrast to whi(,h thi.. gave ri!'-t', '" \ (Irfad- 
fill ('olltt.ntioll ra
1 lJt>t\\"p"1I Killg' Th"(Hlllri(' ami Thl'odchert, hoth ...\\l.lIillg 
prolldly :'gain..t t
\I'h oth('I' with tllP 
th IIf till' lIati..lIs, .\t thi:; timt. tilt' 
man of Gild, 
t, Colultlball, with 
t. )la
IIU" aud otl1t'r
, had l)t'f'n ft'(,t'i\{
d hy 
rh...odeht.'rt on their r...treat fr'lln LU}Lt'uil. \rri\'illg '011 tl.(' "h"I'('
 of the lahe of 
lII('(', th...y huilt a ('t,1I in all mH'it'nt (It'!'-tl"()
'f,() 1'1:1('(' ('a I It,,) "rholla, nnt! th('fe 
s\\'ailt'tl tilt' rt.;,...1t "fthi" ('onto 
t. ;"(H)II tlU' I!n'at hattl.. \\:L" fim rht nt-'ar tlH
of rlllhiae, ill which iltltllll1N:thll' II1t'li ofhoth nrmit.s 'f,ll. ThecHh,hl'rt Lein
'1ul'I"('t.l flHI. 
O\\ it mmp to p:l"" :It 
lt'l':llIIt' hOllr ill "hieh tile Lattlp W:t
, that tilt' man of Go(l, Cnlumbclil. '\' .. ..ittin
 ill the forp..t Olt t!l(' trunk of a (Ie- 
't'() tl'('(' I'p:u)ing a hook, ()\'pr \\ hi('h h{' ,(,IIlli-lcep j awl while 
IN'pillg- hI' '-aw 
wh:lt pa.....I..1 hl'tWt'PlI thp two kin
", A w:d,iu!! h" ('allt'(l '1:1g-1I11
. hi.. ,ii..('ip)p. 
awl told him tltat a hloo,l
' hattle' uf kin
.. wa
 just takiu
 pia..... amI that I1\I1<'h 
human hl(H)4) W:to; :ohL'tldin
. )Ja
nlJ" tlll'lt :lIIS\\"('I'('() am) 
:li,l, <<Lord f:lther. I 
\\a'3 lY1D!.! uud'r a pim.-tt"N', oppn 
-,..I \\ ith !-lPt.p, and it 't'mt>t1 to IIIP also a.. if 
a hattlp \\:1'" ti.>>tt
ht; awl takill!! :1 :-taf}' I \\'t) tu ..trike Th{'ot.lnrÏp and ddi\"pr 
Tlwndel)('rt. hut a "t'rtaill Ii>>rlll ti.>>rh:ul lit..., 
'inJ!. It i.. not n('('t'''
..a..y for 
'Olt 10 
do so, sin(..' the [AmI will ..oun aVt'ugt. tll
' ma...te'r (,olumhan. Thpn awaking, 
I ro' -. and IJ:lstRnl..) to (k..,l:trt' to 
"ult thi.. visi"n,' \\'hilt, horh of tllPm \\"Ullrl.,n..1 
at th. . thill!:,1'o" ElID(\('hu'i stundillg by, 
i,l r:,..hly, ' )[y father, you nu
ht to af- 
ford the !'ouffJ":1
re of your pm)"t.r.:t to Tlu'CM'lt'lwrt, that he ma
' \"anquish tilt' ('uru- 
mOI1 t'nt'm
' Theodoric j' to whom hI ..1 Columhan '-aid, 'You gi\"t, a t()()li
"IUIBS4.'l, and Ollt' alit.u from n'li
i\)u j tor F\l1c'h (':tllllot 1M> thp will ofth.' Lorrl, whn 
its.; (' mm:ullit'd II" to pm
' f
'r 0111' ('lIt'mit>"'," 't I Io\\' ilJlp..e,
i\"P i
 fo;('('Jlt' ! 
thi., ,'ontra...,t bctWt'PIl tll(' dt.'li
hb of tilt' I
':wt> of (;od :lIId tilt' hittt'rn\'
" of humall 
mi" r."! lI v \V calm till' f.u't'f't, wlwrp, from hraw'h to hr:tlwh. tilt' fi'athcnd (l'tir- 
i""t'l'S apph, thf>ir \t""Dted I1rt, with full joy ,,(,I('Omin!! thl hnurs of primp, awl 
!'(), "11"l)u..eiol1
 of allY evil, :IS if the uni\.
r;: > \\('1'P th,'ilk<) with 100"p. warhlr "till 
amid thr Im\'('
 tll:lt to tb('il' j()('untllay
 kPt,p t{'nor! ""hat p".H'E' tno in thp 1rt':tI t.. 
uf th
p monks "ittiuJ!..n thol11rhtfull
' ß.. if putr:tn
...) h
' tlw SWt'f'tnp,
 of Ihpir 
F:onK! .\11<1 tllPl1 how So.'1.tI to think that all thp \\ hilf' tl". work of "l1r,('(1 hate 

h()lIlc) he 
I) lIf'aI'! [.H' hark! at lonl!' intt.'r\"als, with ('a(.h ft..turn of tilt) slowly 

· \'it., 
. Ad ,tuRf/Ii aj1. ,}["h. \.cIR
. Ord. Benecl. 
æc. iv. 1. 
i \'ita 8, Magui, Lib. i. c, 5. up. C ;uhjf\
t. tom. i. p" ii, 

AGE S 0 F F A I T H, 


undulating' air, there come", a harsh demoniac SIIUl1d, deep and terrible, for which 
nature Im
 no echo. It i:-õ till' noi:-,c uf Ihe ('rim,.un st't'thillg pJain, macJt. up of the 
cry of blo\ld, alld the fierce taunt of au immortal rage, aud the shriek:-: of 

lIJd unyielding wl'eteLl'd IlWO hurling defiance fu; they die. 
 of war penetrated into cloi-;ter:-i whene\'er any monk arrived \\ ho had 
been ohligec.1 to make a jOlune)' during it
 continuallee. To tlae perils whi(.h :--u(.h 
men encountered Lupus alJnde
 in writillg to the Ahbot :\Ial'cwad, sayillg, " \Ve 
commend this novice, our runner, to }'our sanctity, answering in every respect to 
his pl'ufe:-,sion, eXl'epting that, I believe, ou account of lIoctul'nal fear:, he (.m1l10t 
:-leep alone."* In wm.-time 1Il0nkð who returned from a journey had nu want 
of adventures to relate. Rodulph, of the Benedictine abbey of St. Tron, about the 
Jear 1000, was cho
t:'n by the othel' monks a8 a proper person to he3r a mes
from tIlt'm to the bishop of 1\Ietz respecting the unjust Il
urpation of HE'lTinwn, a 

l'I'\'ict> of 
omp danger. as the roatl
 were hl':-õet with hostile armie
. H Ho\\ ever, 
J"t'garcling," he 
a}sJ " more the utility of the chureh than my own lifè, I set out; 
bllt in ordel' not to mkp tllP public road, I joilled rH
.selft() the army of Godefrey, 
duke IIf Lorraine, and Frederic, hi...hop uf Cologne, which was advancing, a
snpposed, to Y' erdull. Good Jesu:s! what did I not (-,lIdure in journey! or 
who could relate it ! And what was I to do, a J)lPuk, amI ha\'illg: OIl]Y olle atten- 
(lam'? If I directl'd my step... to a town, either the town had bee II alre
\(j), de!:'troyed 
Ly the m'm)", 01', ifit exi
tl'd, I knew there was no se('m'ity ill it: but ifl were to re- 
main in the open between the al'mies, I ha(l no Int.-ans of cOlltriving a roof 
or shelter for rH)'self or m
' horsps. I knew not where to procure fuod :fill' m}"
or fi)r them; nor did I dare to separate myself from my companion. At length, 
committing myself tu Go(I and to our bie:,sed patl"On, leaving the arm)', I pa
(In to a little village which wa:, half burnt <10\\'11, and there was not oue man ,(-'it 
in it; but I found 
ome wumen there who had fled through fear of the at lliY ; 

eeing me, a monk, a<<h-ance to them, they rushed to meet me, c(lntendin
with each other a:) to which of them shouh1 give me hospitality for the lIight, that 
hy my prespnce they might he defended fl'Om the rapine of the arllletl mE-.n" 
'Vhell I had turne(l into one house, ill1mediatel
. all the WOllie)) with their boys 
311<1 (.hil(1ren that had been left ill the villag-e came cl'}"illg and groaning to lilY 
ho"'pi('e, dragging with them their pigs, and their cock:-: and hens, and all t}leir nni- 
mals; and they brought 10 meand my companion oat-bread and chf'e!o'e, amI milk for 
, and al:"\o hay and oats fül' onl" hor
es: hut returning, thanks to God, I 
tuuk 1J0thin
 from them g-mtis, :01(1 we lo
t nothing durin!! the lIight. Early 
the next morning' tll(> al"rn
' mo\"pd IIn, and 
o the g"o()(1 women pre
el'ved :tll tlleir 
stock. A ft{'r many hardship'" we re3ched Y' el,.lnn nn the Ìf->nth day: and the 
bishop of 
retz wa
 in the npi
hh()rhond at a placp cal1pd D,1ngeus; so there I 
.delivered my letters. The reply uf the bishop was favorable to us; but as there 

· Lupi Epist. lxx. 


.1l U 1\. E 
 CJ A T II 0 L I U I; 0 H, 

W;t:-o c.I;tng"I"l' It':-ot, Oil Ill)" rt'tuJ'll, I lIIight t:all IUto tite hauòs oC Ilerrimall, a )cttel' 
&) tlil"t,.(.'tt..'tl 10 him ill \\ hi..h tht' \\'ord8 \\"l-re 
o Hlodi,i{'Ù ß,.:) tu admit of a 
douoll' ..i,:,ultÎl'.ltlIlD. lJa\'iu
'I'I\"t.,'t.1 tltl:" lctter.., aHd th, ki S of pl':J'
tlac bishop, I pl('p Ired to l'cturu; but 1 hardly kuew hy \\ hat \\ay, tor I ku
lhat lIt.rri,ua I had au aHlIHl
h rc...})' to iut,'rccpt IIIl'. I [O\\l'\'l'!" I pa

'fl hy 
till',\ .,f BI'i,., aud took up my lotl
iug Ct,r till' lIidlt \\ ith th.. Tt>}.61iol1!oo (,;tH- 
011.. of tilt' III Itla
tl'I')" Ill' 
I. Pd"!', who had a hOIl..' iu tilt' t
,rt SI. Earl
" !If-xt 
l\"t' IIIP a t!U ,Ie. aUlI I pn\t"'('Colt,,1 tll the c.'a...tle of Clllh, \\ ht'I't' \\as 
a ('cll of tile orl'lhl','n IIf till' HllIlla
tt'I'Y uf 
t. II libel t, :1IIc..1 \\ ith IIlt'lU I I'
L "II 
tliP lli
I)\. Du tIlt' thil,d tlt\' I 
amt..' to tht' mon:a
kl'Y ofSI. lIuht'lt, tlarvuJ.d. a 
lun!,!' wa.\', alltl a \",ast and 1lI0
t hllrril,l
 ,,"I it lit It,. On rill' 'i,..rlh da
', 1)f

uitlt"ll i)
' a ('prtai.. el,,!'k \\ he') fi'an.'t.) ,'apti\'it." uo 1t..... tla;1Il 1II)":"t'U: \\e mdt. 011, I 
l..n'l\\ not 1I1!'o"'.d. whal I'a.....'.. of loft)' IIlllulitaill"i and I'O<"J..
.dI1:-. awl th
h dt'cp all,lm:Ll',h.\' \"allt')
, to the 
Ic.:..t t.
haustion uflmr h"l .. :uul o Ill' 
own allxipl\', turllill
 our e.II'S Oil t'\'t'r
 sid(' t" tilt' It'a..t 
.),,"tllt'..t w.. :-hvllid Le 
takell; lilt, al 1"II
th, :at ,Ian II \Ill th,. 'it'd. ,by, \\t. (;1II1)() ollr
('h'l's :U lilt' ('lId of 
that terribl,. tl"
.'I'I, aJIII tll> l,lerk purs.H...i 1UJt> way :llId I :tllildwr. Tilt, 
mOIl)\.s uf Cluny ha\'e a ceJ) ill thr. wv,.d;) bet\\'."11 I 111,\ e and Lil"':(', allli tlll'rc I 
\\'3" I'("(-ei\"l"li fOl' the lIi
ht \\ ith all hllmauil)", UII tilt' :o.ixth da
' Wt. ('amp tu 
, Wht'ft' thl" IIm
t pioll
 :ll>h"t of Sr. .J:11111'" DUIII :-'tl'plwlI, .'lIh'r(-lill(.,1 anti 
('011:';01('11 mi', but waillt.d mt' tl!:lt IIt'ITilll:1I1 h:1I1 hi:.; 
"lIlIh 011 tllt.luul.. Ollt (.11' ru.., 
I took a holtl :;tl'p. t
'r 1 I'('pain d to tilt' \\ ili. IIf ('"Iml (; i
I..lh'rl. \\ hi.,!t {'IIUtIL 
was joinL't.} with IIerriman, and :-howing Lpr the ambiguou
 letter, I had her per- 
mi:-o:-ion to pruct't.'CoI, anc.1 110 one << Ian'" I to ('ont, :..1 i.,t Ilt'r : a wi hI) mOIl:I
i m pI il'- 
ity tlcllltll'fl diP ('lwning o( tla
 wumall. Ou J.l'ri\,ilw at oUt' "Oll\'t nt tIt(' llrt dll ('11 
were :lstonisht,(I; alld fat tllt'm
d\" 110\\11 rOllud HIe \\itlt gr('atjo
',aUtI ga7td 1111 
me a
 if I had rt'tlirBl.,<l fmm th' tomu: and they gave thanks to tio.] tiH' my 
l:ape. n
t altt" a tim.., \\ 111'11 th> ('ClUDlp.. di
I ho\\ lie had 
bt'en ,Idll\led, she killtlll'Col the ra
e of llt'r husband n
lillst mc to :-ouell a ù

that 1 was uot 
afe ev.'n wirhill the \\":1));-; of our ('loi
tt'r; alld :,0, f.arin
:.;I:antly t
'r In)" lif.., I :,t'('retly made alTan
('m..uts with ('uunt \ I"Illilf of Lou\':lin 
that lIP :,hllultl conduct lilt" away in 
afi',y. I Ie Ie(lruc out III) th.. f(II,rtlt Ill' rll(' ,'al- 
t-llds uf 
t'plelllber very:,ad 011 I. a\'il)
:t pia.." 
o lou
 ';ullilia!' 10 nw, awl rhe 
yuuut! men ill who:'l' t",IUl'
lt ionl h:ad lal..t-n sw,h pain.., aud u ('''II
I ('
atiull in \\ hich 
I haò su )oug- laolllCtI, awl wlaieh 1 W:l
 Iw\'cr likt.l
' tu. p a!!ajrr. I w.'pt. rllCre- 
lre, bitted)', anti 
o prllct'l.-tlPiI to :::'t. Lallreuc.'è, to h(" 1II111.'r 1/&(' \\ is. B..r- 
t"r, \\"h('rp, thank... to hi
 ){ lallluauity, I wa:-; fixt"tl :lilt] eOlisul.,,1 by the third 
week of ð('plemlx'r,* 
But to TeHlI11 to the Abbey ami oh:'t'T\'t' the fu
iti\'p.. who cam.. to It fc'r hu:-opi- 
tality. \\
hen Ingulphll
 l'amc fil.
t tv Cl'Oyl:md a.... abbot, he Ct,ulJtl there :--ixt)'- 

. Cbroni<<-. .\hhati:\'. 
. TlltlltlUlS, Lih, vii. up. I> ,eher. :-'picllc!".. viI. 

AGE::; 0 F F A I T H. 


two Hlllnk!oò, of whom f(mr were lay brothers, be...ides monks of other monasteJ'it.s, 
who were ill COIllU1Ullity with Ihe dlaptel' of that hou
e, alHl w"bo whenever tL!'.'" 
at in ,he dwir all(l ill the rpfl'(,tor
', al\(l slept in Ihe dOl'lllitory, :llId Ihelt- 
wOllld :-ta." a... !on b as they likpd: and 
OllletillH;"! not till half a year or a whule 

"('m' would 111('," retllrll to their OWIl Jl)onast"l'it.,s; for partil'lIlarl
' in time of war 
OJ' distllrhallcl-' tll<'.'" flocked 10 Croyland, On thi... oe('a:-,ion tI} were ill tht' Iroll...e 
ten mOllks from Tlltlrlley, 
iÀ fr\llll Bllry, (.ight frolll Ram...:py, tlll'(,
 from EI.'", 
nine from St. EdIlt1l1H1':-, t\\"(.h'c frllm St. 
\lhall':-:, tell from 'Yt'fo'tmillstel', 1\\0 
from St. Andrew of :r\"o:.thaHlptolJ, fuurtl-'t.'11 fl'om ('hI'Î:.;t ('hurd" 
ol'\\'i('h, fiftt'f'n 
from Thetford, seven from f'on'ntry, six from 
t. ...\f3l')"s, withclUt Y ol'k, ten from 
St. .:\!ary's of8tow, :-;ix from )Iid'l'lllc.'"ð, and five f!'Om )IaIIl1
hllr.'", ht>...;ide...: daily 
comer:, amI otl1el':05 whoalwa.'"=" li\'t.cI tlH-'rp for the sake of security, and had ol.t.ailled 
leave to he uni'e<l with tllP :;ol'iety ; for the urbanity ofCroyland \\"3::) slIch that no 
one wa:05 (:'\'cr :-ent away," In 1I1II(.h later times, w!ten thp RWt"d(' wascarn'ing'on 
war alrainst the Cathl/lies of Gt'l'mall\' , the munks of the abbe,' of Ei"sieclelin !rave 
ð eI ... '--" 
bospitality at one time to three abbot:; and to more than thirty monks from other 
, who hall taken refllge tlter
,* The COli III of Stolberg, in his hi
. of 
.\ I fred, after oh:-;I'l,,'ing that c. in titUl:'o; of w"ar amI desobtion illll:4riou..; :;:ufl'erer:-, 
ftlUud a :,lIre refllge in the holy 3::'\ylulll uf a mo"a
tery," aclcl
, "thi
,,'hy :-0 mallY prince::" when re...:tol't,cI to their thl'OlI(,";, ;-;howed sueh gmtit11l1e to 
tl,pm, In t he clay of ath'er:-:it y tllt.'Y h:lll fi>l1nd there proh.ctioll agai II:-t tI)' ene- 
mit::,. cOlbolatioll:; in misfi)ruJI)e, amI wi::;e ll"::)solls; lei...ure to reflect upunthe di;o,- 
ortlers of their past lifp, and new i-:trength to resolve upon reforming it."t "The 
tempest of ci\"il war," .;;a}",.; In
lIlphu:05, "\\":15 now hanging o\'er the kin
but in order to e:scape a lirtle from Î' during Lent, K'illg Henry 'YI. ('ame to the 
ahbey of Ccoyl:m,l Ít)r the r-;ake of de\"otion, to rnak
 offi.rings humbly at tlte 
tomb of our holy fatLer Gut!tlac, \Vhen he had tranquilly I'emained fiu' three 
's and three night5, being mllc" delightt-.d with the observances of religion, he 
{'al'llt:'stly ,",ought to be a(lmitted iuto the frateruih' of our' monastery, and he oh- 
tainetl it. Soon after, in OI,tll-'r to 
how hi
 gratituòe, be Pllblishet1 a (]eert:>e ex- 
empting all the inhabitants of the town of Croyland fin' ever from rhe tax,gath- 
erer:; and minislers ufthe king," But to return to the lliOl'e ordinary times of 
general tl'allquillity. 
". e have observed how the ho
pitality of the monks was often abu5ed ; but 
there were visitor
 of a difl'el'ent cia::;.": ft'llm thobe we have hitherto seen, who,.;e a."- 
ri\'al at m()na:5terie
 was an occa
inn of unminde1l jo
' to their holy inhahit:tnt
dud ,
'ho:-;e presew'p di..;turbt-'d not the tr
nquillity of tile hou
e of peace. Hearken 
to their first words :- 

"""e enter from this time to prove 
Thy ho!'pils1ity and love, 

*Regnier Cbroniquc rl'Einsiedelin, 78, 

t Chap. iii, 


I 0 n E :s C \ T II () Lit' I. () H, 

81.0\\ 11 tn" &rÜ tby mean:?st guest: 
From 18ud tn luud we w(luM not stray; 
For whither should we 
o away! 
Witll tile' it! pel feet rClit,". 

e are the pilgrims who liS >tl :"0 oft(,11 to cornc' from c1i:4ant countrie.. and rp- 
main to die. t;llch \\:1'" 
t. )Iabchi, wlw, a... St. Bernard f"i)'S, joul'IIf'Y'>41 fmm his 
far tli..tant coulltry, tlae fal,tiu-'-t 
utlaIllJ, tllllo Clain'allx, whl'I'('11t' :-;1Ic1. 
a), :woth(,I' Il'i..llIlI:w, wh.. mad(. a pilgl'Í'II:I!!t' to }{OIlU', in ('ompall)' with 
his UI)(.Il' :\l:lrlw
, a tli.-tingui
lll'tI monk, al)(lman.\ ..fltis collutrymen. On their 
Jetllrll O\'cr th(' Rhetiall \lpl3 tIH'Y all tOil I.. tiae way to St. Gall, in 0f(1('1' to 
E>e thE' 
plat'e \\"ht're dll' holy Gall alii I "0 mall." I ri
hnu'll aflt'r him hatl 1i\',,(J Rill I W('I',. 
still li\'ing. 
[()lIgal :lIlt) 
 heilw pre-sc(l hy till' monks to r,'main, ('IIII""lItt-,d, 
:111(1 (raVe tht'il' horSt.. allll mO:Il'Y, ho .ks :In 1 \'('..tllll'lIts t, the ahb(')', 
Hluler the namc of 
[:u'.'el:tI-, tliminuri\'(> thul1 hi.. 1II1I'le 
ral'l.., wa.. mad,. tf a('h,.1' 
of Iho inlier :,cllool, ill wlai('h hI' fiJrllwtllllaIl\' f'millt'llt m(,I1.
. Iri:-;h, ill tilt' 
lIillth ('emur,\', " quibll.. COIl-;lwtlldt) p('..
rjll:IIHli j-III) P:l'll f ' in lIatlll':\1I) ('on"('r
t':'t;' as \,\ralafrid Strahc) -.a.\'
 in hi,., lift. of "'L (hll.
 were w..le'lml' "j..itur- to 
tile tlitf..rt'nt t't.ligiou.. hlttl
... \\ hit'h tlwy \'i...ilf"<.l; :Iucl l1\a".\' uftllt'lII Iu'ver re- 
tllrll' d to tlll'ir cuu nt I'.\' , hilt f'l.ltIaillf"(l ill rlal
', Fr:lIlCl', awl (;,'rIlHIII'y, wher tht>y 
hecame monks or hermit... In.l coJcx of 
t. nail al'e th ' lim's alluding to 

.. Hi 8unl In.d!:!'n"" "Rncli. fll\.tR in"'u1a nO!ltra 
NohiliR in.lii!f'f)'lol n'llrlvit lIilwrnia daroe, 
Qunrum grata tidcI, virtu honor, inchta Vita 
11ft.. ..ul.n., bUIUII1I\"que tlunwt! sacllI.viL anUl'UlL8. 

l'miua tl'li viæ .\.u:!lull\lU 
p,lr..crc pcr lil!!'n8, 
 qui.. mtilUr"" clIJ)\"('rtis in Iwrrca fructus, 
Nfl!' j
111II rr8Irt.
, una tic ..tirpc cre.1ti 
HIC SUIUII!'> : imbeciIlt.'I, mi.. 'ros quos ment.. !o11J>e1 be 
Dt'''pi 'ilis ; prncere", lIluucliquf' tUll1t'nlia m'mbral 
Cum (;hd..ti potius d'b .tis nu-mbra ,ideri, 
Pnult'n'i hic paush quin Gal1u!iI RIque bf'pultus, 
Arden.. i
niq Scotorum cunscendit "II altos. mf'rnit nomcm. di!:!'numqup v()('Rri. 
Aunue reX Cæli me